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1.
Ther Apher Dial ; 2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612822

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has challenged the global healthcare system through rapid proliferation and lack of existing treatment resulting in over 180 million cases and 3.8 million deaths since December 2019. Although pediatric patients only comprise 1%-2% of diagnosed cases, their incidence of acute kidney injury ranges from 8.2% to 18.2% compared to 49% in adults. Severe infection, initiated by dysregulated host response, can lead to multiorgan failure. In this review, we focus on the use of various blood filters approved for use in pediatric kidney replacement therapy to mitigate adverse effects of severe illness. Therapeutic effects of these blood filters range from cytokine removal (CytoSorb, HA330, HCO/MCO), endotoxin removal (Toraymyxin, CPFA), both cytokine and endotoxin removal (oXiris), and nonspecific removal of proteins (PMMA) that have already been established and can be used to mitigate the various effects of the cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19.

2.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(2): e13777, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive mucormycosis (IM) is a life-threatening fungal infection occurring mostly in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, patients with hematological malignancies, and diabetes. A sudden spurt of mucormycosis has been reported in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in India; however, there is little data about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated mucormycosis (CAM) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: We describe the clinical presentations, risk factors, treatment and outcomes of 11 mucormycosis cases in KTRs post-COVID-19 infection from February 2020 to June 2021 at a single center in India. RESULTS: Mucormycosis was seen in 11/102 (10.7%) KTRs during the pandemic. Six patients had mild disease and rest five had moderate disease. Seven patients had pre-existing diabetes mellitus and four developed new onset hyperglycemia after receiving steroids for COVID-19 infection. All had poorly controlled sugars at the time of presentation. Most common presentation was rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in 10/11 (89%) patients and one has pulmonary mucormycosis. All patients received combination of amphotericin B and surgical debridement/excision of affected tissue followed by posaconazole prophylaxis. Nine patients recovered, however two patients succumbed to their illness after median of 14 (7-21) days from diagnosis. One patient developed acute T-cell-mediated rejection during the course of recovery. At last follow up, the mean serum creatinine was 2.05 mg/dl as compared to 1.4 mg/dl at presentation. CONCLUSIONS: IM is a common fungal infection in transplant recipients in India after COVID-19. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with combination of surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B are key to better outcomes in CAM. Judicious use of steroids and control of hyperglycemia is key to avoid flaring up of the fungal infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Kidney Transplantation , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
3.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580999

ABSTRACT

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare disorder characterized by dysregulation of the alternate pathway. The diagnosis of aHUS is one of exclusion, which complicates its early detection and corresponding intervention to mitigate its high rate of mortality and associated morbidity. Heterozygous mutations in complement regulatory proteins linked to aHUS are not always phenotypically active, and may require a particular trigger for the disease to manifest. This list of triggers continues to expand as more data is aggregated, particularly centered around COVID-19 and pediatric vaccinations. Novel genetic mutations continue to be identified though advancements in technology as well as greater access to cohorts of interest, as in diacylglycerol kinase epsilon (DGKE). DGKE mutations associated with aHUS are the first non-complement regulatory proteins associated with the disease, drastically changing the established framework. Additional markers that are less understood, but continue to be acknowledged, include the unique autoantibodies to complement factor H and complement factor I which are pathogenic drivers in aHUS. Interventional therapeutics have undergone the most advancements, as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties are modified as needed in addition to their as biosimilar counterparts. As data continues to be gathered in this field, future advancements will optimally decrease the mortality and morbidity of this disease in children.


Subject(s)
Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/genetics , Complement Factor H/genetics , Complement Factor I/genetics , Diacylglycerol Kinase/genetics , Mutation , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/drug therapy , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Complement Factor H/immunology , Complement Factor I/immunology , Diacylglycerol Kinase/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection has a high mortality rate and continues to be a global threat, which warrants the identification of all mortality risk factors in critically ill patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective multicenter cohort study conducted in five hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We enrolled patients with confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection admitted to any of the intensive care units from the five hospitals between March 2020 and July 2020, corresponding to the peak of recorded COVID-19 cases in the KSA. RESULTS: In total, 229 critically ill patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the study. The presenting symptoms and signs of patients who died during hospitalization were not significantly different from those observed among patients who survived. The baseline comorbidities that were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality were diabetes (62% vs. 48% among patients who died and survived (p = 0.046)), underlying cardiac disease (38% vs. 19% (p = 0.001)), and underlying kidney disease (32% vs. 12% (p < 0.001)). CONCLUSION: In our cohort, the baseline comorbidities that were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality were diabetes, underlying cardiac disease, and underlying kidney disease. Additionally, the factors that independently influenced mortality among critically ill COVID-19 patients were high Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT )and international normalization ratio (INR), acidosis, and high ferritin.

