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2.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725884

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/therapeutic use
3.
Am J Cardiol ; 167: 133-138, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702670

ABSTRACT

Antecedent use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) prevents clinical deterioration and protects against cardiovascular/thrombotic complications of COVID-19, for indicated patients. Uncertainty exists regarding treatment continuation throughout infection and doing so with concomitant medications. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the differential effect of RASi continuation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 according to diuretic use. We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 4 regions of Italy. We used Firth logistic regression for adult (>50 years) cases with admission on/after February 22, 2020, with a known discharge status as of April 1, 2020. There were 286 patients in this analysis; 100 patients (35.0%) continued RASi and 186 (65%) discontinued. There were 98 patients treated with a diuretic; 51 (52%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 8% versus 26% (p = 0.0179). There were 188 patients not treated with a diuretic; 49 (26%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients not treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 16% versus 9% (p = 0.1827). After accounting for age, cardiovascular disease, and laboratory values, continuing RASi decreased the risk of mortality by approximately 77% (odds ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.95, p = 0.0419) for patients treated with diuretics, but did not alter the risk in patients treated with RASi alone. Continuing RASi in patients concomitantly treated with diuretics was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Deprescriptions , Hospital Mortality , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318592

ABSTRACT

Background: Antecedent use of renin angiotensin aldosterone inhibitors (RAASi) appears crucial to prevent clinical deterioration and protect against cardiovascular and/or thrombotic complications of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), for indicated patients. Doubts have been raised about continuing treatment throughout infection, and nothing is known regarding its effect with concomitant medications. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the differential effect of RAASi continuation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 according to diuretic use. Methods: : We used the Coracle (epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and therapy in real life patients affected by Sars-Cov-2) multi-center registry, which contains data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 4 regions of Italy. We performed analyses on adult (50+ years) records with admission on/after February 22, 2020 with a known mortality or discharge status as of April 1, 2020. We constructed a multivariable Firth logistic regression model to complete our objective. Results: : There were 286 patients in this analysis. Overall, 100 (35.0%) patients continued RAASi and 186 (65%) discontinued. There were 98 patients who were treated with a diuretic;51 (52%) of those continued RAASi. The in-hospital mortality rates among patients treated with a diuretic and continued vs. discontinued RAASi were 7.8% vs 25.5% (p = 0.0179). There were 188 patients who were not treated with a diuretic;49 (26.1%) of those continued RAASi. The in-hospital mortality rates among patients who were not treated with a diuretic and continued vs. discontinued RAASi were 16.3% vs 9.4% (p = 0.1827). After accounting for age, congestive heart failure, and coronary heart disease/ischemic heart disease, continuing RAASi decreased the risk of mortality by approximately 72% (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.08 – 0.94, p = 0.0391) for patients treated with diuretics, but did not alter the risk in patients who were not treated with diuretics. Conclusion: Diuretic use in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were on RAASi prior to admission was associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Whether this combined therapy increases risk or is the reflection of a more severe presentation deserves further investigation. Continuing RAASi therapy in patients concomitantly treated with diuretics was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.

5.
The American journal of cardiology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615312

ABSTRACT

Antecedent use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) prevents clinical deterioration and protects against cardiovascular/thrombotic complications of COVID-19, for indicated patients. Uncertainty exists regarding treatment continuation throughout infection and doing so with concomitant medications. Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the differential effect of RASi continuation in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 according to diuretic use. We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 4 regions of Italy. We used Firth logistic regression for adult (>50 years) cases with admission on/after February 22, 2020, with a known discharge status as of April 1, 2020. There were 286 patients in this analysis;100 patients (35.0%) continued RASi and 186 (65%) discontinued. There were 98 patients treated with a diuretic;51 (52%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 8% versus 26% (p = 0.0179). There were 188 patients not treated with a diuretic;49 (26%) of those continued RASi. The in-hospital mortality rates in patients not treated with a diuretic and continued versus discontinued RASi were 16% versus 9% (p = 0.1827). After accounting for age, cardiovascular disease, and laboratory values, continuing RASi decreased the risk of mortality by approximately 77% (odds ratio 0.23, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.95, p = 0.0419) for patients treated with diuretics, but did not alter the risk in patients treated with RASi alone. Continuing RASi in patients concomitantly treated with diuretics was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality.

