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1.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):1784-1784, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849088
3.
Production and Operations Management ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1621954

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates how the optimization of policymaker interventions against an epidemic disease is affected by contextual factors related to (i) a cost-centered approach to countering the epidemic, (ii) eventual correlative popular discontent, and (iii) growing social fatigue engendered by nontherapeutic interventions. Three nontherapeutic policies-mobility restrictions (MR), securing social interactions (SSI), and a combination of both (MR + SSI)-are compared in terms of effectiveness and efficiency in preventing infections and saving lives. The costs associated with these policies are economic as well as operational. The objective is to select the lowest cost policy that is the least sensitive to the cited contextual factors. In many ways, our model applies to the Covid-19 pandemic in its prevaccine phase. Our study shows the significant influence of popular discontent on epidemic control policies. We show that in contrast to the standard delayed peak strategy, which seeks to delay and flatten the epidemic peak, there is an alternative strategy, counter to conventional wisdom, which consists of accelerating the onset of the epidemic peak. Although the delayed peak strategy is contingent on popular neutrality, the advanced peak strategy results from popular discontent as a corollary of a cost-centered approach. We also find that social fatigue does not affect the social cost much but, in contrast to the controlled scenarios without social fatigue, it amplifies the peak of infections. In this context, the inclusive policy that incorporates MR + SSI mitigates the negative impact of social fatigue, although it comes at the cost of tighter restrictions than either of the exclusive policies. We conclude that, as opposed to popular discontent, social fatigue should be disregarded for the sake of greater effectiveness and efficiency in infection and death prevention. Our results can be used by policymakers to allocate resources appropriately in MR, SSI, or both and to build treatment capability.

4.
MEDLINE; 2020.
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-290700

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can result in a hyperinflammatory state, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocardial injury, and thrombotic complications, among other sequelae. Statins, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties, have been studied in the setting of other viral infections and ARDS, but their benefit has not been assessed in COVID-19. Thus, we sought to determine whether antecedent statin use is associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. This is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with COVID-19 from February 1 st through May 12 th , 2020 with study period ending on June 11 th , 2020. Antecedent statin use was assessed using medication information available in the electronic medical record. We constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to predict the propensity of receiving statins, adjusting for baseline socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and outpatient medications. The primary endpoint included in-hospital mortality within 30 days. A total of 2626 patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 951 (36.2%) were antecedent statin users. Among 1296 patients (648 statin users, 648 non-statin users) identified with 1:1 propensity-score matching, demographic, baseline, and outpatient medication information were well balanced. Statin use was significantly associated with lower odds of the primary endpoint in the propensity-matched cohort (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36 a" 0.64, p<0.001). We conclude that antecedent statin use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 was associated with lower inpatient mortality. Randomized clinical trials evaluating the utility of statin therapy in patients with COVID-19 are needed.

5.
AHFE International Conferences on Design for Inclusion, Interdisciplinary Practice in Industrial Design, Affective and Pleasurable Design, Kansei Engineering, and Human Factors for Apparel and Textile Engineering, 2021 ; 260:201-209, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1359923

ABSTRACT

COVID apps are being quickly rolled out worldwide by governments and private institutions to mitigate the pandemic. This research aimed to understand the behavioral and attitudinal barriers to the widespread adoption of the Safer in Illinois app among community stakeholders at a Big Ten public university in the Midwest. Using a Human Centered Design (HCD) approach, 25 campus members were interviewed to explore (1) issues around privacy and security of data, (2) institutional trust, and (3) community norms. Interviews were conducted during Summer 2020 and were analyzed to develop recommendations for the app development team and key university administrators. Such recommendations included (1) effective and trauma-informed communication by the university about Fall 2020 reopening and the data management and privacy features of the app, (2) incorporating mental health features and an anti-racist training on the app, and (3) address technological inequities and racial health disparities around COVID-19 as an institutional policy. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

6.
Critical Care Medicine ; 49(1):129-129, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1326628
7.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 55:49, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1326627

ABSTRACT

Since its outbreak, the COVID-19 pandemic's interlinkages with illegal wildlife trade have caught a lot of attention and been touted as a primary cause. Dwelling on the carrier species of coronavirus that have been implicated and the channels of zoonotic spillover, the policies implemented to curb bushmeat consumption with incomplete ramifications to curb illegal wildlife markets are critiqued. The urgent need to address the problem is highlighted, requiring significant enforcement efforts at the local and national level along with transnational cooperation to make them successful. There is a need for alternative coordinated solutions for the COVID-19 vaccine which ironically finds its origin in a wildlife product.

