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1.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 7(8):182, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1987970

ABSTRACT

This study estimates the point prevalence of symptomatic respiratory tract infections (RTIs) among returned Hajj pilgrims and their contacts in 2021. Using the computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) technique, domestic pilgrims were invited to participate in this cross-sectional survey two weeks after their home return from Hajj. Of 600 pilgrims approached, 79.3% agreed to participate and completed the survey. Syndromic definitions were used to clinically diagnose possible influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and COVID-19. Median with range was applied to summarise the continuous data, and frequencies and proportions were used to present the categorical variables. Simple logistic regression was carried out to assess the correlations of potential factors with the prevalence of RTIs. The majority of pilgrims (88.7%) reported receiving at least two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine before Hajj. Eleven (2.3%) pilgrims reported respiratory symptoms with the estimated prevalence of possible ILI being 0.2%, and of possible COVID-19 being 0.4%. Among those who were symptomatic, five (45.5%) reported that one or more of their close contacts had developed similar RTI symptoms after the pilgrims' home return. The prevalence of RTIs among pilgrims who returned home after attending the Hajj 2021 was lower compared with those reported in the pre-pandemic studies;however, the risk of spread of infection among contacts following Hajj is still a concern.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 578, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of transmission of viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is high in mass gatherings including Hajj. This cohort study estimated the incidence of symptomatic RTIs and hand hygiene compliance with its impact among Hajj pilgrims during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: During the week of Hajj rituals in 2021, domestic pilgrims were recruited by phone and asked to complete a baseline questionnaire. Pilgrims were followed up after seven days using a questionnaire about the development of symptoms, and practices of hand hygiene. Syndromic definitions were used to clinically diagnose 'possible' influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: A total of 510 pilgrims aged between 18 and 69 (median of 50) years completed the questionnaire, 280 (54.9%) of whom were female, and all of them (except for one) were vaccinated against COVID-19 with at least one dose. The mean (± SD) of pilgrims' hand hygiene knowledge score (on a scale of 0 to 6) was 4.15 (± 1.22), and a higher level of knowledge was correlated with a higher frequency of handwashing using soap and water. Among those 445 pilgrims who completed the follow-up form, 21 (4.7%) developed one or more respiratory symptoms, of which sore throat and cough were the commonest (respectively 76.2% and 42.8%); 'possible ILI' and 'possible COVID-19' were present in 1.1% and 0.9% of pilgrims. Obesity was found to be a significant factor associated with the risk of developing RTIs (odds ratio = 4.45, 95% confidence interval 1.15-17.13). CONCLUSIONS: Hajj pilgrims are still at risk of respiratory infections. Further larger and controlled investigations are needed to assess the efficacy of hand hygiene during Hajj.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Islam , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sentinel Surveillance , Travel , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Health Promot J Austr ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763230

ABSTRACT

ISSUE ADDRESSED: High levels of testing are crucial for minimising the spread of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to investigate what prevents people from getting a COVID-19 test when they are experiencing respiratory symptoms. METHODS: Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 14 purposively sampled adults between 20 November 2020 and 3 March 2021 in two capital cities of Australia and analysed thematically. The analysis included people who reported having respiratory symptoms but who did not undergo a COVID-19 test. RESULTS: Participants appraised risks of having COVID-19, of infecting others or being infected whilst attending a testing site. They often weighed these appraisals against practical considerations of knowing where and how to get tested, inconvenience or financial loss. CONCLUSIONS: Clear public health messages communicating the importance of testing, even when symptoms are minor, may improve testing rates. Increasing the accessibility of testing centres, such as having them at transport hubs is important, as is providing adequate information about testing locations and queue lengths. SO WHAT?: The findings of our study suggest that more needs to be done to encourage people to get tested for COVID-19, especially when symptoms are minor. Clear communication about the importance of testing, along with easily accessible testing clinics, and financial support for those concerned about financial impacts may improve testing rates.