6.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602422

ABSTRACT

Aims Significant concern has been raised about the effect of pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV therapies on COVID-19 course. On the other hand, COVID-19 could worse pre-existing CVD or trigger the development of new-onset CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pre-existing CVD, CV risk factors, and CV therapy with the clinical course of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods and results Consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients admitted to the Cardiovascular COVID-19 Unit at Policlinico Umberto I of Rome between December 2020 and April 2021 were enrolled. All patients underwent a cardiovascular evaluation including troponin, electrocardiogram (ECG), and echocardiogram. Data on medical history, pre-existing CVD, CV risk factors, and therapy were collected. Admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU), as well as the development of new-onset CVD, were considered as endpoint of the study. Among n = 229 patients enrolled, 22 (10%) died. Nearly half of patients (112, 49%) were admitted to the ICU/CICU. The presence of prior ischaemic heart disease nearly doubled the probability of hospitalization in the ICU/CICU (HR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.132–3.866, P 0.018). In regards of therapy, beta blockers reduced the likelihood of admission in the ICU/CICU (HR: −1016, 95% CI: 0.192–10.682, P 0.002). However, neither the use of RAAS blockers, heparin or dexamethasone influenced the risk of ICU/CICU admission (respectively, HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.498–1.450, P 0.551;HR: 0.768, 95% CI: 0.435–1.356, P 0.363;HR: 0.861, 95% CI: 0.453–1.635, P 0.647). N = 89 patients (39%) experienced a new onset CVD including arrythmias (18.3%) with nearly half experiencing atrial fibrillation, acute coronary syndrome (10.9%), acute pulmonary embolism (5.3%), heart failure (HF) (3%), and myocarditis and pericarditis (1.3%). A pre-existing diagnosis of HF substantially increased the likelihood of new onset CVD (HR: 2.380, 95% CI: 1.004–5.638, P 0.049). However, treatment with heparin or dexamethasone reduced the risk of new onset CVD (HR: 0.482 95% CI: 0.268–0.867, P 0.015;HR: 0.487, 95% CI: 0.253–0.937, P 0.031, respectively). Conclusions Our study found that hospitalized COVID-19 patients who have at least one CV risk factor or pre-existing CVD had a greater likelihood of being admitted to the ICU/CICU and experiencing new onset CVD.

7.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602407

ABSTRACT

Aims Remote monitoring (RM) has significantly transformed the standard of care for patients with cardiac electronic implantable devices. It provides easy access to valuable information, such as arrhythmic events, acute decompensation manifestations, and device‐related issues, without the need of in‐person visits. Methods and results Starting 1 March, 332 patients were introduced to an RM programme during the Italian lockdown to limit the risk of in‐hospital exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome‐coronavirus‐2. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the modality of RM delivery [home (n = 229) vs. office (n = 103) delivered]. The study aimed at assessing the efficacy of the new follow‐up protocol, assessed as mean RM activation time (AT), and the need for technical support. In addition, patients’ acceptance and anxiety status were quantified via the Home Monitoring Acceptance and Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7‐item scale. AT time was less than 48 h in 93% of patients and 7% of them required further technical support. Despite a higher number of trans‐telephonic technical support in the home‐delivered RM group, mean AT was similar between groups (1.33 ± 0.83 days in home‐delivered vs. 1.28 ± 0.81 days in office‐delivered patients;P = 0.60). A total of 28 (2.5%) urgent/emergent in‐person examinations were required. A high degree of patient satisfaction was reached in both groups whereas anxiety status was higher in the office‐delivered group. Conclusions The adoption of RM resulted in high patient satisfaction, regardless of the modality of modem delivery;nonetheless, in‐office modem delivery was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety symptoms.

8.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602288

ABSTRACT

Aims Epidemiological evidence suggests that anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties of statins may reduce the risk of infections and infection-related complications. In this observational multi-centre study, we aimed to assess the impact of prior statin use on coronavirus disease (COVID-19) severity and mortality. Methods and results Consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were considered and enrolled in four tertiary referral hospitals (Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan;Policlinico Umberto I Hospital, Rome;Spedali Civili Hospital, Brescia;Humanitas Gavazzeni Hospital;Bergamo) From 23 February 2020 to 31 March 2020, in-hospital mortality and severity of COVID-19 assessed with National Early Warning Score (NEWS) were deemed primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Among 842 patients enrolled, 179 (21%) were treated with statins before admission. Statin patients showed more comorbidities and more severe COVID-19 [NEWS 4 (IQR: 2–6) vs. 3 (IQR: 2–5), P < 0.001]. Despite having similar rates of intensive care unit admission, noninvasive ventilation, and mechanical ventilation, statin users appeared to show higher mortality rates. After balancing pre-existing relevant clinical conditions that could affect COVID-19 prognosis with propensity score matching, statin therapy confirmed its association with a more severe disease (NEWS ≥ 5;61% vs. 48%, P = 0.025) but not with in-hospital mortality (26% vs. 28%, P = 0.185). At univariate logistic regression analysis, statin use was confirmed not to be associated with mortality (OR: 0.901;95% CI: 0.537–1.51;P = 0.692) and to be associated with a more severe disease (NEWS ≥ 5 OR: 1.7;95% CI: 1.067–2.71;P = 0.026). Conclusions Our results did not confirm the supposed favourable effects of statin therapy on COVID-19 outcomes. Conversely, they suggest that statin use should be considered as a proxy of underlying comorbidities, which indeed expose to increased risks of more severe COVID-19.538 Figure 1

