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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773856

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) remains an underdiagnosed entity. Using a modified Delphi method, we have formulated a consensus statement for the diagnosis and management of CAPM. We selected 26 experts from various disciplines who are involved in managing CAPM. Three rounds of the Delphi process were held to reach consensus (≥70% agreement or disagreement) or dissensus. A consensus was achieved for 84 of the 89 statements. Pulmonary mucormycosis occurring within 3 months of COVID-19 diagnosis was labelled CAPM and classified further as proven, probable, and possible. We recommend flexible bronchoscopy to enable early diagnosis. The experts proposed definitions to categorise dual infections with aspergillosis and mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend liposomal amphotericin B (5 mg/kg per day) and early surgery as central to the management of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. We recommend response assessment at 4-6 weeks using clinical and imaging parameters. Posaconazole or isavuconazole was recommended as maintenance therapy following initial response, but no consensus was reached for the duration of treatment. In patients with stable or progressive disease, the experts recommended salvage therapy with posaconazole or isavuconazole. CAPM is a rare but under-reported complication of COVID-19. Although we have proposed recommendations for defining, diagnosing, and managing CAPM, more extensive research is required.

2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2349-2359, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406812

ABSTRACT

During September-December 2020, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study across India to evaluate epidemiology and outcomes among cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Among 287 mucormycosis patients, 187 (65.2%) had CAM; CAM prevalence was 0.27% among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We noted a 2.1-fold rise in mucormycosis during the study period compared with September-December 2019. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying disease among CAM and non-CAM patients. COVID-19 was the only underlying disease in 32.6% of CAM patients. COVID-19-related hypoxemia and improper glucocorticoid use independently were associated with CAM. The mucormycosis case-fatality rate at 12 weeks was 45.7% but was similar for CAM and non-CAM patients. Age, rhino-orbital-cerebral involvement, and intensive care unit admission were associated with increased mortality rates; sequential antifungal drug treatment improved mucormycosis survival. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increases in mucormycosis in India, partly from inappropriate glucocorticoid use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2349-2359, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259328

ABSTRACT

During September-December 2020, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study across India to evaluate epidemiology and outcomes among cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Among 287 mucormycosis patients, 187 (65.2%) had CAM; CAM prevalence was 0.27% among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We noted a 2.1-fold rise in mucormycosis during the study period compared with September-December 2019. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying disease among CAM and non-CAM patients. COVID-19 was the only underlying disease in 32.6% of CAM patients. COVID-19-related hypoxemia and improper glucocorticoid use independently were associated with CAM. The mucormycosis case-fatality rate at 12 weeks was 45.7% but was similar for CAM and non-CAM patients. Age, rhino-orbital-cerebral involvement, and intensive care unit admission were associated with increased mortality rates; sequential antifungal drug treatment improved mucormycosis survival. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to increases in mucormycosis in India, partly from inappropriate glucocorticoid use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(2): 283-285, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889571

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is a biphasic illness, with an initial viral replication phase, followed by a cascade of inflammatory events. Progression to severe disease is predominantly a function of the inflammatory cascade, rather than viral replication per se. This understanding can be effectively translated to changing our approach in managing the disease. The natural course of disease offers us separate windows of specific time intervals to administer either antiviral or immunomodulatory therapy. Instituting the right attack at the right time would maximize the benefit of treatment. This concept must also be factored into studies that assess the efficacy of antivirals and immunomodulatory agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Time-to-Treatment , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunomodulation/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
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