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1.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1799913

ABSTRACT

Objectives. We assessed vaccination-induced antibody and cellular responses against spike from the ancestral strain and from the delta (δ) SARS-CoV-2 variant in patients with Immune Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMID) on immunosuppressive therapy in comparison with immunocompetent subjects. Methods. We enrolled IMID patients and immunocompetent subjects having completed the vaccination schedule within 4-6 months from the first dose. The Interferon (IFN)-γ-response to spike peptides derived from the ancestral and the δ SARS-CoV-2 were measured by ELISA. Anti-RBD IgG antibodies were also evaluated. Results. We enrolled 43 IMID patients and 9 immunocompetent subjects. No significant differences were found comparing the specific immune response (IFN-γ) between IMID patients and immunocompetent subjects to the ancestral (p=0.36) or delta peptide pool (p=0.51). Nevertheless, IFN-γ-specific response to the ancestral or to the δ pools was reduced in subjects taking CTLA4-IgG or TNF-α inhibitors compared to subjects treated with IL-6 inhibitors or DMARDs. Regarding the antibody response, no significant differences were observed between IMID and immunocompetent individuals. Conclusions. Cellular responses to δ SARS-CoV-2 variant remain largely intact in IMID patients. However, the magnitude of these responses are dependent on the specific IMID immune suppressive regimen. Serological response was also similar among the IMID and control groups.

2.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(4): e802, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791212

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response has been associated with disease severity, immune memory and heterologous response to endemic coronaviruses. However, an integrative approach combining a comprehensive analysis of the quality of SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response with antibody levels in these three scenarios is needed. In the present study, we found that, in acute infection, while mild disease was associated with high T-cell polyfunctionality biased to IL-2 production and inversely correlated with anti-S IgG levels, combinations only including IFN-γ with the absence of perforin production predominated in severe disease. Seven months after infection, both non-hospitalised and previously hospitalised patients presented robust anti-S IgG levels and SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response. In addition, only previously hospitalised patients showed a T-cell exhaustion profile. Finally, combinations including IL-2 in response to S protein of endemic coronaviruses were the ones associated with SARS-CoV-2 S-specific T-cell response in pre-COVID-19 healthy donors' samples. These results could have implications for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and recurrent COVID-19 and may help for the design of new prototypes and boosting vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunologic Memory , Interleukin-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333128

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with a heightened inflammatory state, including activated T cells. However, it is unclear whether these PD T cell responses are antigen specific or more indicative of generalized hyperresponsiveness. Our objective was to measure and compare antigen-specific T cell responses directed towards antigens derived from commonly encountered human pathogens/vaccines in patients with PD and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 20 PD patients and 19 age-matched HCs were screened. Antigen specific T cell responses were measured by flow cytometry using a combination of the activation induced marker (AIM) assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Results Here we show that both PD patients and HCs show similar T cell activation levels to several antigens derived from commonly encountered human pathogens/vaccines in the general population. Similarly, we also observed no difference between HC and PD in the levels of CD4 and CD8 T cell derived cytokines produced in response to any of the common antigens tested. These antigens encompassed both viral (coronavirus, rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, cytomegalovirus) and bacterial (pertussis, tetanus) targets. Conclusions These results suggest the T cell dysfunction observed in PD may not extend itself to abnormal responses to commonly encountered or vaccine-target antigens. Our study supports the notion that the targets of inflammatory T cell responses in PD may be more directed towards autoantigens like α-synuclein (α-syn) rather than common foreign antigens.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332985

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT NVX-CoV2373 is an adjuvanted recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer protein vaccine demonstrated to be protective against COVID-19 in efficacy trials. Here we demonstrate that vaccinated subjects made CD4 + T cell responses after one and two doses of NVX-CoV2373, and a subset of individuals made CD8 + T cell responses. Characterization of the vaccine-elicited CD8 + T cells demonstrated IFN γ production. Characterization of the vaccine-elicited CD4 + T cells revealed both circulating T follicular helper cells (cT FH ) and T H 1 cells (IFN γ , TNFα, and IL-2) were detectable within 7 days of the primary immunization. Spike-specific CD4 + T cells were correlated with the magnitude of the later SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers, indicating that robust generation of CD4 + T cells, capable of supporting humoral immune responses, may be a key characteristic of NVX-CoV2373 which utilizes Matrix-M™ adjuvant.