9.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601783

ABSTRACT

Aims Cardiovascular sequelae in COVID-19 survivors remain largely unclear and can potentially go unrecognized. Reports on follow-up focused on cardiovascular evaluation after hospital discharge are currently scarce. Aim of this prospective study was to assess cardiovascular sequelae in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors. Methods and results The study was conducted at ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome—Policlinico ‘Umberto I’. After 2 months from discharge, n = 230 COVID-19 survivors underwent a follow-up visit at a dedicated ‘post-COVID Outpatient Clinic’. A cardiovascular evaluation including electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography was performed. Further tests were requested when clinically indicated. Medical history, symptoms, arterial-blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography, and treatment of both in-hospital and follow-up evaluation were recorded. A 1-year telephone follow-up was performed. A total of 36 (16%) COVID-19 survivors showed persistence or delayed onset of cardiovascular disease at 2-months follow-up visit. Persistent condition was recorded in 62% of survivors who experienced an in-hospital cardiovascular disease. Delayed cardiovascular involvement included: myocarditis, pericarditis, ventricular disfunction, new onset of systemic hypertension and arrhythmias. At 1-year telephone follow-up, 105 (45%) survivors reported persistent symptoms, with dyspnoea and fatigue being the most frequent. 60% of survivors showed persistent chest CT abnormalities and among those 28% complained of persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms at long term follow-up. Conclusions Our preliminary data showed persistent or delayed onset of cardiovascular involvement (16%) at short-term follow-up and persistent symptoms (45%) at long-term follow-up. These findings suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.

10.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601695

ABSTRACT

Aims Following the COVID‐19 pandemic‐related lockdown period in Italy, people have experienced psycho-physical distress. Many hospitals were converted in COVID-19 healthcare places and many specialist outpatient’s services were drastically reduced. Virtual visits may represent a strategy to overcome the lack of HF outpatient’s services, during this period. Our own experience underlines the importance of virtual visits to face the clinical and health status deterioration, associated with COVID-19, in HF outpatients. Methods and results We conducted an observational study, enrolling consecutive HF outpatients, previously hospitalized at the Department of Clinical, Internal, Anesthesiology and Cardiovascular Sciences of Sapienza University of Rome, who were discharged within 31 March 2019, and 30 April 2019. Two follow-up periods were scheduled: (i) within 20–30 days after the beginning of lockdown (ii) at 3 months after lockdown’s end. Virtual visits were conducted through telephone, assessing changes in clinical and health status;the latter was assessed through the short version of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12). According to the presence of at least one sign of HF deterioration, patients were divided into two groups: Group 1: patients who experienced a modification in at least one clinical parameter suggestive of HF deterioration. Group 2: patients who do not experienced any modification of HF deterioration clinical parameter. KCCQ-12 mean scores were compared between the two groups, at both scheduled virtual visits, in order to evaluate any change in HF outpatients’ health status, during and after the COVID-19-related-lockdown. 160 HF outpatients have been included in the study: 63 in the group 1, 97 in the group 2. At the first virtual visit, group 1 reported significantly lower mean KCCQ-12 score, compared to group 2 [46.2 (±14.6) vs. 53.8 (±11);CI: 95% 11.6 to − 3.6;P = 0.0003]. At the second virtual visit, group 1 patients reported a slightly, but not statistically significant, lower mean KCCQ-12 score, compared to group 2 [52.2 (± 13.3) vs. 53.1(±14.4);95% CI: −5.4 to 3.6;P = 0.69]. Comparing the KCCQ-12 mean scores of each group between the two scheduled virtual visits, group 1 reported a statistically significant increase at the second visit, compared to the first [52.2 (±13.3) vs. 46.2 (±14.6);CI: 95% 1.1–11;P = 0.017]. Group 2 showed no statistically significant variation of mean KCCQ-12 score between the two follow-up periods [53.1 (±14.4) vs. 53.8 (±11);CI: 95% −4.3 to 3;P = 0.704]. Conclusions we observed a significant worsening of health status in HF outpatients who have experienced clinical deterioration. Therefore, patients were either hospitalized or received the optimization of diuretic and anti-hypertensive therapies. A significant health status improvement was observed at three months after the end of the lockdown, suggesting the importance of virtual visit as an adequate method to follow-up HF outpatients, reporting particular benefits in those with worsening of HF clinical signs and health status.

