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1.
BMC Health Services Research ; 22:1-12, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1793943

ABSTRACT

Background Paediatric patients being treated for long-term physical health conditions (LTCs) have elevated mental health needs. However, mental health services in the community are difficult to access in the usual course of care for these patients. The Lucy Project – a self-referral drop-in access point—was a program to address this gap by enrolling patients for low-intensity psychological interventions during their treatment for LTCs. In this paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Lucy Project. Methods Using a pre-post design, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention by calculating the base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) using outcomes data and expenses recorded by project staff. The target population was paediatric patients enrolled in the program with an average age of 9 years, treated over a time horizon of 6 months. Outcome data were collected via the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory, which was converted to health utility scores using an instrument found in the literature. The QALYs were estimated using these health utility scores and the length of the intervention. We calculate a second, practical-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio using streamlined costing figures with maximum capacity patient enrolment within a one-year time horizon, and capturing lessons learned post-trial. Results The base-case model showed an ICER of £21,220/Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) gained, while the practical model showed an ICER of £4,359/QALY gained. The practical model suggests the intervention garners significant gains in quality of life at an average cost of £309 per patient. Sensitivity analyses reveal use of staff time was the greatest determinant of the ICER, and the intervention is cost-effective 75% of the time in the base-case model, and 94% of the time in the practical-case model at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000/QALY gained. Conclusions We find the base-case intervention improves patient outcomes and can be considered cost-effective according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) threshold of £20,000—£30,000/QALY gained, and the practical-case intervention is roughly four times as cost-effective as the base-case. We recommend future studies incorporate a control group to corroborate the effect size of the intervention.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333008

ABSTRACT

Importance Predictive models can help identify SARS-CoV-2 patients at greatest risk of post-COVID sequelae and direct them towards appropriate care. Objective To develop and internally validate a model to predict children and young people most likely to experience at least one impairing physical symptom 3 months after a SARS-CoV-2 PCR-test and to determine whether the impact of these predictors differed by SARS-CoV-2 infection status. Design Potential pre-specified predictors included: SARS-CoV-2 status, sex, age, ethnicity, deprivation, quality of life/functioning (5 EQ-5D-Y items), physical and mental health, and loneliness (all prior to SARS-CoV-2 testing), and number of physical symptoms at testing. Logistic regression was used to develop the model. Model performance was assessed using calibration and discrimination measures;internal validation was performed via bootstrapping;the final model was adjusted for overfitting. Setting National cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive and PCR-negative participants matched according to age, sex, and geographical area. Participants Children and young people aged 11-17 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection in England, January to March 2021. Main outcome measure one or more physical symptom 3 months after initial PCR-testing which affected physical, mental or social well-being and interfered with daily living. Results A total of 50,836 children and young people were approached;7,096 (3,227 test-positives, 3,869 test-negatives) who completed a questionnaire 3 months after their PCR-test were included. 39.6% (1,279/3,227) of SAR-CoV-2 PCR-positives and 30.6% (1,184/3,869) of SAR-CoV-2 PCR-negatives had at least one impairing physical symptom 3 months post-test. The final model contained predictors: SARS-COV-2 status, number of symptoms at testing, sex, age, ethnicity, self-rated physical and mental health, feelings of loneliness and four EQ-5D-Y items before testing. Internal validation showed minimal overfitting with excellent calibration and discrimination measures (optimism adjusted calibration slope:0.97527;C-statistic:0.83640). Conclusions and relevance We developed a risk prediction equation to identify those most at risk of experiencing at least one impairing physical symptom 3 months after a SARS-CoV-2 PCR-test which could serve as a useful triage and management tool for children and young people during the ongoing pandemic. External validation is required before large-scale implementation. Key Points Question Which children have impairing physical symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic? Findings Using data from a large national matched cohort study in children and young people (CYP) aged 11-17 years (N=7,096), we developed a prediction model for experiencing at least one impairing physical symptom 3 months after testing for SARS-COV-2. Our model had excellent predictive ability, calibration and discrimination;we used it to produce a risk estimation calculator. Meaning Our developed risk calculator could serve as a useful tool in the early identification and management of CYP at risk of persisting physical symptoms in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774936