4.
Prev Med Rep ; 26: 101751, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712911

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and COVID-19, infectious diseases, and pneumonia mortality. This is a prospective analysis of 437,191 UK Biobank participants (age 56.3 years, 54% female). The main exposure was self-reported alcohol consumption. In addition to never and previous drinkers, we applied quartiles-based and UK guidelines-based criteria to divide current drinkers by weekly consumption into four groups. Outcomes included COVID-19, infectious diseases, and pneumonia mortality, obtained from the national death registries until May 2020. After an 11-year follow-up, compared to never drinkers, previous drinkers had higher mortality risks of infectious diseases and pneumonia (adjusted HR: 1.29 [95% CI 1.06-1.57] and 1.35 [1.07-1.70], respectively), but not COVID-19. There was a curvilinear association of alcohol consumption with infectious diseases and pneumonia mortality. Drinking within-guidelines (<14 UK units/wk) and amounts up to double the recommendation (14 to < 28 UK units/wk) was associated with the lowest mortality risks of infectious diseases (0.70 [0.59-0.83] and 0.70 [0.59-0.83], respectively) and pneumonia (0.71 [0.58-0.87] and 0.72 [0.58-0.88], respectively). Alcohol consumption was associated with lower risks of COVID-19 mortality (e.g., drinking within-guidelines: 0.53 [0.33-0.86]). Drinkers reporting multiples of the recommended alcohol drinking amounts did not have higher mortality risks of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases than never drinkers. Despite the well-established unfavorable effects on general health, we found no deleterious associations between alcohol consumption and the risk of infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Future research with other study designs is needed to confirm the causality.

5.
Australasian emergency care ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1661030

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify barriers to, describe the development of and evaluate the implementation of a behavioural theory informed strategy to improve staff personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance during COVID-19 in a regional Australian Emergency Department. Methods Barriers to PPE use were identified through staff consultation then categorised using the Theoretical Domains Framework. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used to develop a strategy to address the barriers to PPE compliance. The strategy was refined and endorsed by the site COVID taskforce. Data were collected through direct observation. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise PPE compliance and inductive content analysis for free text data of staff behaviours. Results 73 barriers were identified, mapped to 9 intervention functions and 42 behaviour change techniques. The predominant mechanisms were: 1) Executive communication reinforcing policy and consequences;2) implementation of a PPE Marshal;3) face to face reinforcement / modelling;4) environmental restructuring including electronic medical record modifications. The PPE Marshal observed 281 PPE activities. PPE compliance varied between 47.9% (Buddy check) and 91.8% (Bare below elbow). The PPE Marshal intervened on 121 occasions, predominantly through buddying, explaining and demonstrating correct PPE use, most frequently with medical staff (72%). Conclusion We describe an evidence-based process to overcome barriers to PPE compliance that maximise safe work practice in a time critical situation. Staff require enabling, access to equipment and reinforcement to use PPE correctly.

