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1.
J Soc Cardiovasc Angiogr Interv ; : 100372, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851657
2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(4): 831-837, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583606

ABSTRACT

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the gold standard to evaluate clinical interventions, producing the highest level of evidence while minimizing potential bias. Inadequate recruitment is a commonly encountered problem that undermines the completion and generalizability of RCTs-and is even more challenging when enrolling amidst a pandemic. Here, we reflect on our experiences with virtual recruitment of non-hospitalized patients in the United States for ColCorona, an international, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) drug trial. Recruitment challenges during a pandemic include constraints created by shelter-in-place policies and targeting enrollment according to national and local fluctuations in infection rate. Presenting a study to potential participants who are sick with COVID-19 and may be frightened, overwhelmed, or mistrusting of clinical research remains a challenge. Strategies previously reported to improve recruitment include transparency, patient and site education, financial incentives, and person-to-person outreach. Active measures taken during ColCorona to optimize United States recruitment involved rapid expansion of sites, adjustment of recruitment scripts, assessing telephone calls versus text messages for initial contact with participants, institutional review board-approved financial compensation, creating an infrastructure to systematically identify potentially eligible patients, partnering with testing sites, appealing to both self-interest and altruism, and large-scale media efforts with varying degrees of success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Text Messaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 924-932, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a role for excessive inflammation in COVID-19 complications. Colchicine is an oral anti-inflammatory medication beneficial in gout, pericarditis, and coronary disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of colchicine on the composite of COVID-19-related death or hospital admission. METHODS: The present study is a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, adaptive, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. The study was done in Brazil, Canada, Greece, South Africa, Spain, and the USA, and was led by the Montreal Heart Institute. Patients with COVID-19 diagnosed by PCR testing or clinical criteria who were not being treated in hospital were eligible if they were at least 40 years old and had at least one high-risk characteristic. The randomisation list was computer-generated by an unmasked biostatistician, and masked randomisation was centralised and done electronically through an automated interactive web-response system. The allocation sequence was unstratified and used a 1:1 ratio with a blocking schema and block sizes of six. Patients were randomly assigned to receive orally administered colchicine (0·5 mg twice per day for 3 days and then once per day for 27 days thereafter) or matching placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of death or hospital admission for COVID-19. Vital status at the end of the study was available for 97·9% of patients. The analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. The COLCORONA trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04322682) and is now closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Trial enrolment began in March 23, 2020, and was completed in Dec 22, 2020. A total of 4488 patients (53·9% women; median age 54·0 years, IQR 47·0-61·0) were enrolled and 2235 patients were randomly assigned to colchicine and 2253 to placebo. The primary endpoint occurred in 104 (4·7%) of 2235 patients in the colchicine group and 131 (5·8%) of 2253 patients in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 0·79, 95·1% CI 0·61-1·03; p=0·081). Among the 4159 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, the primary endpoint occurred in 96 (4·6%) of 2075 patients in the colchicine group and 126 (6·0%) of 2084 patients in the placebo group (OR 0·75, 0·57-0·99; p=0·042). Serious adverse events were reported in 108 (4·9%) of 2195 patients in the colchicine group and 139 (6·3%) of 2217 patients in the placebo group (p=0·051); pneumonia occurred in 63 (2·9%) of 2195 patients in the colchicine group and 92 (4·1%) of 2217 patients in the placebo group (p=0·021). Diarrhoea was reported in 300 (13·7%) of 2195 patients in the colchicine group and 161 (7·3%) of 2217 patients in the placebo group (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: In community-treated patients including those without a mandatory diagnostic test, the effect of colchicine on COVID-19-related clinical events was not statistically significant. Among patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, colchicine led to a lower rate of the composite of death or hospital admission than placebo. Given the absence of orally administered therapies to prevent COVID-19 complications in community-treated patients and the benefit of colchicine in patients with PCR-proven COVID-19, this safe and inexpensive anti-inflammatory agent could be considered for use in those at risk of complications. Notwithstanding these considerations, replication in other studies of PCR-positive community-treated patients is recommended. FUNDING: The Government of Quebec, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the US National Institutes of Health, the Montreal Heart Institute Foundation, the NYU Grossman School of Medicine, the Rudin Family Foundation, and philanthropist Sophie Desmarais.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colchicine , Administration, Oral , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colchicine/administration & dosage , Colchicine/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Eur Heart J ; 42(23): 2270-2279, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A systemic inflammatory response is observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, are associated with severe disease in bacterial or viral infections. We aimed to explore associations between CRP concentration at initial hospital presentation and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19 admitted to a large New York healthcare system between 1 March and 8 April 2020 were identified. Patients with measurement of CRP were included. Venous thrombo-embolism (VTE), acute kidney injury (AKI), critical illness, and in-hospital mortality were determined for all patients. Among 2782 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 2601 (93.5%) had a CRP measurement [median 108 mg/L, interquartile range (IQR) 53-169]. CRP concentrations above the median value were associated with VTE [8.3% vs. 3.4%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-3.36], AKI (43.0% vs. 28.4%; aOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.76-2.52), critical illness (47.6% vs. 25.9%; aOR 2.83, 95% CI 2.37-3.37), and mortality (32.2% vs. 17.8%; aOR 2.59, 95% CI 2.11-3.18), compared with CRP below the median. A dose response was observed between CRP concentration and adverse outcomes. While the associations between CRP and adverse outcomes were consistent among patients with low and high D-dimer levels, patients with high D-dimer and high CRP have the greatest risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation, as measured by CRP, is strongly associated with VTE, AKI, critical illness, and mortality in COVID-19. CRP-based approaches to risk stratification and treatment should be tested.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(5): 550-557, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968958