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to derive a research definition for 'Long COVID (post-COVID-19 condition)' in children and young people (CYP) to allow comparisons between research studies. DESIGN: A three-phase online Delphi process was used, followed by a consensus meeting. Participants were presented with 49 statements in each phase and scored them from 1 to 9 based on how important they were for inclusion in the research definition of Long COVID in CYP. The consensus meeting was held to achieve representation across the stakeholder groups. Statements agreed at the consensus meeting were reviewed by participants in the Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) Research Advisory Group. SETTING: The study was conducted remotely using online surveys and a virtual consensus meeting. PARTICIPANTS: 120 people with relevant expertise were divided into three panels according to their area of expertise: Service Delivery, Research (or combination of research and service delivery) and Lived Experience. The PPI Research Advisory group consisted of CYP aged 11-17 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Consensus was defined using existing guidelines. If consensus was achieved in two or more panels or was on the border between one and two panels, those statements were discussed and voted on at the consensus meeting. RESULTS: Ten statements were taken forward for discussion in the consensus meeting and five statements met threshold to be included in the research definition of Long COVID among CYP. The research definition, aligned to the clinical case definition of the WHO, is proposed as follows: Post-COVID-19 condition occurs in young people with a history of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with at least one persisting physical symptom for a minimum duration of 12 weeks after initial testing that cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. The symptoms have an impact on everyday functioning, may continue or develop after COVID infection, and may fluctuate or relapse over time. The positive COVID-19 test referred to in this definition can be a lateral flow antigen test, a PCR test or an antibody test. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first research definition of Long COVID (post-COVID-19 condition) in CYP and complements the clinical case definition in adults proposed by the WHO.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322075

ABSTRACT

Introduction: We describe post-COVID symptomatology in a national sample of 11-17-year-old children and young people (CYP) with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to test-negative controls. Methods: and analysis: A cohort study of test-positive (n=3,065) and age-, sex- and geographically-matched test-negative CYP (n=3,739) completed detailed questionnaires 3 months post-test. Results: At PCR-testing, 35.4% of test-positives and 8.3% of test-negatives had any symptoms whilst 30.6% and 6.2%, respectively, had 3+ symptoms. At 3 months post-testing, 66.5% of test-positives and 53.3% of test-negatives had any symptoms, whilst 30.3% and 16.2%, respectively, had 3+ symptoms. Latent class analysis identified two classes, characterised by “few” or “multiple” symptoms. This latter class was more frequent among test-positives, females, older CYP and those with worse pre-test physical and mental health. Discussion: Test-positive CYP had a similar symptom profile to test-negative CYP but with higher prevalence of single and, particularly, multiple symptoms at PCR-testing and 3 months later.