5.
Clinical and Translational Medicine ; 12(4):e802, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1782584

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response has been associated with disease severity, immune memory and heterologous response to endemic coronaviruses. However, an integrative approach combining a comprehensive analysis of the quality of SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response with antibody levels in these three scenarios is needed. In the present study, we found that, in acute infection, while mild disease was associated with high T-cell polyfunctionality biased to IL-2 production and inversely correlated with anti-S IgG levels, combinations only including IFN-? with the absence of perforin production predominated in severe disease. Seven months after infection, both non-hospitalised and previously hospitalised patients presented robust anti-S IgG levels and SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response. In addition, only previously hospitalised patients showed a T-cell exhaustion profile. Finally, combinations including IL-2 in response to S protein of endemic coronaviruses were the ones associated with SARS-CoV-2 S-specific T-cell response in pre-COVID-19 healthy donors? samples. These results could have implications for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and recurrent COVID-19 and may help for the design of new prototypes and boosting vaccine strategies.

7.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766185

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Immune-modulating medications for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have been associated with suboptimal vaccine responses. There is conflicting data with SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. We therefore assessed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity at 2 weeks post second mRNA vaccine in 29 IBD patients compared to 12 normal healthy donors (NHD). We observed reduced humoral immunity in IBD patients on infliximab. However, we observed no difference in humoral and cell-mediated immunity in IBD patients on infliximab with a thiopurine or vedolizumab compared to NHDs. This is the first study to demonstrate comparable cell-mediated immunity to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in IBD patients treated with different immune-modulating medications.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331101

ABSTRACT

Multiple COVID-19 vaccines, representing diverse vaccine platforms, successfully protect against symptomatic COVID-19 cases and deaths. Head-to-head comparisons of T cell, B cell, and antibody responses to diverse vaccines in humans are likely to be informative for understanding protective immunity against COVID-19, with particular interest in immune memory. Here, SARS-CoV-2-spike-specific immune responses to Moderna mRNA-1273, Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2, Janssen Ad26.COV2.S and Novavax NVX-CoV2373 were examined longitudinally for 6 months. 100% of individuals made memory CD4+ T cells, with cTfh and CD4-CTL highly represented after mRNA or NVX-CoV2373 vaccination. mRNA vaccines and Ad26.COV2.S induced comparable CD8+ T cell frequencies, though memory CD8+ T cells were only detectable in 60-67% of subjects at 6 months. Ad26.COV2.S was not the strongest immunogen by any measurement, though the Ad26.COV2.S T cell, B cell, and antibody responses were relatively stable over 6 months. A differentiating feature of Ad26.COV2.S immunization was a high frequency of CXCR3+ memory B cells. mRNA vaccinees had substantial declines in neutralizing antibodies, while memory T cells and B cells were comparatively stable over 6 months. These results of these detailed immunological evaluations may also be relevant for vaccine design insights against other pathogens.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330796

ABSTRACT

Background The Sinovac SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac) has been demonstrated to be safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in preventing mild and severe Covid-19. Although different studies have demonstrated its short-term immunogenicity, long-term cellular and humoral response evaluations are still lacking. Methods Cellular and humoral responses were assessed after enrollment of volunteers in the PROFISCOV phase 3 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate CoronaVac. Assays were performed using flow cytometry to evaluate cellular immune response and an antigen binding electrochemiluminescence assay to detect antigen-specific antibodies to the virus. Results Fifty-three volunteers were selected for long term assessment of their SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses. CD4 + T cell responses (including circulating follicular helper (cTfh, CD45RA - CXCR5 + ) expressing CD40L, as well as non-cTfh cells expressing CXCR3) were observed early upon the first vaccine dose, increased after the second dose, remaining stable for 6-months. Memory CD4 + T cells were detected in almost all vaccinees, the majority being central memory T cells. IgG levels against Wuhan/WH04/2020 N, S and receptor binding domain (RBD) antigens and the variants of concern (VOCs, including B.1.1.7/Alpha, B.1.351/Beta and P.1/Gamma) S and RBD antigens peaked 14 days after the second vaccine shot, and were mostly stable for a 1-year period. Conclusions CoronaVac two-doses regimen is able to induce a potent and durable SARS-CoV-2 specific cellular response. The cellular reaction is part of a coordinated immune response that includes high levels of specific IgG levels against parental and SARS-CoV-2 VOC strains, still detected after one year. Funding Fundação Butantan, Instituto Butantan and São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) (grants 2020/10127-1 and 2020/06409-1). This work has also been supported by NIH contract 75N93019C00065 (A.S, D.W). PATH facilitated reagent donations for this work with support by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-021239). Under the grant conditions of the foundation, a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 generic License has already been assigned to the Author Accepted Manuscript version that might arise from this submission.