6.
Infect Dis Health ; 27(2): 96-104, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Australian dentists are among the frontline healthcare workers providing dental and oral health care during the COVID-19 pandemic, and therefore have been affected in multiple ways. In this study, we explore their experiences of practising and living in this pandemic. METHODS: A qualitative study analysed responses of 333 Australian dentists' who participated in a survey with open-ended questions about the challenges and positive outcomes of practising during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questions were embedded in a national online survey of Australian dentists' knowledge, preparedness and experiences conducted between March and April 2021. Data were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: Australian dentists reported their challenging experiences to be four-fold, including 'public health orders and restrictions', 'Infection prevention and control measures (IPC), 'Personal concerns about COVID-19' and 'Detracting opinions about COVID-19'. Conversely, they reported positive outcomes in relation to their practice during COVID-19, including 'Awareness of and adherence to IPC practices', 'Teamwork and interpersonal dynamics', 'Decompressed workload', 'Perceived support' and 'unintended positive outcomes'. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic generated several challenges for Australian dentists, but it also engendered some positive outcomes. Understanding of these can help tailor the professional support plans to address the needs and priorities of Australian dentists during the current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dentists , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Infect Dis Health ; 27(1): 49-57, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global health crisis. Close contact with the mucous membranes and respiratory secretions of patients and aerosol-generating procedures renders dentists and other oral health professionals at high risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2. We examined dentists' knowledge, preparedness, and experiences of managing COVID-19 in Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of dentists with a current membership with The Australian Dental Association (ADA) was conducted between March and April 2021. RESULTS: Of the 368 survey responses, most dentists (72.3%) reported having a good level of knowledge about COVID-19, with most visiting the ADA Federal COVID-19 (74.7%) and state/territory department of health websites (62.8%), respectively to source up-to-date information. Most dentists (87.6%) felt prepared to manage COVID-19 into the future, although 66% reported not receiving training or certification in the use of PPE. Over half (58.7%) reported not being concerned about contracting SARS-CoV-2 at work, with some (28.9%, n = 98/339) feeling more stressed than usual and having heavier workloads. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 had significant impact in oral healthcare in Australia. Dentistry has adapted to the varied challenges raised by the pandemic. Comprehensive training and detailed guidelines were fundamental for successful patient management during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dentists , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(3): 214-217, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE). A paucity of data on PPE burn rate (PPE consumption over time) in pandemic situations exacerbated these issues as there was little historic research to indicate volumes of PPE required to care for surges in infective patients and thus plan procurement requirements. METHODS: To better understand PPE requirements for care of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients in our Australian quaternary referral hospital, the number of staff-to-patient interactions in a 24-h period for three patient groups (ward-based COVID suspect, ward-based COVID confirmed, intensive care COVID confirmed) was audited prospectively from 1st to 30th April 2020. RESULTS: The average number of staff-to-patient interactions in a 24-h period was: 13.1 ± 5.0 (mean ± SD) for stable ward-managed COVID-19 suspect patients; 11.9 ± 3.8 for stable ward-managed confirmed COVID-19 patients; and 30.0 ± 5.3 for stable, mechanically ventilated, ICU-managed COVID-19 patients. This data can be used in PPE demand simulation modelling for COVID-19 and potentially other respiratory illnesses. CONCLUSION: Data on the average number of staff-to-patient interactions needed for the care of COVID-19 patients is presented. This data can be used for PPE demand simulation modelling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , New South Wales/epidemiology , Patient-Centered Care , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
12.
Collegian ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1347557

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Disasters disrupt the fabric of communities. This includes disruption to the healthcare system that supports a disaster-affected community. Nurses are important members of disaster response teams. However, there is limited literature that describes nurses’ roles or experience in responding to disasters. Aim This paper employs a phenomenological approach to uncover moments of being an Australian civilian hospital nurse in the out-of-hospital environment following a disaster. Method This study uncovers moments of what it is like being an Australian civilian hospital nurse deployed to the out-of-hospital environment following a disaster. Individual interviews were undertaken at two points in time with each participant. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed to textual narratives, which was then analysed. Several activities were undertaken to uncover moments and provide exemplars of moments, from the narrative. Findings Eight hospital nurses participated in this study. Five moments were uncovered: ‘on the way to a disaster’, ‘prior to starting work’, ‘working a shift in a disaster’, ‘end of a shift’, and ‘returning home’. Each moment has its uniqueness and singularity exemplifying an experience of nurses in the out-of-hospital disaster environment. Discussion When compared to a hospital context, assisting during and/or following a disaster in the out-of-hospital environment is challenging. For example, nurses may need to do more with less resources, provide more frequent psychosocial support for more extenuating circumstances, and experience an unsettling return home at the end of the deployment. Conclusions This paper has provided new insights into what it may be like being an Australian civilian hospital nurse in the out-of-hospital disaster environment as part of a disaster medical assistance teams. Strategies to support nurses who assist during and/or following a disaster are important, so nurses can in turn provide care to people in disaster-affected communities.