8.
EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing ; : 185-201, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1231881

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a global health crisis since December 2019, when the first infection was reported in Wuhan, China. The critical and lethal advancement of this disease is associated with the failure of multiple organs including, but not limited to, the brain, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, etc., which makes it very challenging to understand. Current high-throughput technologies generate multi-omics datasets to enable a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of different organs at the cellular and molecular level. To understand the multi-organ impact of COVID-19 and the mechanistic aspects of disease prognosis and its interactions with other comorbidities, computational approaches need to be implemented by integrating data from multiple organs, correlating results across data types, and applying machine learning (ML) tools on the high-throughput data. This chapter is expected to provide valuable insights to help explain the multi-organ association of COVID-19 using state-of-the-art computational resources and modeling of high-volume data. We have emphasized the importance of big data analytics and systematic integration of data from different domains including omics, clinical, demographic, and others in understanding the organ- and system-level biological processes and comorbidity networks associated with COVID-19. These findings and proposed strategies could help perform comorbidity-focused studies to understand and tackle COVID-19. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021.

9.
CMES - Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences ; 127(2):389-409, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1215890

ABSTRACT

Effective strategies to control COVID-19 pandemic need high attention to mitigate negatively impacted communal health and global economy, with the brim-full horizon yet to unfold. In the absence of effective antiviral and limited medical resources, many measures are recommended by WHO to control the infection rate and avoid exhausting the limited medical resources. Wearing mask is among the non-pharmaceutical intervention measures that can be used as barrier to primary route of SARS-CoV2 droplets expelled by presymptomatic or asymptomatic individuals. Regardless of discourse on medical resources and diversities in masks, all countries are mandating coverings over nose and mouth in public areas. Towards contribution of public health, the aim of the paper is to devise a real-time technique that can efficiently detect non mask faces in public and thus enforce to wear mask. The proposed technique is ensemble of one stage and two stage detectors to achieve low inference time and high accuracy. We took ResNet50 as a baseline model and applied the concept of transfer learning to fuse high level semantic information in multiple feature maps. In addition, we also propose a bounding box transformation to improve localization performance during mask detection. The experiments are conducted with three popular baseline models namely ResNet50, AlexNet and MobileNet. We explored the possibility of these models to plug-in with the proposed model, so that highly accurate results can be achieved in less inference time. It is observed that the proposed technique can achieve high accuracy (98.2%) when implemented with ResNet50. Besides, the proposed model can generate 11.07% and 6.44% higher precision and recall respectively in mask detection when compared to RetinaFaceMask detector. © This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

10.
Pediatric Nephrology ; 29:29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients;however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.

11.
Critical Care Medicine ; 49(1 SUPPL 1):129, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1193971

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since its first reported from Wuhan in December 2019, the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 and its complications are still evolving. As the number of COVID patients requiring positive pressure ventilation is increasing, so is the incidence of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. We report the case series of 10 patients of COVID-19, with subcutaneous emphysema along with pneumomediastinum. METHODS: All patients were admitted to the critical care area from April to June 2020 at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic records and medical files reviewed for the patient's baseline characteristics, days of ventilation before subcutaneous emphysema, treatment given for COVID-19, cytokine release syndrome (CRS) grade, and with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 59±8 years (range, 23-97). The majority of them were men (80%), and common symptoms were dyspnea (100%), fever (80%), and cough (80%). None of them had underlying lung disorder. Six patients had hypertension, and five had diabetes. All patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on admission, with a median PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 122.5. Eight patients with CRS grade III were being managed in high dependency units at the time of development of subcutaneous emphysema, and two with CRS grade IV were treated in ICU. The median duration of assisted ventilation before the development of subcutaneous emphysema was 7 days (interquartile range, 5-10 days). The highest PEEP for invasively ventilated patients was 10, while the CPAP ranged from 12-16, in non-invasive ventilation patients. Eventually, all required intubation. Chest tubes thoracostomy was done in five patients. All received corticosteroids, 6 received tocilizumab, and 7 received convalescent plasma therapy. Seven patients died during their hospital stay. Obstructive shock with tension pneumothorax was the cause of death in 1 patient, while four died of septic shock. Two patients had their ventilator withdrawn due to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: High risk COVID-19 patients requiring positive pressure ventilation can develop subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. One has to be vigilant about lung-protective ventilator strategies for the management of hypoxia in COVID -19 patients.

12.
Kidney International Reports ; 6(4):S19-S19, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1192324
13.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1133713

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first recorded in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization initially classified COVID-19 as a public health emergency and subsequently declared the disease a global pandemic. COVID-19 can take at least three distinct forms: severe acute distress syndrome with a potentially fatal outcome, mild respiratory illness (pneumonia with eventual recovery) and asymptomatic infection. All three disease forms have the potential to transmit the infection to healthy contacts. At present, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the only available laboratory tool to confirm the presence of viral RNA in patient specimens. These assays are designed to detect one or more (at least 2) SARS-CoV-2 RNA gene targets allowing the detection of the virus. Commercially available RT-PCR assays employ various gene targets of the viral genome in their assay systems. Additionally, there are differences in primer selection for the same gene region of SARS-CoV-2. At present, it is unclear whether the results from different RT-PCR assays are comparable in detecting the spectrum of COVID-19 manifestations. The purpose of the present article is twofold: first, to briefly focus on the findings of these reports;and second, to emphasize the various challenges and flaws that can potentially impact the diagnostic accuracy of RT-PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2. © 2021 Shneh Sethi and Trinad Chakraborty, published by De Gruyter, Berlin/Boston 2021.

