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1.
Biomed J ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944338

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications are frequently mentioned in the published reports regarding the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) disease. Especially encephalopathy draws attention as the leading symptom or complication of Covid-19 in some reports. This article discussed a 3-year-old patient with bilateral lentiform and caudate nuclei involvement on brain imaging, who presented with mental status changes and acute muscular weakness, possibly due to COVID-19. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first one showing pathological signal enhancement and edema in bilateral lentiform and caudate nuclei associated with COVID-19.

2.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940062

ABSTRACT

Introduction There have been some significant changes regarding healthcare utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic. Majority of the reports about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes care are from the first wave of the pandemic. We aim to evaluate the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the severity of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and new onset Type 1 diabetes presenting with DKA, and also evaluate children with DKA and acute COVID-19 infection. Methods This is a retrospective multi-center study among 997 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes who were admitted with DKA to 27 pediatric intensive care units in Turkey between the first year of pandemic and pre-pandemic year. Results The percentage of children with new-onset Type 1 diabetes presenting with DKA was higher during the COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.0001). The incidence of severe DKA was also higher during the COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.0001) and also higher among children with new onset Type 1 diabetes (p < 0.0001). HbA1c levels, duration of insulin infusion, and length of PICU stay were significantly higher/longer during the pandemic period. Eleven patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, eight were positive for new onset Type 1 diabetes, and nine tested positive for severe DKA at admission. Discussion The frequency of new onset of Type 1 diabetes and severe cases among children with DKA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the cause of the increased severe presentation might be related to restrictions related to the pandemic;however, need to evaluate the potential effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the increased percentage of new onset Type 1 diabetes.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(9): 742-750, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the world has a large number of reported COVID-19 cases and deaths. Information on characteristics and mortality rate of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) cases with COVID-19 remains limited. This study aims to identify the risk factors for mortality related to COVID-19 in children admitted to PICU. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted between March 2020 and April 2021 at 44 PICUs in Turkey. Children who were 1 month-18-year of age with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to PICU were included in the study. Children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome and asymptomatic for COVID-19 were excluded. RESULTS: Of 335 patients with COVID-19, the median age was 6.8 years (IQR: 1.2-14) and 180 (53.7 %) were male, 215 (64.2 %) had at least one comorbidity. Age and gender were not related to mortality. Among 335 patients, 166 (49.5%) received mechanical ventilation, 17 (5.1%) received renal replacement therapy and 44 (13.1 %) died. Children with medical complexity, congenital heart disease, immunosuppression and malignancy had significantly higher mortality. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, organ failure index [odds ratio (OR): 2.1, 95 confidence interval (CI): 1.55-2.85], and having congenital heart disease (OR: 2.65, 95 CI: 1.03-6.80), were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents detailed data on clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to PICU in the first pandemic year in Turkey. Our study shows that having congenital heart disease is associated with mortality. In addition, the high organ failure score in follow-up predict mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
Australas J Dermatol ; 63(2): 228-234, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about mucocutaneous involvement in critically ill patients with the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The aim of our study was to describe the localisation and variety of rash and to investigate whether presenting with rash at admission alters the clinical course of MIS-C. METHODS: This prospective, observational cohort study was conducted amongst children under 18 years of age who were admitted to our paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) between May 2020 and May 2021 with a possible diagnosis of MIS-C. RESULTS: A total of 33 children with MIS-C, 21 boys (64%), with a median age of 9.4 years (3.4-11.5) were enrolled. Twenty-four children presented with mucocutaneous symptoms (72%). Age, male gender, PICU length of stay, presenting symptoms, inotrope requirement, the existence of myocarditis or respiratory failure were higher but not significantly different in patients with rash compared to those without rash (P > 0.05). The median duration of symptoms before admission and presence of cervical lymphadenopathy were significantly higher in patients than those without rash (P < 0.05). Children with a rash had a significantly higher neutrophil count, CRP, procalcitonin, troponin levels and lower lymphocyte counts and albumin levels than those without rash (P < 0.05). Twelve children with rash (50%) had symmetrical intertriginous distribution. Two children had erythematous lesions on the areola and the surroundings. In conclusion, intertriginous involvement, periareolar erythema and other mucocutaneous manifestations might be the first alarming symptoms of moderate to severe MIS-C. Therefore, close monitoring with a multidisciplinary approach should be considered for these patients to assess potential disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Disease Progression , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Turk Arch Pediatr ; 57(1): 93-98, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648840