ABSTRACT

The search for effective COVID-19 management strategies continues to evolve. Current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms suggests a central role for exaggerated activation of the innate immune system as an important contributor to COVID-19 adverse outcomes. The actions of colchicine, one of the oldest anti-inflammatory therapeutics, target multiple mechanisms associated with COVID-19 excessive inflammation. While many COVID-19 trials have sought to manipulate SARS-CoV-2 or dampen the inflammatory response once patients are hospitalised, few examine therapeutics to prevent the need for hospitalisation. Colchicine is easily administered, generally well tolerated and inexpensive, and holds particular promise to reduce the risk of hospitalisation and mortality due to COVID-19 in the outpatient setting. Successful outpatient treatment of COVID-19 could greatly reduce morbidity, mortality and the demand for rare or expensive care resources (front-line healthcare workers, hospital beds, ventilators, biological therapies), to the benefit of both resource-replete and resource-poor regions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Pathog Immun ; 5(1): 312-326, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Red cell distribution width (RDW), a measure of anisocytosis, is observed in chronic inflammation and is a prognostic marker in critically ill patients without COVID-19, but data in COVID-19 are limited. METHODS: Between March 12 and April 19, 2020, 282 individuals with confirmed COVID-19 and RDW available within 7 days prior to COVID-19 confirmation were evaluated. Individuals were grouped by quartiles of RDW. Association between quartiles of RDW and mortality was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and statistical significance was assessed using the log-rank test. The association between RDW and all-cause mortality was further assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Plasma cytokine levels in uninfected ambulatory adults without cardiovascular disease (n=38) were measured and bivariate Spearman correlations and principle components analysis were used to identify relationships between cytokine concentrations with RDW. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, sex, race, cardiovascular disease, and hemoglobin, there was an association between RDW and mortality (Quartile 4 vs Quartile 1: HR 4.04 [1.08-15.07]), with each 1% increment in RDW associated with a 39% increased rate of mortality (HR 1.39 [1.21-1.59]). Remote RDW was also associated with mortality after COVID-19 infection. Among uninfected ambulatory adults without cardiovascular disease, RDW was associated with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL8, IL6, IL1b), but not regulatory cytokines (TGFb). CONCLUSIONS: Anisocytosis predicts short-term mortality in COVID-19 patients, often predates viral exposure, and may be related to a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Additional study of whether the RDW can assist in the early identification of pending cytokine storm is warranted.