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330741

ABSTRACT

Despite the remarkable efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, waning immunity, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Omicron represents a major global health challenge. Here we present data from a study in non-human primates demonstrating durable protection against the Omicron BA.1 variant induced by a subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, consisting of RBD (receptor binding domain) on the I53-50 nanoparticle, adjuvanted with AS03, currently in Phase 3 clinical trial ( NCT05007951 ). Vaccination induced robust neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers that were maintained at high levels for at least one year after two doses (Pseudovirus nAb GMT: 2207, Live-virus nAb GMT: 1964) against the ancestral strain, but not against Omicron. However, a booster dose at 6-12 months with RBD-Wu or RBD-B (RBD from the Beta variant) displayed on I53-50 elicited equivalent and remarkably high neutralizing titers against the ancestral as well as the Omicron variant. Furthermore, there were substantial and persistent memory T and B cell responses reactive to Beta and Omicron variants. Importantly, vaccination resulted in protection against Omicron infection in the lung (no detectable virus in any animal) and profound suppression of viral burden in the nares (median peak viral load of 7567 as opposed to 1.3x107 copies in unvaccinated animals) at 6 weeks post final booster. Even at 6 months post vaccination, there was significant protection in the lung (with 7 out of 11 animals showing no viral load, 3 out of 11 animals showing ~20-fold lower viral load than unvaccinated controls) and rapid control of virus in the nares. These results highlight the durable cross-protective immunity elicited by the AS03-adjuvanted RBD-I53-50 nanoparticle vaccine platform.

12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330081

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern comprises three sublineages designated BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3, with BA.2 steadily replacing the globally dominant BA.1. We show that the large number of BA.1 and BA.2 spike mutations severely dampen plasma neutralizing activity elicited by infection or seven clinical vaccines, with cross-neutralization of BA.2 being consistently more potent than that of BA.1, independent of the vaccine platform and number of doses. Although mRNA vaccines induced the greatest magnitude of Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 plasma neutralizing activity, administration of a booster based on the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike sequence markedly increased neutralizing antibody titers and breadth against BA.1 and BA.2 across all vaccines evaluated. Our data suggest that although BA.1 and BA.2 evade polyclonal neutralizing antibody responses, current vaccine boosting regimens may provide sufficient protection against Omicron-induced disease.

13.
Sci Immunol ; : eabo0535, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736021

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 primarily replicates in mucosal sites, and more information is needed about immune responses in infected tissues. Here, we used rhesus macaques to model protective primary immune responses in tissues during mild COVID-19. Viral RNA levels were highest on days 1-2 post-infection and fell precipitously thereafter. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lung abnormalities and interferon (IFN)-activated monocytes and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were found on days 3-4 post-infection. Virus-specific effector CD8+ and CD4+ T cells became detectable in the BAL and lung tissue on days 7-10, after viral RNA, radiologic evidence of lung inflammation, and IFN-activated myeloid cells had substantially declined. Notably, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells were not detectable in the nasal turbinates, salivary glands, and tonsils on day 10 post-infection. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 replication wanes in the lungs of rhesus macaques prior to T cell responses, and in the nasal and oral mucosa despite the apparent lack of antigen-specific T cells, suggesting that innate immunity efficiently restricts viral replication during mild COVID-19.