5.
Clinical Psychologist ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1684361

ABSTRACT

Objective Method Results Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe impact on mental health. There is an urgent need to deliver low-intensity cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) tailored to mitigate the impacts of the pandemic. The aim was to engage in a qualitative study of participants’ views surrounding anxiety and depression during the pandemic and feedback on the acceptability and usefulness of a low-intensity CBT intervention during the pandemic to inform intervention development and refinement.There were 21 participants (21–80 years, M = 40.90 years, SD = 16.33;71% female) from Australia who participated in qualitative interviews who had completed low-intensity CBT for anxiety and depression during the pandemic.     Themes emerged including the negative impact of the pandemic on mental health, prior experience of psychological therapy, acceptability, and usefulness of the intervention, participants’ ideas for intervention improvement, and preferences for using the guide. The majority of participants reported the intervention was useful, however, suggested several areas including content and format to improve the intervention and feedback on what they would prefer for an intervention.A low-intensity CBT intervention was reported as useful and acceptable by participants for their concerns related to the pandemic and exacerbation of pre-existing anxiety and depression. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] KEY POINTS What is already known about this topic: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased anxiety and depression worldwide. There is a need to deliver low intensity cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) to mitigate the impacts of the pandemic. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of low intensity CBT in reducing pandemic related anxiety and depression. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased anxiety and depression worldwide. There is a need to deliver low intensity cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) to mitigate the impacts of the pandemic. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of low intensity CBT in reducing pandemic related anxiety and depression. What this topic adds: Participants provided positive feedback in qualitative interviews on a low intensity CBT intervention in reducing anxiety and depression related to the pandemic. Participants had several suggestions to improve the intervention, including increasing content for culturally and linguistic diverse populations and alternative formats. Low intensity CBT may hold promise in reducing the burden of anxiety and depression related to the pandemic. Participants provided positive feedback in qualitative interviews on a low intensity CBT intervention in reducing anxiety and depression related to the pandemic.Participants had several suggestions to improve the intervention, including increasing content for culturally and linguistic diverse populations and alternative formats.Low intensity CBT may hold promise in reducing the burden of anxiety and depression related to the pandemic. (Spanish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Clinical Psychologist is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 6(4): 230-239, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe post-COVID symptomatology in a non-hospitalised, national sample of adolescents aged 11-17 years with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with matched adolescents with negative PCR status. METHODS: In this national cohort study, adolescents aged 11-17 years from the Public Health England database who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between January and March, 2021, were matched by month of test, age, sex, and geographical region to adolescents who tested negative. 3 months after testing, a subsample of adolescents were contacted to complete a detailed questionnaire, which collected data on demographics and their physical and mental health at the time of PCR testing (retrospectively) and at the time of completing the questionnaire (prospectively). We compared symptoms between the test-postive and test-negative groups, and used latent class analysis to assess whether and how physical symptoms at baseline and at 3 months clustered among participants. This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN 34804192). FINDINGS: 23 048 adolescents who tested positive and 27 798 adolescents who tested negative between Jan 1, 2021, and March 31, 2021, were contacted, and 6804 adolescents (3065 who tested positive and 3739 who tested negative) completed the questionnaire (response rate 13·4%). At PCR testing, 1084 (35·4%) who tested positive and 309 (8·3%) who tested negative were symptomatic and 936 (30·5%) from the test-positive group and 231 (6·2%) from the test-negative group had three or more symptoms. 3 months after testing, 2038 (66·5%) who tested positive and 1993 (53·3%) who tested negative had any symptoms, and 928 (30·3%) from the test-positive group and 603 (16·2%) from the test-negative group had three or more symptoms. At 3 months after testing, the most common symptoms among the test-positive group were tiredness (1196 [39·0%]), headache (710 [23·2%]), and shortness of breath (717 [23·4%]), and among the test-negative group were tiredness (911 [24·4%]), headache (530 [14·2%]), and other (unspecified; 590 [15·8%]). Latent class analysis identified two classes, characterised by few or multiple symptoms. The estimated probability of being in the multiple symptom class was 29·6% (95% CI 27·4-31·7) for the test-positive group and 19·3% (17·7-21·0) for the test-negative group (risk ratio 1·53; 95% CI 1·35-1·70). The multiple symptoms class was more frequent among those with positive PCR results than negative results, in girls than boys, in adolescents aged 15-17 years than those aged 11-14 years, and in those with lower pretest physical and mental health. INTERPRETATION: Adolescents who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 had similar symptoms to those who tested negative, but had a higher prevalence of single and, particularly, multiple symptoms at the time of PCR testing and 3 months later. Clinicians should consider multiple symptoms that affect functioning and recognise different clusters of symptoms. The multiple and varied symptoms show that a multicomponent intervention will be required, and that mental and physical health symptoms occur concurrently, reflecting their close relationship. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care, in their capacity as the National Institute for Health Research, and UK Research and Innovation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294230