8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2045-2053, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889978

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic presents an unprecedented challenge and opportunity for translational investigators to rapidly develop safe and effective therapeutic interventions. Greater risk of severe disease in COVID-19 patients with comorbid diabetes mellitus, obesity, and heart disease may be attributable to synergistic activation of vascular inflammation pathways associated with both COVID-19 and cardiometabolic disease. This mechanistic link provides a scientific framework for translational studies of drugs developed for treatment of cardiometabolic disease as novel therapeutic interventions to mitigate inflammation and improve outcomes in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular System , Comorbidity , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am Heart J ; 227: 11-18, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824286

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has resulted in a global pandemic. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors or established cardiovascular disease are more likely to experience severe or critical COVID-19 illness and myocardial injury is a key extra-pulmonary manifestation. These patients frequently present with ST-elevation on an electrocardiogram (ECG) due to multiple etiologies including obstructive, non-obstructive, and/or angiographically normal coronary arteries. The incidence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) mimics in COVID-19-positive hospitalized patients, and the association with morbidity and mortality is unknown. Understanding the natural history and appropriate management of COVID-19 patients presenting with ST elevation is essential to inform patient management decisions and protect healthcare workers. Methods: The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) and The Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology (CAIC) in conjunction with the American College of Cardiology Interventional Council have collaborated to create a multi-center observational registry, NACMI. This registry will enroll confirmed COVID-19 patients and persons under investigation (PUI) with new ST-segment elevation or new onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) on the ECG with clinical suspicion of myocardial ischemia. We will compare demographics, clinical findings, outcomes and management of these patients with a historical control group of over 15,000 consecutive STEMI activation patients from the Midwest STEMI Consortium using propensity matching. The primary clinical outcome will be in- hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as composite of all-cause mortality, stroke, recurrent MI, and repeat unplanned revascularization in COVID-19 confirmed or PUI. Secondary outcomes will include the following: reporting of etiologies of ST Elevation; cardiovascular mortality due to myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest and /or shock; individual components of the primary outcome; composite primary outcome at 1 year; as well as ECG and angiographic characteristics. Conclusion: The multicenter NACMI registry will collect data regarding ST elevation on ECG in COVID-19 patients to determine the etiology and associated clinical outcomes. The collaboration and speed with which this registry has been created, refined, and promoted serves as a template for future research endeavors.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Bundle-Branch Block/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Bundle-Branch Block/etiology , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Data Collection/methods , Electrocardiography , Humans , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/etiology
10.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(2): 217-222, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic migitation measures on of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care. BACKGROUND: We previously reported a 38% decline in cardiac catheterization activations during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic mitigation measures. This study extends our early observations using a larger sample of STEMI programs representative of different US regions with the inclusion of more contemporary data. METHODS: Data from 18 hospitals or healthcare systems in the US from January 2019 to April 2020 were collecting including number activations for STEMI, the number of activations leading to angiography and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), and average door to balloon (D2B) times. Two periods, January 2019-February 2020 and March-April 2020, were defined to represent periods before (BC) and after (AC) initiation of pandemic mitigation measures, respectively. A generalized estimating equations approach was used to estimate the change in response variables at AC from BC. RESULTS: Compared to BC, the AC period was characterized by a marked reduction in the number of activations for STEMI (29%, 95% CI:18-38, p < .001), number of activations leading to angiography (34%, 95% CI: 12-50, p = .005) and number of activations leading to PPCI (20%, 95% CI: 11-27, p < .001). A decline in STEMI activations drove the reductions in angiography and PPCI volumes. Relative to BC, the D2B times in the AC period increased on average by 20%, 95%CI (-0.2 to 44, p = .05). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 Pandemic has adversely affected many aspects of STEMI care, including timely access to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for PPCI.


Subject(s)
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
11.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(5): E661-E666, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306151

ABSTRACT

A patient with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by extensive coronary thrombosis and cardiogenic shock. She underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and placement of a mechanical circulatory support device but subsequently died from shock. This report illustrates the challenges in managing patients with COVID-19, AMI, and cardiogenic shock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/complications , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Thrombosis/diagnosis , Electrocardiography , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis
13.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(3): 586-597, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-15256

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is highly infectious, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and has rapidly resulted in strained health care system and hospital resources. In addition to patient-related care concerns in infected individuals, focus must also relate to diminishing community spread, protection of staff, case selection, and concentration of resources. The current document based on available data and consensus opinion addresses appropriate catheterization laboratory preparedness for treating these patients, including procedure-room readiness to minimize external contamination, safe donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) to eliminate risk to staff, and staffing algorithms to minimize exposure and maximize team availability. Case selection and management of both emergent and urgent procedures are discussed in detail, including procedures that may be safely deferred or performed bedside.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Catheterization/statistics & numerical data , Coronary Angiography/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , COVID-19 , Cardiac Catheterization/standards , Cardiology , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital , Leadership , Male , Mentors , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Societies, Medical , Survival Analysis , United States
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