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate modes of transmission and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in healthcare workers in pediatric intensive care units. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter descriptive study was conducted between March and November 2020. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, origin of coronavirus disease 2019, treatment modalities, and loss of workdays were recorded. RESULTS: Seven hundred and sixty-eight healthcare workers from 16 pediatric intensive care units were enrolled and 114 (14.8%) healthcare workers with a mean age of 29.7 ± 6.7 years became coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Seventy-six (66.7%) patients were female. Approximately half (54.3%) of the patients were physicians, 34.2% were nurses, and 11.4% were ancillary staff. Transmission was deemed to occur through patient contact in 54.3% of the patients. Comorbid illness was present 10.5% of the patients. Transmission occurred during endotracheal intubation in 21%, cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 9.6%, and non-invasive ventilation in 12.2% of patients, while transmission was a result of multiple possible procedures in 43.8%. Intensive care admission was needed for 13.1% of the patients. Five patients needed oxygen by cannula, 7 needed oxygen with a non-rebreathing mask, 5 needed high-flow nasal cannula support, 5 needed non-invasive ventilation, and 3 needed invasive mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, no infected healthcare workers died. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 in healthcare workers is a significant problem in pediatric intensive care units. Transmission seems to occur particularly frequently during patient care procedures such as intubation, ventilation and aerosol therapy, which highlights the importance of proper use of full sets of personal protective equipment during all procedures during care of coronavirus disease 2019 patients.

8.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(1): e16-e18, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is characterized predominantly by respiratory symptoms and has affected a small subset of children. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been reported in children following COVID-19. There is increasing report that COVID-19 may also lead to neurologic manifestations. Cerebellar lesions may be observed in viral infections. CASE REPORT: We report a child with MIS-C related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed cerebellar lesion during the disease course. Encephalopathy was the first central nervous system symptom. His consciousness improved but he developed clinical signs of cerebellar dysfunction including ataxia, dysarthria and nystagmus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrical pathological signal changes in both cerebellar hemispheres. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the first child with MIS-C to develop cerebellar lesion on brain MRI, suggestive of cerebellitis.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebellar Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child, Preschool , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Disease Progression , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
9.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402692

