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1.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 82-92, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly transmits in general population, mainly between health-care workers (HCWs) who are in close contact with patients. OBJECTIVE: To study the seropositivity of HCWs as a high-risk group compared to general population. METHODS: 72 samples were obtained from HCWs working in Masih Daneshvari hospital as one of the main COVID-19 admission centers in Tehran, during April 4 to 6, 2020. Also we collected 2021 blood samples from general population. The SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, and IgG antibodies in the collected serum specimens were measured by commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: Based on the clinical manifestations, 25.0%, 47.2%, and 27.8% of HCWs were categorized as symptomatic with typical symptoms, symptomatic with atypical symptoms, and asymptomatic, respectively. Symptomatic individuals with typical and atypical symptoms were 63.2% and 36.8% positive in RT-PCR test, respectively. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 15.3% and 27.8% of HCWs samples, respectively. Antibody testing in the general population indicated that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG were found in (162/2021) 8%, and (290/2021) 14.4%, respectively. The frequency of positive cases of IgM and IgG were significantly increased in HCWs compared to general population (p= 0.028 for IgM and p= 0.002 for IgG). CONCLUSION: The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in HCWs was higher than general population indicating a higher viral transmission via close exposure with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Occupational Health , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
2.
Avicenna J Med Biotechnol ; 14(3): 233-238, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957621

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence on seroconversion profile of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients is limited. We mainly aimed to evaluate seroconversion and persistence of virus-specific antibodies in patients infected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 118 patients with COVID-19 presentations admitted to three hospitals in Iran and recovered from the disease, during April and May 2020. Presence of COVID-19 was confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing on nasopharyngeal swabs. Serum samples were collected at different time points, including 0-5, 6-15, 16-25, 26-35, and 36-95 days of clinical symptom onset. For measurement of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibody titers, Iran's Food and Drug Administration-approved SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kits were used. Results: Serologic assay revealed that 37.3% of patients (n=44) were positive for IgM at 0-5 days interval after clinical symptom onset. This rate was 60.2% (n=71) for IgG. There were increasing IgM and IgG seroconversion rates during first 25 days of clinical symptom onset, but seropositivity started to decrease thereafter, which was more evident for IgM (17.9%) than IgG (58.9%) at the 36-95 days post symptoms appearance. In other words, it was found that 83.6% of IgM-positive and 32.9% of IgG-positive patients in the first month of clinical symptom onset became seronegative in the third month of clinical symptom onset. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection were developed in recovered COVID-19 patients; however, some of them were seronegative three months after onset of relevant symptoms. Furthermore, the stability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could also correct our expectations from COVID-19 vaccination responses.

3.
Diam Relat Mater ; 127: 109149, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936299

ABSTRACT

The progressive and fatal outbreak of some diseases such as cancer and coronavirus necessitates using advanced materials to bring such devastating illnesses under control. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) is decorated by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (GO/SPION) as well as polyethylene glycol functionalized SPION (GO/SPION@PEG), and chitosan functionalized SPION (GO/SPION@CS). Field emission scanning electron microscopic (FESEM) images show the formation of high density uniformly distributed SPION nanoparticles on the surface of GO sheets. The structural and chemical composition of nanostructures is confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The saturation magnetization of GO/SPION, GO/SPION@PEG and GO- SPION@CS are found to be 20, 19 and 8 emu/g using vibrating sample magnetometer. Specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 305, 283, and 199 W/g and corresponding intrinsic loss power (ILP) values of 9.4, 8.7, and 6.2 nHm2kg-1 are achieved for GO/SPION, GO/SPION@PEG and GO/SPION@CS, respectively. The In vitro cytotoxicity assay indicates higher than 70% cell viability for all nanostructures at 100, 300, and 500 ppm after 24 and 72 h. Additionally, cancerous cell (EJ138 human bladder carcinoma) ablation is observed using functionalized GO/SPION under applied magnetic field. More than 50% cancerous cell death has been achieved for GO/SPION@PEG at 300 ppm concentration. Furthermore, Surrogate virus neutralization test is applied to investigate neutralizing property of the synthesized nanostructures through analysis of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding. The highest level of SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibition is related to GO/SPION@CS (86%) due to the synergistic exploitation of GO and chitosan. Thus, GO/SPION and GO/SPION@PEG with higher SAR and ILP values could be beneficial for cancer treatment, while GO/SPION@CS with higher virus suppression has potential to use against coronaviruses. Thus, the developed nanocomposites have a potential in the efficient treatment of cancer and coronavirus.

4.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(5-6): 283-289, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437271

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, responsible for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has become a major global health problem. The molecular testing is the accepted assay in SARS-CoV-2 detection. However, there are several reasons for low sensitivity by RNA detection, causing challenges in SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological patterns of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM, and IgG in 111 hospitalized, and 34 recovered COVID-19 patients and 311 prepandemic normal serum specimens by ELISA. The validity of the ELISA kits was evaluated using samples from normal and recovered cases. This showed that 98.1%, and 98.4% of prepandemic normal samples were negative for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, and IgG, respectively. Assessment of 34 COVID-19 confirmed recovered patients showed a test sensitivity of 76.5%, and 94.1% for IgM, and IgG, respectively. In COVID-19 hospitalized patients, 42.3%, and 51.4% were positive for IgM and IgG, respectively. Viral RNA was not detectable in 43.3% of the hospitalized patients. Interestingly, combined molecular and serological testing improved the sensitivity of COVID-19 diagnosis to 79.6%. Using PCR with combined IgM/IgG results augmented the patient diagnosis sensitivity to 65.3% and 87.2% in ≤ 7 days, and > 7 days intervals, respectively. Overall, serological tests in combination with PCR can improve the sensitivity of COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
5.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 351-361, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067453

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 27 million confirmed cases and 8,90,000 deaths all around the world. Verity of viral infections can infect the nervous system; these viral infections can present a wide range of manifestation. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms. For that we conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of four online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. All relevant articles that reported psychiatric/psychological symptoms or disorders in COVID-19 without considering time and language restrictions were assessed. All the study procedures were performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Due to the screening, 14 studies were included. The current study result indicated that, the pooled prevalence of CNS or mental associated disorders with 95% CI was 50.68% (6.68-93.88). The most prevalence symptoms were hyposmia/anosmia/olfactory dysfunction (number of study: 10) with 36.20% (14.99-60.51). Only one study reported numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia. Pooled prevalence of numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia was 5.83% (2.17-12.25) and 2.39% (10.75-14.22). The pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety was 3.52% (2.62-4.54) and 13.92% (9.44-19.08). Our findings demonstrate that COVID-19 has a certain relation with neurological symptoms. The hypsomia, anosmia or olfactory dysfunction was most frequent symptom. Other symptoms were headache or dizziness, dysgeusia or ageusia, dysphonia and fatigue. Depression, anxiety, and confusion were less frequent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
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