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1.
Clin Lab ; 68(11)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination from women with breast cancer in Jazan city Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, antibody detections were performed one month and three months after the administration of the second dose. METHODS: Overall, 103 breast cancer patients were included. Individuals who had had two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, patients who were earlier diagnosed with COVID-19 infection, had not finalized immunization plan, or who received the second dose recently were excluded from the study. The antibodies detection test was run according to the manufacturer's directions of Viva Diag™ SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG Rapid Test (COVID-19 IgM/IgG Rapid Test). RESULTS: This study included 62 (60.2%) and 41 (39.8%) patients with invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma, respectively. The age, median and interquartile range (IQR) was 54.0 (26) years. Regarding reactivity of antibodies, after one month IgM antibody showed 64 (62.1%) positive and 39 (37.9%) negative while IgG antibody showed positive results in all patients. After three months IgM antibody showed 44 (42.7%) positive and 59 (57.3%) negative, while IgG showed 87 (84.5%) positive and 16 (15.5%) negative. There were significant differences in the IgM and IgG seropositivity. There were 19.3% patients with ductal carcinoma who were positive and then turned negative versus 17.7% who were positive and then turned negative, respectively (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in IgM antibody positivity among different age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results recommend the importance of screening for an antibody response for breast cancer patient after immunization in order to reveal persons who need early and late extra enhancing vaccine dose. Upcoming studies recommended to estimate different methods that raise cancer patients' immune response.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Ductal , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin M , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 477(5): 1607-1619, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777759

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 and caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. It is a highly infectious pathogen that promptly spread. Like other beta coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 encodes some non-structural proteins (NSPs), playing crucial roles in viral transcription and replication. NSPs likely have essential roles in viral pathogenesis by manipulating many cellular processes. We performed a sequence-based analysis of NSPs to get insights into their intrinsic disorders, and their functions in viral replication were annotated and discussed in detail. Here, we provide newer insights into the structurally disordered regions of SARS-CoV-2 NSPs. Our analysis reveals that the SARS-CoV-2 proteome has a chunk of the disordered region that might be responsible for increasing its virulence. In addition, mutations in these regions are presumably responsible for drug and vaccine resistance. These findings suggested that the structurally disordered regions of SARS-CoV-2 NSPs might be invulnerable in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
RSC Adv ; 12(13): 7872-7882, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751769

ABSTRACT

Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a conserved serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in hematopoietic cell survival, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and other cellular processes. It plays a significant role in cancer progression and viral infection. CK2 is considered a potential drug target in cancers and COVID-19 therapy. In this study, we have performed a virtual screening of phytoconstituents from the IMPPAT database to identify some potential inhibitors of CK2. The initial filter was the physicochemical properties of the molecules following the Lipinski rule of five. Then binding affinity calculation, PAINS filter, ADMET, and PASS analyses followed by interaction analysis were carried out to discover nontoxic and better hits. Finally, two compounds, stylopine and dehydroevodiamines with appreciable affinity and specific interaction towards CK2, were identified. Their time-evolution analyses were carried out using all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, principal component analysis and free energy landscape. Altogether, we propose that stylopine and dehydroevodiamines can be further explored in in vitro and in vivo settings to develop anticancer and antiviral therapeutics.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261497, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581739

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of yellow fever in the Americas and the devastating 1918 influenza pandemic, biologists and clinicians have been drawn to human infecting viruses to understand their mechanisms of infection better and develop effective therapeutics against them. However, the complex molecular and cellular processes that these viruses use to infect and multiply in human cells have been a source of great concern for the scientific community since the discovery of the first human infecting virus. Viral disease outbreaks, such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, have claimed millions of lives and caused significant economic damage worldwide. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of host-virus interaction and the molecular machinery involved in the pathogenesis of some common human viruses. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis of viral proteins involved in host-virus interaction to understand the changes in the sequence organization of these proteins during evolution for various strains of viruses to gain insights into the viral origin's evolutionary perspectives.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Phylogeny , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , HIV Envelope Protein gp160/genetics , Humans
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 765039, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497027

ABSTRACT

A continual rise in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global threat. The main problem comes when SARS-CoV-2 gets mutated with the rising infection and becomes more lethal for humankind than ever. Mutations in the structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, i.e., the spike surface glycoprotein (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N), and replication machinery enzymes, i.e., main protease (Mpro) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) creating more complexities towards pathogenesis and the available COVID-19 therapeutic strategies. This study analyzes how a minimal variation in these enzymes, especially in S protein at the genomic/proteomic level, affects pathogenesis. The structural variations are discussed in light of the failure of small molecule development in COVID-19 therapeutic strategies. We have performed in-depth sequence- and structure-based analyses of these proteins to get deeper insights into the mechanism of pathogenesis, structure-function relationships, and development of modern therapeutic approaches. Structural and functional consequences of the selected mutations on these proteins and their association with SARS-CoV-2 virulency and human health are discussed in detail in the light of our comparative genomics analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genomics , Humans , Proteomics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 24(6): 663-671, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271005

ABSTRACT

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), became a global health issue that influenced the lives of billions of people all over the world. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical findings and routine laboratory evaluations of COVID-19 patients in both average- and high-altitude settings in Saudi Arabia. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> A comparative study to explore the clinical characteristics and Laboratory tests results of COVID-19 patients at both high and average altitudes in Saudi Arabia has been conducted. The study included a total number of 103 patients (53 patients comprising the high-altitude group living in Taif, Saudi Arabia and 50 patients comprising the average-altitude group living in Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia) were included in the study. Patients were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2-positive by PCR test. Clinical characteristics, laboratory test results and symptoms of adult patients were collected and expressed as mean and standard deviation. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software to compare between both groups and significance was considered when the p-value is less than 0.05. <b>Results:</b> Approximately 55.3% of the total cases were male with a mean age of 40.16±12.47 years. There were highly statistically significant differences between the groups in age, heart rate (p<0.001). There were also statistically significant differences between the groups in temperature, SpO<sub>2</sub>, fever, myalgia, shortness of breath and loss of smell and taste. <b>Conclusion:</b> The current study provides an understanding of the clinical and laboratory investigations of COVID-19 patients in two regions (high altitude and average altitude) in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
Altitude , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Saudi Arabia , Young Adult
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