14.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(4): e252-e264, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730188

ABSTRACT

Background: COH04S1, a synthetic attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector co-expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antigens, was tested for safety and immunogenicity in healthy adults. Methods: This combined open-label and randomised, phase 1 trial was done at the City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center (Duarte, CA, USA). We included participants aged 18-54 years with a negative SARS-CoV-2 antibody and PCR test, normal haematology and chemistry panels, a normal electrocardiogram and troponin concentration, negative pregnancy test if female, body-mass index of 30 kg/m2 or less, and no modified vaccinia virus Ankara or poxvirus vaccine in the past 12 months. In the open-label cohort, 1·0 × 107 plaque-forming units (PFU; low dose), 1·0 × 108 PFU (medium dose), and 2·5 × 108 PFU (high dose) of COH04S1 were administered by intramuscular injection on day 0 and 28 to sentinel participants using a queue-based statistical design to limit risk. In a randomised dose expansion cohort, additional participants were randomly assigned (3:3:1), using block size of seven, to receive two placebo vaccines (placebo group), one low-dose COH04S1 and one placebo vaccine (low-dose COH04S1 plus placebo group), or two low-dose COH04S1 vaccines (low-dose COH04S1 group). The primary outcome was safety and tolerability, with secondary objectives assessing vaccine-specific immunogenicity. The primary immunological outcome was a four times increase (seroconversion) from baseline in spike-specific or nucleocapsid-specific IgG titres within 28 days of the last injection, and seroconversion rates were compared with participants who received placebo using Fisher's exact test. Additional secondary outcomes included assessment of viral neutralisation and cellular responses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT046339466. Findings: Between Dec 13, 2020, and May 24, 2021, 56 participants initiated vaccination. On day 0 and 28, 17 participants received low-dose COH04S1, eight received medium-dose COH04S1, nine received high-dose COH04S1, five received placebo, 13 received low-dose COH04S1 followed by placebo, and four discontinued early. Grade 3 fever was observed in one participant who received low-dose COH04S1 and placebo, and grade 2 anxiety or fatigue was seen in one participant who received medium-dose COH04S1. No severe adverse events were reported. Seroconversion was observed in all 34 participants for spike protein and 32 (94%) for nucleocapsid protein (p<0·0001 vs placebo for each comparison). Four times or more increase in SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies within 56 days was measured in nine of 17 participants in the low-dose COH04S1 group, all eight participants in the medium-dose COH04S1 group, and eight of nine participants in the high-dose COH04S1 group (p=0·0035 combined dose levels vs placebo). Post-prime and post-boost four times increase in spike-specific or nucleocapsid-specific T cells secreting interferon-γ was measured in 48 (98%; 95% CI 89-100) of 49 participants who received at least one dose of COH04S1 and provided a sample for immunological analysis. Interpretation: COH04S1 was well tolerated and induced spike-specific and nucleocapsid-specific antibody and T-cell responses. Future evaluation of this COVID-19 vaccine candidate as a primary or boost vaccination is warranted. Funding: The Carol Moss Foundation and City of Hope Integrated Drug Development Venture programme.