13.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(4): 249-257, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has placed unprecedented demands on infection control professionals (ICPs) and infectious disease (ID) physicians. This study examined their knowledge, preparedness, and experiences managing COVID-19 in the Australian healthcare settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of ICPs and ID physician members of the Australasian College for Infection Prevention and Control (ACIPC) and the Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases (ASID) was conducted using an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise and report data. RESULTS: A total of 103 survey responses were included in the analysis for ICPs and 45 for ID physicians. A majority of ICPs (78.7%) and ID physicians (77.8%) indicated having 'very good' or 'good' level of knowledge of COVID-19. Almost all ICPs (94.2%) relied on state or territory's department of health websites to source up-to-date information While most ID physicians (84.4%) used scientific literature and journals. A majority of ICPs (96%) and ID physicians (73.3%) reported feeling 'moderately prepared' or 'extremely prepared' for managing COVID-19. Most respondents had received specific training about COVID-19 within their workplace (ICPs: 75%; ID physicians: 66.7%), particularly training/certification in PPE use, which made them feel 'mostly or entirely confident' in using it. Most ICPs (84.5%) and ID physicians (76.2%) reported having 'considerably' or 'moderately more' work added to their daily duties. Their biggest concerns included the uncertainties under a rapidly changing landscape, PPE availability, and the community's compliance. CONCLUSION: Harmonised information, specific COVID-19 training and education, and adequate support for front-line workers are key to successfully managing COVID-19 and other future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Australia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Aust Crit Care ; 35(1): 22-27, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has again highlighted the crucial role of healthcare workers in case management, disease surveillance, policy development, and healthcare education and training. The ongoing pandemic demonstrates the importance of having an emergency response plan that accounts for the safety of frontline healthcare workers, including those working in critical care settings. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to explore Australian critical care nurses' knowledge, preparedness, and experiences of managing patients diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study of Australian critical care nurses was conducted between June and September 2020. An anonymised online survey was sent to Australian College of Critical Care Nurses' members to collect information about their knowledge, preparedness, and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise and report data. RESULTS: A total of 157 critical care nurses participated, with 138 fully complete surveys analysed. Most respondents reported 'good' to 'very good' level of knowledge about COVID-19 and obtained up-to-date COVID-19 information from international and local sources. Regarding managing patients with COVID-19, 82.3% felt sufficiently prepared at the time of data collection, and 93.4% had received specific education, training, or instruction. Most participants were involved in assessing (89.3%) and treating (92.4%) patients with COVID-19. Varying levels of concerns about SARS-CoV-2 infection were expressed by respondents, and 55.7% thought the pandemic had increased their workload. The most frequent concerns expressed by participants were a lack of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and fear of PPE shortage. CONCLUSIONS: While most nurses expressed sufficient preparedness for managing COVID-19 patients, specific education had been undertaken and experiential learning was evident. Fears of insufficient or lack of appropriate PPE made the response more difficult for nurses and the community. Preparedness and responsiveness are critical to successful management of the COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Australia , Clinical Competence , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(3): 214-217, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented global demand for personal protective equipment (PPE). A paucity of data on PPE burn rate (PPE consumption over time) in pandemic situations exacerbated these issues as there was little historic research to indicate volumes of PPE required to care for surges in infective patients and thus plan procurement requirements. METHODS: To better understand PPE requirements for care of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients in our Australian quaternary referral hospital, the number of staff-to-patient interactions in a 24-h period for three patient groups (ward-based COVID suspect, ward-based COVID confirmed, intensive care COVID confirmed) was audited prospectively from 1st to 30th April 2020. RESULTS: The average number of staff-to-patient interactions in a 24-h period was: 13.1 ± 5.0 (mean ± SD) for stable ward-managed COVID-19 suspect patients; 11.9 ± 3.8 for stable ward-managed confirmed COVID-19 patients; and 30.0 ± 5.3 for stable, mechanically ventilated, ICU-managed COVID-19 patients. This data can be used in PPE demand simulation modelling for COVID-19 and potentially other respiratory illnesses. CONCLUSION: Data on the average number of staff-to-patient interactions needed for the care of COVID-19 patients is presented. This data can be used for PPE demand simulation modelling.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , New South Wales/epidemiology , Patient-Centered Care , Personal Protective Equipment/trends
16.
Australas Emerg Care ; 24(3): 186-196, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency clinicians have a crucial role during public health emergencies and have been at the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the knowledge, preparedness and experiences of Australian emergency nurses, emergency physicians and paramedics in managing COVID-19. METHODS: A voluntary cross-sectional study of members of the College of Emergency Nursing Australasia, the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, and the Australasian College of Paramedicine was conducted using an online survey (June-September 2020). RESULTS: Of the 159 emergency nurses, 110 emergency physicians and 161 paramedics, 67.3-78% from each group indicated that their current knowledge of COVID-19 was 'good to very good'. The most frequently accessed source of COVID-19 information was from state department of health websites. Most of the respondents in each group (77.6-86.4%) received COVID-19 specific training and education, including personal protective equipment (PPE) usage. One-third of paramedics reported that their workload 'had lessened' while 36.4-40% of emergency nurses and physicians stated that their workload had 'considerably increased'. Common concerns raised included disease transmission to family, public complacency, and PPE availability. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive training and education and adequate support helped prepare emergency clinicians to manage COVID-19 patients. Challenges included inconsistent and rapidly changing communications and availability of PPE.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/organization & administration , Adult , Australia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Emergency Treatment/standards , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data
17.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(3): 166-172, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086962