11.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 53-62, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509627

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are widely variable and may involve several districts. Although the clinical course is mostly characterized by respiratory involvement, up to 30% of hospitalized patients have evidence of myocardial injury due to acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis, and cardiogenic shock. In particular, myocarditis is a well-recognized severe complication of COVID-19 and is associated with fulminant cardiogenic shock and sudden cardiac death. In this article, the authors aim to present a comprehensive review about COVID-19-related myocarditis, including clinical characteristics, diagnostic workup, and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Myocarditis/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 14(1): 125-131, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487632

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic, patients with cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) refused scheduled follow-up visits because of the risk of infection. In this scenario, different telemedicine strategies have been implemented to ensure continuity of care to CIED patients. Patients can be monitored through dedicated applications, telephone calls, or virtual visits providing easy access to valuable information, such as arrhythmic events, acute decompensation manifestations, and device-related issues, without the need for in-person visits. This review provides a comprehensive description of the many possible applications of telemedicine for CIED patients during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Defibrillators, Implantable , Pacemaker, Artificial , Telemedicine , Electronics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 339: 235-242, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in COVID-19 and has impact on clinical course. Data on CVD prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and sequelae in survivors is limited. Aim of this prospective study carried out on consecutive unselected COVID-19 population, was to assess: 1) CVD occurrence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 2) persistence or new onset of CVD at one-month and one-year follow-up. METHODS: Over 30 days n = 152 COVID-19 patients underwent cardiovascular evaluation. Standard electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography were integrated by further tests when indicated. Medical history, arterial blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography and treatment were recorded. CVD was defined as the occurrence of a new condition during the hospitalization for COVID-19. Survivors attended a one-month follow-up visit and a one-year telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (28%) experienced a wide spectrum of CVD with acute myocarditis being the most frequent. Death occurred in 32 patients (21%) and more frequently in patients who developed CVD (p = 0.032). After adjustment for confounders, CVD was independently associated with death occurrence. At one-month follow-up visit, 7 patients (9%) presented persistent or delayed CVD. At one-year telephone follow-up, 57 patients (48%) reported persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular evaluation in COVID-19 patients is crucial since the occurrence of CVD in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is common (28%), requires specific treatment and increases the risk of in-hospital mortality. Persistence or delayed presentation of CVD at 1-month (9%) and persistent symptoms at 1-year follow-up (48%) suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences ; 21(21):8118, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-896522

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease still represents a large burden on individuals and health care resources worldwide. By conventions, it is equated with atherosclerotic plaque due to flow-limiting obstruction in large–medium sized coronary arteries. However, clinical, angiographic and autoptic findings suggest a multifaceted pathophysiology for ischemic heart disease and just some cases are caused by severe or complicated atherosclerotic plaques. Currently there is no well-defined assessment of ischemic heart disease pathophysiology that satisfies all the observations and sometimes the underlying mechanism to everyday ischemic heart disease ward cases is misleading. In order to better examine this complicated disease and to provide future perspectives, it is important to know and analyze the pathophysiological mechanisms that underline it, because ischemic heart disease is not always determined by atherosclerotic plaque complication. Therefore, in order to have a more complete comprehension of ischemic heart disease we propose an overview of the available pathophysiological paradigms, from plaque activation to microvascular dysfunction.

17.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888070

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The recent coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak forced the adoption of restraint measures, which modified the hospital admission patterns for several diseases. The aim of the study is to investigate the rate of hospital admissions for heart failure (HF) during the early days of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy, compared with a corresponding period during the previous year and an earlier period during the same year. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective analysis on HF admissions number at eight hospitals in Italy throughout the study period (21 February to 31 March 2020), compared with an inter-year period (21 February to 31 March 2019) and an intra-year period (1 January to 20 February 2020). The primary outcome was the overall rate of hospital admissions for HF. A total of 505 HF patients were included in this survey: 112 during the case period, 201 during intra-year period, and 192 during inter-year period. The mean admission rate during the case period was 2.80 admissions per day, significantly lower compared with intra-year period (3.94 admissions per day; incidence rate ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.89; P = 0.0037), or with inter-year (4.92 admissions per day; incidence rate ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.72; P < 0.001). Patients admitted during study period were less frequently admitted in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II compared with inter-year period (P = 0.019). At covariance analysis NYHA class was significantly lower in patients admitted during inter-year control period, compared with patients admitted during case period (P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Admissions for HF were significantly reduced during the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy.

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