5.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495134

ABSTRACT

Worldwide, thousands of cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) have already been reported in children. Evidence regarding neonatal MIS-C is limited. We present the first case report of a neonate presenting within 48 hours of life with predominant abdominal signs mimicking surgical abdomen. Clinical picture comprised fever, multiorgan dysfunction (gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, hepatic and dermatological), positive inflammatory markers, high ferritin and high D-dimer levels. Cardiac enzyme N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide as well as D-dimer levels were elevated. Blood, urine, stool and cerebrospinal fluid cultures were sterile. Positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in both the mother and the infant, along with an epidemiological evidence of maternal contact with COVID-19, clinched the diagnosis of MIS-C. Immunomodulatory drugs (intravenous immunoglobulin and systemic steroids) were administered and showed good clinical response. A high index of suspicion of MIS-C in critically ill neonates can improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Infant , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(9): 2000-2011, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393224

ABSTRACT

The initial report of the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) was from the UK in April 2020; since then, cases have been reported worldwide. Renal involvement has been seen commonly, ranging from 10% to 46%. Kidney involvement following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children with MIS-C is more common than initially thought and is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. There are several reports of a direct viral tropism of coronavirus disease 2019 and MIS-C-associated renal damage. This study's objective was to systematically review the current understanding of kidney involvement in children suffering from MIS-C. Based on our systemic literature search, 19 studies have either partially or fully discussed kidney involvement in MIS-C patients. Furthermore, we discuss the multifactorial pathogenesis contributing to acute kidney injury (AKI) development in MIS-C. The current review gives a pediatric nephrologist's perspective of the renal involvement in MIS-C, the incidence of AKI, the pathophysiology of AKI in MIS-C and the proposed therapeutic regimens available, including the need for kidney replacement therapy for a child with AKI associated with MIS-C. As the disease is rapidly evolving, more detailed clinical prospective studies are required to understand MIS-C and its role in AKI better.

8.
Clin Transplant ; 35(10): e14423, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307681

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to a sudden drop in renal transplant numbers across India in the initial months of 2020. Although the transplant numbers increased with easing of lockdown, the outcome of these transplants remains unknown. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, multi-center study done across eight different transplant centers in India. All the transplants done from January 30, 2020 to December 31, 2020 were included. The primary outcomes studied were patient and death censored graft survival as well as incidence of COVID-19 infection and its outcomes. RESULTS: During the study period a total of 297 kidney transplants were done. After a median follow up of 265 days the patient and death censored graft survival was 95.3% and 97.6%, respectively. Forty-one patients (13.8%) developed COVID-19 post-transplant. Majority (58.5%) were asymptomatic to mildly symptomatic and the case fatality ratio was 14.6%. On multivariable logistic regression analysis older age was associated with higher likelihood of COVID-19 infection (odds ratio 1.038; CI 1.002-1.077). CONCLUSIONS: Patient and graft outcome of kidney transplants done during the COVID-19 pandemic in India was acceptable. The incidence of COVID-19 was 13.8% with a high case fatality ratio.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(9): 2316-2322, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The slow increase in use of telemedicine began to expand rapidly, along with reimbursement changes, during the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Standardized protocols for these services are lacking but are needed for effective and equitable health care. In this study, we queried pediatric nephrologists and their patients about their telemedicine experiences during the pandemic. METHODS: Surveys that were in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act were deployed online to patients and physicians. RESULTS: We collected survey responses from 400 patients and 197 pediatric nephrologists. Patients reported positive experiences with telemedicine visits as it was logistically easier than in-person visits. Patients also felt that the quality of their visits were equivalent to what they would receive in person. Physicians used a wide variety of online systems to conduct synchronous telemedicine with Zoom (23%), EPIC (9%), Doxy.me (7%), services not specified (37%), or a mix of local or smaller services (24%). Most physicians' concerns were related to technological issues and the ability to procure physical exams and/or laboratory results. CONCLUSIONS: There is a paucity of published trials on telemedicine services in pediatric nephrology. Virtual care was feasible and acceptable for patients, caregivers, and providers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 413, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689026

ABSTRACT

The recent worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 has had a detrimental worldwide impact on people of all ages. Although data from China and the United States indicate that pediatric cases often have a mild course and are less severe in comparison to adults, there have been several cases of kidney failure and multisystem inflammatory syndrome reported. As such, we believe that the world should be prepared if the severity of cases begins to further increase within the pediatric population. Therefore, we provide here a position paper centered on emergency preparation with resource allocation for critical COVID-19 cases within the pediatric population, specifically where renal conditions worsen due to the onset of AKI.

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