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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820292

ABSTRACT

High prevalence of both criteria and extra-criteria antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) has been reported in COVID-19 patients. However, the differences in aPL prevalence decreased when an age-matched control group was included. The association of aPL with thrombotic events in COVID-19 is very heterogeneous. This could be influenced by the fact that most of the studies carried out were conducted on small populations enriched with elderly patients in which aPL was measured only at a single point and they were performed with non-standardized assays. The few studies that confirmed aPL in a second measurement showed that aPL levels hardly changed, with the exception of the lupus anticoagulant that commonly reduced. COVID-19 coagulopathy is an aPL-independent phenomenon closely associated with the onset of the disease. Thrombosis occurs later in patients with aPL presence, which is likely an additional prothrombotic factor. B2-glycoprotein deficiency (mainly aPL antigen caused both by low production and consumption) is very common during the SARS-CoV2 infection and has been associated with a greater predisposition to COVID-19 complications. This could be a new prothrombotic mechanism that may be caused by the blockage of its physiological functions, the anticoagulant state being the most important.


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome , Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Aged , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , COVID-19/complications , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391861

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a respiratory disease, the transmission of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is mainly caused by small droplets and aerosols. Healthcare personnel are particularly exposed during otologic surgery given the continuity with the nasopharynx, where the viral load is high, and the use of high-speed instruments. The purpose of the present study is to test a model of droplet dispersion produced in the performance of a drilling procedure on human bone to provide information about its distribution and size of the deposit in similar conditions to those of an operating theatre, to design different preventive measures. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A mastoidectomy and trans-labyrinthine approach were performed on an embalmed human corpse using for irrigation during drilling methylene blue dye in physiological saline solution (pss) at a concentration of 0.324 mg/mL. The distribution of the drops was stablished using semi-absorbent papers of size 52 cm × 42 cm covering the area around the dissection field to a radius of 150 cm and on the corpse at different heights to check vertical dispersion. The collected deposit material was analysed with the microscope at different magnification objectives. RESULTS: Droplets between 2 µm and 2.6 cm were obtained. The visualization of the coloured droplets in the horizontal plane at a magnification of 1.5 was detected at 150 cm from the focus of emission of milling particles. DISCUSSION: According to our study, bone drilling with high speed motors under continuous saline irrigation in a haemorrhagic surgical field increases the amount of aerosols exposing healthcare personnel to additional airbone particles. This risk does not end in the operating rooms as particles smaller than 2 µm can be suspended in the air for hours and could exit the operating theatre due to the use of positive pressure systems. Thus, the use of N95, FFP2, FFP3 or PAPRS should be considered and the development of hood systems to prevent the dispersion of aerosols during these procedures should be considered.

3.
Revista Colombiana de Reumatología ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1373243

ABSTRACT

The presence of thrombotic events in COVID 19 patients has been described since the beginning of the pandemic, this association has been confirmed in most of the reported studies. Autopsy reports have shown that most thromboses are located in the lung, although they are also have been observed in other organs such as skin and kidneys. The SARS-CoV2 infection induces a generalized prothrombotic state, which is attributed to a combination of factors such as hypoxia, excess cellular apoptosis, and mainly by an overactivation of the immune system. Among immune-mediated prothrombotic situations, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) stands out. Repeat thrombotic events are observed in APS in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). There are numerous studies that report high prevalence of aPL in patients with COVID-19 infection. However, the results showed discrepancies in the data on the prevalence of aPL, and its role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis in these patients. This could be due to the heterogeneity of the detection procedures for aPL or to transient elevations of non-pathogenic aPL levels in the context of infection. In this review we try to clarify the role of aPL in COVID-19 infection, trying to answer the question of whether it is a proper coagulopathy, or secondary to APS. Resumen La presencia de eventos trombóticos en los pacientes con covid-19 se describió desde el inicio de la pandemia, asociación que ha sido confirmada en la mayoría de los estudios reportados. Los informes de necropsias han puesto en evidencia que la mayoría de las trombosis se localiza en el pulmón, aunque también se han observado en otros órganos, como la piel y los riñones. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 induce un estado protrombótico generalizado que se atribuye a una conjunción de factores como la hipoxia, el exceso de apoptosis celular y, sobre todo, una hiperactivación del sistema inmune. Entre las situaciones protrombóticas inmunomediadas destaca el síndrome antifosfolipídico (SAF), en el cual se observan eventos trombóticos de repetición en presencia de anticuerpos antifosfolipídicos (AAF). Existen numerosos estudios que reportan una elevada prevalencia de AAF en los pacientes con infección por covid-19;sin embargo, los resultados muestran discordancias en los datos de prevalencia de AAF y su rol en la patogenia sobre la trombosis en estos pacientes, lo que que podría deberse a la heterogeneidad de los procedimientos de detección de los AAF o a elevaciones transitorias de los niveles de AAF no patogénicos en el contexto de la infección. En esta revisión se busca aclarar el papel de los AAF en la infección por covid-19, intentando responder a la pregunta de si se trata de una coagulopatía propia, o es secundaria a un SAF.