ABSTRACT

Background: Data on the long-term impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and young people (CYP) is conflicting. We assessed evidence on long-term post-COVID symptoms in CYP examining prevalence, risk factors, type and duration.<br><br>Methods: Systematic search of published and unpublished literature using 13 online databases between 01/12/2019 – 31/07/2021. Eligible studies reported CYP ≤19 years with confirmed or probable SARS-CoV-2 with any symptoms persisting beyond acute illness. Random effects meta-analyses examined pooled risk difference in symptom prevalence (controlled studies only) and pooled prevalence (uncontrolled studies also included). Meta-regression examined study characteristics hypothesised to be associated with symptom prevalence. Prospectively registered: CRD42021233153. <br><br>Findings: Twenty two of 3357 unique studies were eligible, including 23,141 CYP. Median duration of follow-up was 125 days (IQR 99-231).Pooled risk difference in post-COVID cases compared to controls (5 studies) were significantly higher for cognitive difficulties (3% (95% CI 1, 4)), headache (5% (1, 8)), loss of smell (8%, (2, 15)), sore throat (2% (1, 2)) and sore eyes (2% (1, 3)) but not abdominal pain, cough, fatigue, myalgia, insomnia, diarrhoea, fever, dizziness or dyspnoea.Pooled prevalence of symptoms in post-COVID participants in 17 studies ranged from 15% (diarrhoea) to 47% (fatigue). Age was associated with higher prevalence of all symptoms except cough. Higher study quality was associated with lower prevalence of all symptoms, except loss of smell and cognitive symptoms.<br><br>Interpretation: The frequency of the majority of reported persistent symptoms was similar in SARS-CoV-2 positive cases and controls. This systematic review and meta-analysis highlights the critical importance of a control group in studies on CYP post SARS-CoV-2 infection.<br><br>Funding: None to declare. <br><br>Declaration of Interest: SAB, RS, SDB, AXDZ, LLO, SNL, BLDS, RMV and OVS have no conflicts of interest. TJS is the Chair of the Health Research Authority for England who reimburse his university for his time. He is not paid personally. He has recused himself from research studies in which he is personally involved and which require ethical approval from the HRA.<br>

9.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 61(2): 313-334, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Periods of social isolation are associated with loneliness in children and young people, and loneliness is associated with poor mental and physical health. Children and young people with pre-existing mental health difficulties may be prone to loneliness. Containment of COVID-19 has necessitated widespread social isolation, with unprecedented school closures and restrictions imposed on social interactions. This rapid review aimed to establish what is known about the relationship between loneliness and mental health problems in children and young people with pre-existing mental health problems. METHODS: We sought to identify all primary research that examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between loneliness/perceived social isolation and mental health in children and young people with pre-existing mental health problems. We also aimed to identify effective interventions that reduce the adverse impact of loneliness. A rapid systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. RESULTS: Of 4,531 papers screened, 15 included children and young people with pre-existing mental health conditions. These 15 studies included 1,536 children and young people aged between 6 and 23 years with social phobia, anxiety and/or depression, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Loneliness was associated with anxiety and depression both cross-sectionally and prospectively in children and young people with mental health problems and neurodevelopmental conditions. We found preliminary evidence that psychological treatments can help to reduce feelings of loneliness in this population. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is associated with depression and anxiety in children and young people with pre-existing mental health conditions, and this relationship may be bidirectional. Existing interventions to address loneliness and/or mental health difficulties in other contexts may be applied to this population, although they may need adaptation and testing in younger children and adolescents. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Loneliness is common in children and young people, and during periods of enforced social isolation such as during COVID-19, children and young people report high levels of loneliness (or increased rates of loneliness). The review showed that loneliness is associated, both cross-sectionally and prospectively, in children and young people with mental health problems and also in children and young people with neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder. Thus, loneliness is a possible risk factor of which mental health providers should be aware. Maintaining social contact both by direct and by indirect means, especially through the Internet, could be important in mitigating loneliness. Interventions to address loneliness should be further developed and tested to help children and young people with pre-existing mental health problems who are lonely by preventing exacerbation of their mental health difficulties, in particular anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Young Adult
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052838, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is uncertainty surrounding the diagnosis, prevalence, phenotype, duration and treatment of Long COVID. This study aims to (A) describe the clinical phenotype of post-COVID symptomatology in children and young people (CYP) with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with test-negative controls, (B) produce an operational definition of Long COVID in CYP, and (C) establish its prevalence in CYP. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cohort study of SARS-CoV-2-positive CYP aged 11-17 years compared with age, sex and geographically matched SARS-CoV-2 test-negative CYP. CYP aged 11-17 testing positive and negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection will be identified and contacted 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after the test date. Consenting CYP will complete an online questionnaire. We initially planned to recruit 3000 test positives and 3000 test negatives but have since extended our target. Data visualisation techniques will be used to examine trajectories over time for symptoms and variables measured repeatedly, separately by original test status. Summary measures of fatigue and mental health dimensions will be generated using dimension reduction methods such as latent variables/latent class/principal component analysis methods. Cross-tabulation of collected and derived variables against test status and discriminant analysis will help operationalise preliminary definitions of Long COVID. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research Ethics Committee approval granted. Data will be stored in secure Public Health England servers or University College London's Data Safe Haven. Risks of harm will be minimised by providing information on where to seek support. Results will be published on a preprint server followed by journal publication, with reuse of articles under a CC BY licence. Data will be published with protection against identification when there are small frequencies involved. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN34804192; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 27(1): 122-135, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is little understanding of the mental health impact for young people with long-term physical health conditions and mental health professionals' experiences of supporting them during COVID-19. This service evaluation aimed to conduct a survey of the psychological services provided by mental health professionals in a paediatric hospital in relation to COVID-19. METHOD: Clinical psychologists and assistant psychologists (n = 76) across the hospital were asked to complete a survey, asking about their perceptions of COVID-19's impact on patients and families and experiences of providing support during COVID-19. Open-ended survey questions were analysed qualitatively using framework analysis. RESULTS: Respondents described perceived impacts on patients and families around social isolation, school closure, family relationships, physical health, mental health, treatments and social support. Respondents' experiences of providing mental health support during COVID-19 highlighted themes around providing remote/virtual support, workload and facilitators and barriers to their work. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health professionals surveyed reported a complex mental health landscape in young people with long-term physical health conditions and their families during COVID-19. Service-wide involvement is needed to facilitate changes to support vital adaptations to remote/virtual working. Research on the mental health of young people with long-term physical health conditions and staff experiences of providing support is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Child , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Clin Psychol Rev ; 88: 102066, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313025