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 may have neurological manifestations including meningitis, encephalitis, post-infectious brainstem encephalitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Neuroinflammation has been claimed as a possible cause. Here, we present a child with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) who developed pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) during the disease course. CASE: A 11-year-old girl presented with 5 days of fever, headache and developed disturbance of consciousness, respiratory distress, conjunctivitis and diffuse rash on her trunk. Immunoglobulin M and G antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were positive in her serum. She was diagnosed with MIS-C. On day 10, she developed headache and diplopia. Left abducens paralysis and bilateral grade 3 papilledema were observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed optic nerve head protrusion, globe flattening. She was diagnosed with secondary PTCS. Papilledema and abducens paralysis improved under acetazolamide and topiramate. Neurological examination became normal after 2 months. CONCLUSION: PTCS may emerge related to MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pseudotumor Cerebri , Child , Female , Humans , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnosis , Pseudotumor Cerebri/drug therapy , Pseudotumor Cerebri/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
10.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e445-e450, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic was caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the predominant clinical presentation is a respiratory disease, neurologic manifestations are being recognized increasingly. CASE REPORT: We report 2 children 9 years of age who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease associated with SARS-CoV-2. Seizures and encephalopathy were the main central nervous system symptoms. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed within the first week of disease onset showed elevated protein in both children with normal cell count and no evidence of infection including negative SARS-CoV-2 by antibody and polymerase chain reaction. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed T2A, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery cortical and subcortical hyperintensity without restricted diffusion consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease. They received methylprednisolone followed by therapeutic plasma exchange. One of them showed complete clinical improvement and resolution in magnetic resonance imaging findings. The other developed laminar necrosis in brain magnetic resonance imaging and showed significant clinical improvement after therapeutic plasma exchange. He was positive for positive SARS-CoV-2 antibody in cerebrospinal fluid on day 55 of admission. They were both positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in serum after 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Our two cases highlight the occurrence of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease as a postinfectious/immune-mediated complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Electroencephalography , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/blood , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Brain Dev ; 43(9): 919-930, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CLOCCs) are secondary lesions associated with entities like infection manifested by restricted diffusion on diffusion-weighted cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Our objectives are to evaluate the clinic-radiological spectrum of pediatric patients with cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum (CC). METHODS: Children (0-18 years) admitted between February 2017 and May 2020 with splenial lesions showing diffusion restriction on MRI, either isolated or within involvement of other parts of the brain, were included retrospectively. The primary lesions of the CC (e.g. acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, acute ischemic infarction, and glioblastoma multiforme) were excluded. CLOCCs were divided into infection-associated, metabolic disorder-associated, and trauma-associated lesions, as well as CLOCCs involving other entities. Data were collected from the medical databases. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were determined to have CLOCCs. Twenty-five (61%) were infection-associated, nine (22%) were trauma-associated, and three (7%) were metabolic disorder-associated cases, including 2 inherited disorders of metabolism. There were four (10%) patients with other entities, three with epilepsy, and one had an apparent life-threatening event. Six patients had a known etiology among the infection-associated group; one had multisystem inflammatory syndrome caused by COVID-19 and one had been infected by COVID-19 without any complications. All the infection-associated patients with isolated splenial lesions recovered totally, although six patients required intensive care hospitalization. Four trauma-associated patients had sequela lesions. CONCLUSIONS: CLOCCs are associated with a spectrum of diseases, including the new coronavirus, COVID-19 infection. Infection-associated CLOCCs has the best prognosis, although severe cases may occur. Sequelae are possible based on the etiology.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System Infections/complications , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
12.
Acad Radiol ; 28(9): 1200-1208, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252366

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To retrospectively evaluate imaging findings in multisystem inflammatory disease in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiological imaging findings of 45 pediatric patients aged between 52 days and 16 years, who were diagnosed with MIS-C according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, were evaluated. All the patients underwent chest X-ray and echocardiography. The findings obtained from 25 abdominal radiographs, 24 abdominal US, 7 abdominal CT, 16 thorax CT, 21 cranial MRI and one spinal MRI, MR cholangiography (MRCP) and cardiac MRI examinations were categorized and evaluated according to the affected systems. RESULTS: While the most common findings in chest X-ray were perihilar opacity and peribronchial thickening, pleural effusion was the most finding in thorax CT. Echocardiography findings of myocarditis were observed in 31% of the cases. The most common findings in abdominal radiological evaluation were hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, edema in the gallbladder wall and periportal area, mesenteric lymph nodes in the right lower quadrant, thickening of the intestinal walls, and free fluid. Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) was the most common neurological finding. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like lesions, acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalomyelitis, and radiological findings consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome were found in one case each. CONCLUSION: Radiological findings seen in MIS-C in pediatric cases are correlated with the affected system. According to the system involved, there is no specific finding for this disease. Radiological findings are not the primary diagnostic tool but can assist in the evaluation of the affected systems and to guide treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Echocardiography , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
13.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 631547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247887