4.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334996

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 clinical features include a hypercoagulable state that resembles the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), a disease characterized by thrombosis and presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). The relationship between aPL-presence and the appearance of thrombi as well as the transience or permanence of aPL in COVID-19 patients is not sufficiently clear. METHODS: A group of 360 COVID-19 patients were followed-up for 6 months. Classic aPL, anti-B2GPI IgA, anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin IgG/M and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were determined at acute phase and >12 weeks later. The reference group included 143 healthy volunteers of the same age-range distribution. RESULTS: aPL prevalence was similar in COVID-19 patients and the reference population. aPL presence in both determinations was significantly associated with thrombosis (OR: 2.33 and 3.71), strong agreement being found for classic aPL and anti-B2GPI IgA (Weighted kappa: 0.85-0.91). Thrombosis-associated aPL occurred a median of 17 days after hospital admission (IQR: 6-28) vs. 4 days for the rest (IQR: 3-7). Although anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies levels increased during convalescence, aPL hardly changed. CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 patients would carry these aPL before the infection. At least two mechanisms could be behind thrombosis, early immune-dysregulation-mediated thrombosis after infection and belated-aPL-mediated thrombosis, with SARS-CoV-2 behaving as a second hit.

5.
Transl Res ; 233: 104-116, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051128

ABSTRACT

The p53/p21 pathway is activated in response to cell stress. However, its role in acute lung injury has not been elucidated. Acute lung injury is associated with disruption of the alveolo-capillary barrier leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support gas exchange in patients with ARDS, however, high positive airway pressures can cause regional overdistension of alveolar units and aggravate lung injury. Here, we report that acute lung injury and alveolar overstretching activate the p53/p21 pathway to maintain homeostasis and avoid massive cell apoptosis. A systematic pooling of transcriptomic data from animal models of lung injury demonstrates the enrichment of specific p53- and p21-dependent gene signatures and a validated senescence profile. In a clinically relevant, murine model of acid aspiration and mechanical ventilation, we observed changes in the nuclear envelope and the underlying chromatin, DNA damage and activation of the Tp53/p21 pathway. Absence of Cdkn1a decreased the senescent response, but worsened lung injury due to increased cell apoptosis. Conversely, treatment with lopinavir and/or ritonavir led to Cdkn1a overexpression and ameliorated cell apoptosis and lung injury. The activation of these mechanisms was associated with early markers of senescence, including expression of senescence-related genes and increases in senescence-associated heterochromatin foci in alveolar cells. Autopsy samples from lungs of patients with ARDS revealed increased senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. Collectively, these results suggest that acute lung injury activates p53/p21 as an antiapoptotic mechanism to ameliorate damage, but with the side effect of induction of senescence.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/metabolism , Acids/administration & dosage , Acids/toxicity , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Animals , Apoptosis , Cellular Senescence , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/deficiency , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21/genetics , DNA Damage , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Signal Transduction , Stress, Mechanical , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/deficiency , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
6.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 3(4): 267-276, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141284

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present coagulation abnormalities and thromboembolic events that resemble antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This work has aimed to study the prevalence of APS-related antigens, antibodies, and immune complexes in patients with COVID-19 and their association with clinical events. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 474 adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection hospitalized in two Spanish university hospitals. Patients were evaluated for classic and extra-criteria antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs), immunoglobulin G (IgG)/immunoglobulin M (IgM) anticardiolipin, IgG/IgM/immunoglobulin A (IgA) anti-ß2-glicoprotein-I (aß2GPI), IgG/IgM antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT), the immune complex of IgA aß2GPI (IgA-aß2GPI), bounded to ß2-glicoprotein-1 (ß2GPI) and ß2GPI levels soon after COVID-19 diagnosis and were followed-up until medical discharge or death. RESULTS: Prevalence of aPLs in patients with COVID-19 was as follows: classic aPLs, 5.8%; aPS/PT, 4.6%; IgA-aß2GPI, 15%; and any aPL, 21%. When patients were compared with individuals of a control group of a similar age, the only significant difference found was the higher prevalence of IgA-aß2GPI (odds ratio: 2.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-4.09). No significant differences were observed in survival, thrombosis, or ventilatory failure in aPL-positive versus aPL-negative patients. ß2GPI median levels were much lower in patients with COVID-19 (15.9 mg/l) than in blood donors (168.8 mg/l; P < 0.001). Only 3.5% of patients with COVID-19 had normal levels of ß2GPI (>85 mg/l). Low levels of ß2GPI were significantly associated with ventilatory failure (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: ß2GPI levels were much lower in patients with COVID-19 than in healthy people. Low ß2GPI-levels were associated with ventilatory failure. No differences were observed in the COVID-19 evolution between aPL-positive and aPL-negative patients. Functional ß2GPI deficiency could trigger a clinical process similar to that seen in APS but in the absence of aPLs.

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