ABSTRACT

Chronic loneliness is associated with a range of mental health difficulties. Previous theory and research indicate that psychological interventions show promise for reducing loneliness, however, there have been no systematic reviews or meta-analyses to ascertain the efficacy of these interventions across the lifespan. The aim of this study was to synthesise, meta-analyse and explore the heterogeneity in RCTs of psychological interventions for loneliness in order to establish their efficacy. Five databases (Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL) were systematically searched in order to identify relevant studies. Included studies were required to be peer-reviewed RCTs examining psychological interventions for loneliness. Two independent coders examined the abstracts of the 3973 studies and 103 full texts, finding 31 studies that met inclusion criteria, 28 of which contained sufficient statistical information to be included in the meta-analysis. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The 31 studies (N = 3959) that were included in the systematic review were conducted with participants from a diverse range of cultures, age groups and populations. The interventions were of mixed quality and were mostly face to face, group-based and delivered weekly. The most common type of intervention was Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). 28 studies (N = 3039) were included in a meta-analysis which found that psychological interventions significantly reduced loneliness compared to control groups, yielding a small to medium effect size (g = 0.43). Subgroup analysis and meta-regressions were conducted in order to explore heterogeneity and found that type of psychological intervention was approaching significance as a moderator of the effectiveness of psychological interventions for loneliness. In conclusion, psychological interventions for loneliness across the lifespan are effective. This finding should inform policy makers, researchers and clinicians going forward, especially in the context of increased loneliness due to the COVID-19 pandemic. There was considerable heterogeneity in the effectiveness of the interventions, suggesting that future research should also explore what works for whom and consider personalising psychological treatment.


Subject(s)
Loneliness/psychology , Psychosocial Intervention , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , Treatment Outcome
13.
Behav Res Ther ; 144: 103902, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267616

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a severe impact on mental health worldwide, with increased rates of anxiety and depression widely documented. The aim of this study was to examine unguided low intensity cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety and depression during the pandemic. A sample of 225 individuals in Australia and the United Kingdom (M age 37.79, SD = 14.02, range 18-80 years; 85% female) were randomised into intervention or waitlist control. The intervention group demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety (d = 0.36 [0.18, 0.54]) and depression (d = 0.28 [0.11, 0.45]) compared to controls. The majority of participants (96%) rated the intervention as useful, and most (83%) reported they spent 30 min or less reading the guide, with 83% agreeing the intervention was easy to read. The results indicate that low intensity cognitive behaviour therapy has efficacy in reducing anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is an urgent need to disseminate low intensity psychological therapies to improve mental health in this challenging time.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/psychology , Australia , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom , Young Adult
14.
Cogn Behav Pract ; 28(4): 459-467, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198643

ABSTRACT

The general population has experienced a significant elevation in fear and anxiety during COVID-19 both as a direct result of the virus but also due to measures taken to prevent it spreading, such as the need to stay inside and increase hand-washing. Lockdown has been used in many/most countries to prevent widespread infection. The advice and imposed actions are necessary to prevent the virus from spreading, but they might exacerbate the problems experienced by people with a preexisting anxiety-related disorder. The treatment of anxiety-related disorders can be provided while in quarantine. Staying at home in self-isolation does not preclude obtaining psychological treatment for anxiety-related disorders. Dealing with cognitive biases, over-estimations of threat, intolerance of uncertainty, inflated responsibility and excessive safety behavior, are useful clinical directions.