15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e37, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072077

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the clinical symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications are evolving. As the number of COVID patients requiring positive pressure ventilation is increasing, so is the incidence of subcutaneous emphysema (SE). We report 10 patients of COVID-19, with SE and pneumomediastinum. The mean age of the patients was 59 ± 8 years (range, 23-75). Majority of them were men (80%), and common symptoms were dyspnoea (100%), fever (80%) and cough (80%). None of them had any underlying lung disorder. All patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome on admission, with a median PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 122.5. Eight out of ten patients had spontaneous pneumomediastinum on their initial chest x-ray in the emergency department. The median duration of assisted ventilation before the development of SE was 5.5 days (interquartile range, 5-10 days). The highest positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 10 cmH2O for patients recieving invasive mechanical ventilation, while 8 cmH2O was the average PEEP in patients who had developed subcutaneous emphysema on non-invasive ventilation. All patients received corticosteroids while six also received tocilizumab, and seven received convalescent plasma therapy, respectively. Seven patients died during their hospital stay. All patients either survivor or non-survivor had prolonged hospital stay with an average of 14 days (range 8-25 days). Our findings suggest that it is lung damage secondary to inflammatory response due to COVID-19 triggered by the use of positive pressure ventilation which resulted in this complication. We conclude that the development of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and SE whenever present, is associated with poor outcome in critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
16.
IEEE Engineering Management Review ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1050270

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic creates an unseen challenge to the world's business operations. In order to survive, companies have taken all kinds of measures. However, for SMEs, owing to relatively limited resources, surviving COVID-19 requires innovative measures. In this paper, we examine two interesting “innovative solutions”which are practiced in Hong Kong as operational strategies to deal with COVID-19. Managerial implications are also discussed. IEEE

17.
Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities ; 12(5), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1022306

ABSTRACT

Laura Spinney, British science journalist and author of Pale Rider: The Spanish Flu of 1918 and How It Changed the World observes that, “The Spanish Flu is remembered personally, not collectively. Not as a historical disaster, but as millions of discreet, private tragedies.” The pandemic of 1918 was not memorialized like World War I which supervened at the same time as the Spanish Flu. It was soon relegated in public memory as the world emerged from the throes of the nightmarish war. Almost a century later, the world finds itself in the grip of yet another pandemic, the COVID-19. Similar situations of patients with multiple complex symptoms, heaving hospitals, shortage of doctors and nurses, scenes of patients left unattended, dealing with the guilt of infecting their family and friends and struggling to survive paints an apocalyptic scenario. This paper tries to explore a parallel among the two pandemics as it witnesses the tragic tale of a survivor of the Spanish Influenza in Katherine Anne Porter’s autobiographical short novel “Pale Horse, Pale Rider.” The private tragedies of physical deterioration, psychological delusions and social stigmatization also suffered by the COVID-19 survivors have been documented and blazoned all over news and social media. The design behind broadcasting these factual accounts are recognition of the reality of the virus (suspected and labelled fake on many occasions), awareness of the symptoms and understanding of the disease. These hopeful and optimistic narratives of the COVID survivors are a faint ray of hope in these bleak times. © AesthetixMS 2020.

18.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 55(49):13-16, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-984811
19.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(9): 1256.e9-1256.e11, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591567

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Residual sera from 177 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and 163 non-COVID-19 patients were tested for antibody with the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott Diagnostics, Chicago, USA). Clinical records for COVID-19 patients were reviewed to determine the time from onset of clinical illness to testing. RESULTS: Specificity of the assay was 100.0% (95%CI: 97.1-100.0%). The clinical sensitivity of the assay varied depending on time from onset of symptoms, increasing with longer periods from the onset of clinical illness. The clinical sensitivity at ≤6 days was 8.6% (7/81; 95%CI: 3.8-17.5%), at 7-13 days 43.6% (17/39; 95%CI: 28.2-60.2%), at 14-20 days 84.0% (21/25; 95%CI: 63.1-94.7%), and at ≥21 days 84.4% (27/32; 95%CI: 66.5-94.1%). Clinical sensitivity was higher in the ≥14-day group compared to <14 days. There were no differences between the 14-20-day and ≥21-days groups; the combined clinical sensitivity for these groups (≥14 days) was 84.2% (49/57; 71.6-92.1%). CONCLUSION: The Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG test has high specificity. Clinical sensitivity was limited in the early stages of disease but improved from 14 days after the onset of clinical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibody Formation , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Singapore , Time Factors
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