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted by pediatric infectious disease specialists from 32 different hospitals from all over Turkey by case record forms. Pediatric cases who were diagnosed as COVID-19 between March 16, 2020, and June 15, 2020 were included. Case characteristics including age, sex, dates of disease onset and diagnosis, family, and contact information were recorded. Clinical data, including the duration and severity of symptoms, were also collected. Laboratory parameters like biochemical tests and complete blood count, chest X-ray, and chest computed tomography (CT) were determined. Results: There were 1,156 confirmed pediatric COVID-19 cases. In total, male cases constituted 50.3% (n = 582) and females constituted 49.7% (n = 574). The median age of the confirmed cases was 10.75 years (4.5-14.6). Of the total cases, 90 were younger than 1 year of age (7.8%), 108 were 1-3 years of age (9.3%), 148 were 3-6 years of age (12.8%), 298 were 6-12 years of age (25.8%), 233 were 12-15 years of age (20.2%), and 268 cases were older than 15 years of age (23.2%). The most common symptom of the patients at the first visit was fever (50.4%) (n = 583) for a median of 2 days (IQR: 1-3 days). Fever was median at 38.4°C (38.0-38.7°C). The second most common symptom was cough (n = 543, 46.9%). The other common symptoms were sore throat (n = 143, 12.4%), myalgia (n = 141, 12.2%), dyspnea (n = 118, 10.2%), diarrhea (n = 112, 9.7%), stomachache (n = 71, 6.1%), and nasal discharge (n = 63, 5.4%). When patients were classified according to disease severity, 263 (22.7%) patients were asymptomatic, 668 (57.7%) patients had mild disease, 209 (18.1%) had moderate disease, and 16 (1.5%) cases had severe disease. One hundred and forty-nine (12.9%) cases had underlying diseases among the total cases; 56% of the patients who had severe disease had an underlying condition (p < 0.01). The need for hospitalization did not differ between patients who had an underlying condition and those who do not have (p = 0.38), but the need for intensive care was higher in patients who had an underlying condition (p < 0.01). Forty-seven (31.5%) of the cases having underlying conditions had asthma or lung disease (38 of them had asthma). Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the largest pediatric data about confirmed COVID-19 cases. Children from all ages appear to be susceptible to COVID-19, and there is a significant difference in symptomatology and laboratory findings by means of age distribution.

14.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5599-5602, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182168

ABSTRACT

The relation between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and demyelinating Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) has been defined. We aim to report the clinical features of a child with axonal GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2. A 6-year-old male presented with symmetric ascending paralysis progressed over a 4-day course and 2 days of fever. He had bilateral lower and upper limb flaccid weakness of 1/5 with absent deep tendon reflexes. He had severe respiratory muscle weakness requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. On admission, SARS-CoV-2 returned as positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction on a nasopharyngeal swab. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed elevated protein without pleocytosis. He was diagnosed with GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The nerve conduction study was suggestive of acute motor axonal neuropathy. Ten consecutive therapeutic plasma exchange sessions with 5% albumin replacement followed by four sessions on alternate days were performed. On Day 12, methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days) was given. On Day 18, intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg/day) was given and repeated 14 days after due to severe motor weakness. On Day 60, he was discharged from the hospital with weakness of neck flexor and extensor muscles of 3/5 and the upper limbs and the lower limbs of 2/5 on home-ventilation. Our patient is considered to be the youngest patient presenting with a possible para-infectious association between axonal GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The disease course was severe with a rapid progression, an earlier peak, and prolonged duration in weakness as expected in axonal GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Child , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
15.
Brain Dev ; 43(2): 230-233, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is characterized by a temporary lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum, emerging related to encephalitis, seizures, antiepileptic drug withdrawal, or metabolic disturbances. Among RESLES, mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (MERS) has been defined as a distinct clinicoradiologic syndrome associated with viral infections. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome-children related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who developed RESLES during the disease course. Encephalopathy was the main central nervous system symptom. Both of the children showed a rapid recovery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed complete resolution of the splenial lesion within 1 week. CONCLUSION: The complete resolution of the splenial lesion and rapid recovery from encephalopathy in RESLES associated with SARS CoV-2 were similar to observed in MERS.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Electroencephalography , Exanthema/physiopathology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hallucinations/physiopathology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Neurocognitive Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Neurocognitive Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Tachypnea/physiopathology
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