15.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 25(3): 175-177, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649985

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has highlighted the need for remote technologies to be used in child and adolescent mental health services. With the UK being placed in lockdown one week before a scheduled 'face-to-face' low-intensity CBT training day due to COVID-19, there was a need for rapid adaptations to be made to the content, structure and format of a training day for practitioners in mental health services, to suit the online environment. The content covered the core areas of low-intensity CBT in children and adolescents. Findings showed that the one-day low-intensity training day increased knowledge and understanding in all key areas measured, and was positively received, providing further evidence for the effectiveness and acceptability of remote delivery. Given discussed benefits of remote delivery, as well as rapid developments in technologies helping to address some of the challenges raised, going forward, remote delivery could continue to be beneficial for increasing access to much needed evidence-based interventions.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health Services , Child Health Services , Coronavirus Infections , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Telemedicine
16.
BMJ ; 370: m2627, 2020 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-631898
18.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 59(11): 1218-1239.e3, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-506047

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Disease containment of COVID-19 has necessitated widespread social isolation. We aimed to establish what is known about how loneliness and disease containment measures impact on the mental health in children and adolescents. METHOD: For this rapid review, we searched MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Web of Science for articles published between January 1, 1946, and March 29, 2020. Of the articles, 20% were double screened using predefined criteria, and 20% of data was double extracted for quality assurance. RESULTS: A total of 83 articles (80 studies) met inclusion criteria. Of these, 63 studies reported on the impact of social isolation and loneliness on the mental health of previously healthy children and adolescents (n = 51,576; mean age 15.3 years). In all, 61 studies were observational, 18 were longitudinal, and 43 were cross-sectional studies assessing self-reported loneliness in healthy children and adolescents. One of these studies was a retrospective investigation after a pandemic. Two studies evaluated interventions. Studies had a high risk of bias, although longitudinal studies were of better methodological quality. Social isolation and loneliness increased the risk of depression, and possibly anxiety at the time at which loneliness was measured and between 0.25 and 9 years later. Duration of loneliness was more strongly correlated with mental health symptoms than intensity of loneliness. CONCLUSION: Children and adolescents are probably more likely to experience high rates of depression and most likely anxiety during and after enforced isolation ends. This may increase as enforced isolation continues. Clinical services should offer preventive support and early intervention where possible and be prepared for an increase in mental health problems.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Social Isolation , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Pandemics
19.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(6): 547-560, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60428

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound effect on all aspects of society, including mental health and physical health. We explore the psychological, social, and neuroscientific effects of COVID-19 and set out the immediate priorities and longer-term strategies for mental health science research. These priorities were informed by surveys of the public and an expert panel convened by the UK Academy of Medical Sciences and the mental health research charity, MQ: Transforming Mental Health, in the first weeks of the pandemic in the UK in March, 2020. We urge UK research funding agencies to work with researchers, people with lived experience, and others to establish a high level coordination group to ensure that these research priorities are addressed, and to allow new ones to be identified over time. The need to maintain high-quality research standards is imperative. International collaboration and a global perspective will be beneficial. An immediate priority is collecting high-quality data on the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic across the whole population and vulnerable groups, and on brain function, cognition, and mental health of patients with COVID-19. There is an urgent need for research to address how mental health consequences for vulnerable groups can be mitigated under pandemic conditions, and on the impact of repeated media consumption and health messaging around COVID-19. Discovery, evaluation, and refinement of mechanistically driven interventions to address the psychological, social, and neuroscientific aspects of the pandemic are required. Rising to this challenge will require integration across disciplines and sectors, and should be done together with people with lived experience. New funding will be required to meet these priorities, and it can be efficiently leveraged by the UK's world-leading infrastructure. This Position Paper provides a strategy that may be both adapted for, and integrated with, research efforts in other countries.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Research , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics
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