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has brought unprecedented demands to general practitioners (GPs) worldwide. We examined their knowledge, preparedness, and experiences managing COVID-19 in Australia. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of GPs members of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) was conducted between June and September 2020. RESULTS: Out of 244 survey responses, a majority of GPs (76.6%) indicated having good knowledge of COVID-19, relying mostly on state/territory department of health (84.4%) and the RACGP (76.2%) websites to source up-to-date information. Most felt prepared to manage patients with COVID-19 (75.7%), yet over half reported not receiving training in the use of PPE. The majority were concerned about contracting SARS-CoV-2, more stressed than usual, and have heavier workloads. Their greatest challenges included scarcity of PPE, personal distress, and information overload. CONCLUSION: Access to PPE, training, accurate information, and preparedness are fundamental for the successful role of general practices during outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , General Practitioners/psychology , Knowledge , Australia , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , General Practitioners/education , Health Education , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067716

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices of visitors to the Prophet's Mosque in Al Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. Using a self-administered electronic questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among domestic residents, who visited the mosque between 31 July and 3 August 2020. Participants' demographic data, hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices were collected. Four hundred participants aged 18-65 (median 36) years completed the survey, of which 215 (53.8%) were female. The visitors' mean knowledge score about hand hygiene was 6.4 (± standard deviation (SD) 1.35) of total 12. Most participants (392, 98%) were aware of the role of hand hygiene in preventing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); nevertheless, 384 (96%) said hand hygiene lowers body immunity and 316 (79%) thought <60% alcohol is sufficient for hand disinfection. Males had a higher knowledge score than females (6.46 (±1.41) vs. 6.14 (±1.27), p = 0.02) and, visitors who had no formal education scored higher than those with post-graduate education (6.88 (±1.45) vs 5.73 (±1.12), p = 0.01). Washing hands with soap and water was the predominant method practiced after a meal (365, 91.7%), after toilet visit (354, 88.5%), after touching a surface (262, 65.7%), after waste disposal (332, 83.2%), and when hands were visibly dirty (357, 89.5%). Al Madinah visitors had moderate knowledge about hand hygiene, but demonstrated some knowledge gaps and negligence in practice that are crucial to curb the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029304

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices of visitors to the Prophet's Mosque in Al Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. Using a self-administered electronic questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among domestic residents, who visited the mosque between 31 July and 3 August 2020. Participants' demographic data, hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices were collected. Four hundred participants aged 18-65 (median 36) years completed the survey, of which 215 (53.8%) were female. The visitors' mean knowledge score about hand hygiene was 6.4 (± standard deviation (SD) 1.35) of total 12. Most participants (392, 98%) were aware of the role of hand hygiene in preventing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); nevertheless, 384 (96%) said hand hygiene lowers body immunity and 316 (79%) thought <60% alcohol is sufficient for hand disinfection. Males had a higher knowledge score than females (6.46 (±1.41) vs. 6.14 (±1.27), p = 0.02) and, visitors who had no formal education scored higher than those with post-graduate education (6.88 (±1.45) vs 5.73 (±1.12), p = 0.01). Washing hands with soap and water was the predominant method practiced after a meal (365, 91.7%), after toilet visit (354, 88.5%), after touching a surface (262, 65.7%), after waste disposal (332, 83.2%), and when hands were visibly dirty (357, 89.5%). Al Madinah visitors had moderate knowledge about hand hygiene, but demonstrated some knowledge gaps and negligence in practice that are crucial to curb the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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