15.
JAMA Neurol ; 79(4): 399-404, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1711999

ABSTRACT

Importance: The SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.529 (Omicron) escapes neutralizing antibodies elicited after COVID-19 vaccination, while T-cell responses might be better conserved. It is crucial to assess how a third vaccination modifies these responses, particularly for immunocompromised patients with readily impaired antibody responses. Objective: To determine T-cell responses to the Omicron spike protein in anti-CD20-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) before and after a third messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective cohort study conducted from March 2021 to November 2021 at the University Hospital Geneva, adults with MS receiving anti-CD20 treatment (ocrelizumab) were identified by their treating neurologists and enrolled in the study. A total of 20 patients received their third dose of messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine and were included in this analysis. Interventions: Blood sampling before and 1 month after the third vaccine dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: Quantification of CD4 and CD8 (cytotoxic) T cells specific for the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins of the vaccine strain as well as the Delta and Omicron variants, comparing frequencies before and after the third vaccine dose. Results: Of 20 included patients, 11 (55%) were male, and the median (IQR) age was 45.8 (37.8-53.3) years. Spike-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell memory against all variants were maintained in 9 to 12 patients 6 months after their second vaccination, albeit at lower median frequencies against the Delta and Omicron variants compared with the vaccine strain (CD8 T cells: Delta, 83.0%; 95% CI, 73.6-114.5; Omicron, 78.9%; 95% CI, 59.4-100.0; CD4 T cells: Delta, 72.2%; 95% CI, 67.4-90.5; Omicron, 62.5%; 95% CI, 51.0-89.0). A third dose enhanced the number of responders to all variants (11 to 15 patients) and significantly increased CD8 T-cell responses, but the frequencies of Omicron-specific CD8 T cells remained 71.1% (95% CI, 41.6-96.2) of the responses specific to the vaccine strain. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with MS treated with ocrelizumab, there were robust T-cell responses recognizing spike proteins from the Delta and Omicron variants, suggesting that COVID-19 vaccination in patients taking B-cell-depleting drugs may protect them against serious complications from COVID-19 infection. T-cell response rates increased after the third dose, demonstrating the importance of a booster dose for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/therapeutic use
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The development of effective vaccines against COVID-19 is a global priority. CoronaVac is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with promising safety and immunogenicity profiles. This article reports safety and immunogenicity results obtained for healthy Chilean adults aged ≥18 in a phase 3 clinical trial. METHODS: Volunteers randomly received two doses of CoronaVac or placebo, separated by two weeks. 434 volunteers were enrolled, 397 aged 18-59 years, and 37 aged ≥60 years. Solicited and unsolicited adverse reactions were registered from all volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from a subset of volunteers and analyzed for humoral and cellular measures of immunogenicity. RESULTS: The primary adverse reaction in the 434 volunteers was pain at the injection site, with a higher incidence in the vaccine than in the placebo arm. Adverse reactions observed were mostly mild and local. No severe adverse events were reported. The humoral evaluation was performed on 81 volunteers. Seroconversion rates for specific anti-S1-RBD IgG were 86.67% in the 18-59 age group and 70.37% in the ≥60 age group, two and four weeks after the second dose. A significant increase in circulating neutralizing antibodies was detected two and four weeks after the second dose. The cellular evaluation was performed on 47 volunteers. We detected a significant induction of T cell responses characterized by the secretion of IFN-γupon stimulation with Mega Pools of peptides from SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Immunization with CoronaVac in a 0-14 schedule in Chilean adults aged ≥18 is safe, induces anti-S1-RBD IgG with neutralizing capacity, activates T cells, and promotes the secretion of IFN-γupon stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 antigens.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323169

ABSTRACT

Background: Duration and quality of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 have significant implications for the management of COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we present a comprehensive set of immunological data from a cohort of individuals (n=43), 12 months after mild COVID-19 disease and in the absence of virus re-exposure.Methods: Serum and PBMC were collected from mild-COVID-19 convalescents 12 months after the COVID-19 positive PCR (n=43) and from healthy SARS-CoV-2-seronegative controls (n=15). Serum titers of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins were quantified by ELISA and virus neutralisation activity was assessed using SARS-CoV-2-Spike pseudovirus particles. Frequencies of Spike and RBD-specific memory B cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Magnitude of memory T cell responses was quantified and phenotyped with an activation-induced marker assay.Findings: In the absence of re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Spike- and RBD-specific antibodies were present in 90% of COVID-19 convalescents 12 months post-infection. RBD-specific IgG + memory B cells were maintained in 88.9% of patients, while 62% of patients had serum neutralising activity. Functionally mature memory CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were maintained at frequencies previously reported for earlier time points post-COVID-19, indicating substantial maintenance of durable T cell responses. Interpretations: Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 persists for 12 months in mild COVID-19 convalescent patients that retain high Spike-specific antibody titres, virus neutralisation capacity and circulating RBD-specific memory B cells. Significantly, T cell immunity remained stable 12 months post-infection. This study offers vital information on the duration of natural COVID-19 immunity and its potential protective effect against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and clinical disease, with clear implications for the ongoing management of the global pandemic. Funding Statement: This work was funded by project grants from The Hospital Research Foundation and Women’s and Children’s Foundation, Adelaide, Australia. This work has been supported by NIH contract 75N9301900065 (A.S, D.W).Declaration of Interests: A.S. is currently a consultant for Gritstone, Flow Pharma, Arcturus, Epitogenesis, Oxfordimmunotech, Caprion and Avalia. LJI has filed for patent protection for various aspects of T cell epitope and vaccine design work.Authors PGV, CMH, MGM, AELY, HB, ZAM, ZAD, AA, DA, JG, CF, SO, EMM, DJL, GM, EJG, BAJR, DS, CKL, MRB, DW, RAB, SCB and BGB declare no conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Study protocols were approved by the Central Adelaide Clinical Human Research Ethics Committee (#13050) and the Women’s and Children’s Health Network Human research ethics (protocol HREC/19/WCHN/65), Adelaide, Australia.

18.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327705

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiple vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been evaluated in clinical trials, but very few include the pediatric population. The inactivated vaccine CoronaVac® has shown to be safe and immunogenic in a phase 1/2 clinical trial in a pediatric cohort in China. This study is an interim safety and immunogenicity report of a phase 3 clinical trial for CoronaVac® in healthy children and adolescents in Chile. Methods. Participants aged 3 to 17 years old received two doses of CoronaVac® in a four-week interval. Local and systemic adverse reactions were registered in 699 participants that received the first dose and 381 that received the second dose until December 31st, 2021. Whole blood samples were collected from 148 participants for humoral and cellular immunity analyses. Results. The primary adverse reaction reported after the first and second dose was pain at the injection site. The adverse reactions observed were primarily mild and local, and no severe adverse events were reported. Four weeks after the second dose, a significant increase in the levels of total and neutralizing antibodies was observed. Increased activation of specific CD4+ T cells was also observed four weeks after the second dose. Although antibodies induced by vaccination neutralize variants Delta and Omicron, titers were lower than the D614G variant. Importantly, comparable T cell responses were detected against these variants of concern. Conclusions. CoronaVac® is safe and immunogenic in subjects aged 3-17 years old and is thus likely to confer protection against infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants in this target population.

19.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327600

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available on the long-term clinical and immunologic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH). Methods: We measured SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immune responses in people with and without HIV recovering from COVID-19 (n=39 and n=43, respectively) using binding antibody, surrogate virus neutralization, intracellular cytokine staining, and inflammatory marker assays. We identified individuals experiencing symptomatic post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) and evaluated immunologic parameters. We used linear regression and generalized linear models to examine differences by HIV status in the magnitude of inflammatory and virus-specific antibody and T cell responses, as well as differences in the prevalence of PASC. Results: Among PWH, we found broadly similar SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T cell immune responses as compared with a well-matched group of HIV-negative individuals. PWH had 70% lower relative levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific memory CD8+ T cells (p=0.007) and 53% higher relative levels of PD-1+ SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cells (p=0.007). Higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with lower PD-1 expression on SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cells (0.34-fold effect, p=0.02). HIV status was strongly associated with PASC (odds ratio 4.01, p=0.008), and the proportion of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and levels of certain inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IP-10) were associated with persistent symptoms. Conclusions: We identified potentially important differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that might have implications for long-term immunity conferred by natural infection. HIV status strongly predicted the presence of PASC. Larger and more detailed studies of PASC in PWH are urgently needed.

20.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327220

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is still a major burden for global health despite effective vaccines. With the reduction of social distancing measures, infection rates are increasing in children, while data on the pediatric immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is still lacking. Although the typ-ical disease course in children has been mild, emerging variants may present new challenges in this age group. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 51 convalescent children, 24 seronegative siblings from early 2020, and 51 unexposed controls were stimulated with SARS-CoV-2-derived peptide MegaPools from the ancestral and beta variants. Flow cytometric determina-tion of activation-induced markers and secreted cytokines were used to quantify the CD4+ T cell response. The average time after infection was over 80 days. CD4+ T cell responses were detected in 61% of convalescent children and were markedly reduced in preschool children. Cross-reactive T cells for the SARS-CoV-2 beta variant were identified in 45% of cases after infec-tion with an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 variant. The CD4+ T cell response was accompanied most predominantly by IFN-g;and Granzyme B secretion. An antiviral CD4+ T cell response was present in children after ancestral SARS-CoV-2 infec-tion, which was reduced in the youngest age group. We detected significant cross-reactivity of CD4+ T cell responses to the more recently evolved immune-escaping beta variant. Our find-ings have epidemiologic relevance for children regarding novel viral variants of concern and vaccination efforts.

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