Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 76
Filter
2.
Cureus ; 14(8):e27623, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025409

ABSTRACT

Introduction Worldwide, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss. Early treatment and screening for DR have a major role in reducing the rate of the disease and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic-related restrictions have altered real-world practice patterns in managing DR. Aims and objectives To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of DR amongst patients presenting to a tertiary eye care center in Gujarat, India. Methods This is a cross-sectional study comparison of ophthalmic findings of 72 patients who presented to a tertiary care hospital with the manifestation of DR before and after the COVID-19 outbreak and subsequent lockdown. All the patients underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). Results The mean age of participants was 54.5 years, with the mean duration of diabetes being five years since first detected. Diabetes was present in 26 patients out of 72. The number of follow-up visits to an ophthalmologist before COVID-19 was at least every one to three months, which significantly decreased after the lockdown of COVID-19. We found a significant progression of DR and clinically significant macular edema (CSME) in patients with diabetes. Before COVID-19, there were two mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), seven moderate NPDR, 15 severe NPDR, and 15 very severe NPDR, which were increased post lockdown to three, nine, 27, and 21, respectively. The proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) vitreous hemorrhage (VH) and tractional retinal detachment (TRD) were also increased to 12 after lockdown as compared to only six before the COVID-19 lockdown. The causes for progression are inability to attend regular check-ups, inability to take proper treatment of diabetes and DR, poor control of diabetes, episode of COVID-19, history of high dose of steroid use, poor kidney function, and not knowing that there is a progression of the disease. A common reason for not visiting an ophthalmologist was fear of the unknown due to COVID-19. Conclusions COVID-19 has severely impacted the routine follow-up of DR and, in the subsequent years, there might be an increased incidence of severe outcomes due to DR. The second wave of COVID-19 and its lockdown have had very significant effects on the visual outcome of untreated DR patients.

3.
Cureus ; 14(8):e27588, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025407

ABSTRACT

An 86-year-old male presented with fever and joint pain for seven days. Clinical features were suggestive of chikungunya fever, but reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was negative. After ruling out the differentials, the patient was clinically diagnosed with chikungunya fever. Chikungunya IgG antibody was positive two months after the onset of symptoms. He had a history of asymptomatic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection two months ago. About 20 days after his first symptom, he developed bipedal edema, refractory to diuretics. All other causes of pedal edema, including heart failure, renal failure, and liver failure, were ruled out. The bipedal edema was managed conservatively with compression bandages. Only a few case reports and studies on limb edema as a symptom post chikungunya fever have been published up to this point. Furthermore, it is difficult to say whether his COVID-19 infection is linked to the edema.

5.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009620

ABSTRACT

Background: Most patients with cancer and COVID-19 will survive the acute illness. The longer-term impacts of COVID-19 on patients with cancer remain incompletely described. Methods: Using COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry data thru 12/31/2021, we examined outcomes of long-term COVID-19 survivors with post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC aka “long COVID”). PASC was defined as having recovered w/ complications or having died w/ ongoing infection 90+ days from original diagnosis;absence of PASC was defined as having fully recovered by 90 days, with 90+ days of follow-up. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 re-infection and records with low quality data were excluded. Results: 858 of 3710 of included patients (23%) met PASC criteria. Median follow-up (IQR) for PASC and recovered patients was 180 (98-217) and 180 (90-180) days, respectively. The PASC group had a higher rate of baseline comorbidities and poor performance status (Table). Cancer types, status, and recent anticancer treatment were similar between the groups. The PASC group experienced a higher illness burden, with more hospitalized (83% vs 48%);requiring ICU (29% vs 6%);requiring mechanical ventilation (17% vs 2%);and experiencing co-infections (19% vs 8%). There were more deaths in the PASC vs recovered group (8% vs 3%), with median (IQR) days to death of 158 (120-272) and 180 (130-228), respectively. Of these, 9% were attributed to COVID-19;15% to both COVID-19 and cancer;15% to cancer;and 23% to other causes. Conversely, no deaths in the recovered group were attributed to COVID-19;57% were attributed to cancer;and 24% to other causes (proximal cause of death unknown/missing in 38% and 19%, respectively). Cancer treatment modification was more common in the recovered group (23% vs 18%). Conclusions: Patients with underlying comorbidities, worse ECOG PS, and more severe acute SARS-CoV-2 infection had higher rates of PASC. These patients suffered more severe complications and incurred worse outcomes. There was an appreciable rate of death in both PASC and non-PASC, with cancer the dominant but not only cause in fully recovered patients. Further study is needed to understand what factors drive PASC, and whether longer-term cancer-specific outcomes will be affected.

6.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009551

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite mitigation and treatment strategies, COVID-19 continues to negatively impact patients (pts) with cancer. Identifying factors that remain consistently associated with morbidity and mortality is critical for risk identification and care delivery. Methods: Using CCC19 registry data through 12/31/2021 we report clinical outcomes (30-day case fatality rate [CFR], mechanical ventilation use (MV), intensive care unit admission (ICU), and hospitalization) in adult pts with cancer and laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2, stratified by patient, cancer, and treatment-related factors. Results: In this cohort of 11,417 pts (with 4% reported vaccination prior to COVID-19), 55% required hospitalization, 15% ICU, 9% MV, and 12% died. Overall outcome rates remained similar for 2020 and 2021 (Table). Hydroxychloroquine was utilized in 11% and other anti-COVID-19 drugs (remdesivir, tocilizumab, convalescent plasma, and/or steroids) in 30%. Higher CFRs were observed in older age, males, Black race, smoking (14%), comorbidities (pulmonary [17%], diabetes mellitus [16%], cardiovascular [19%], renal [21%]), ECOG performance status 2+ (31%), co-infection (25%), especially fungal (35%), and initial presentation with severe COVID-19 (48%). Pts with hematologic malignancy, active/ progressing cancer status, or receiving systemic anti-cancer therapy within 1-3 months prior to COVID-19 also had worse CFRs. CFRs were similar across anti-cancer modalities. Other outcomes (ICU, MV, hospitalization) followed similar distributions by pt characteristics. Conclusions: Unfavorable outcome rates continue to remain high over 2 years, despite fewer case reports in 2021 owing to multiple factors (e.g., pandemic dynamics, respondent fatigue, overwhelmed healthcare systems). Pts with specific socio-demographics, performance status, comorbidities, type and status of cancer, immunosuppressive therapies, and COVID-19 severity at presentation experienced worse COVID-19 severity;and these factors should be further examined through multivariable modeling. Understanding epidemiological features, patient and cancer-related factors, and impact of anti-COVID-19 interventions can help inform risk stratification and interpretation of results from clinical trials.

7.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005710

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has impacted several areas of oncology patient care, most notably the reduction of patient visits for treatments. Standard treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) involves a combination of intravenous (IV) and oral therapies. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact COVID-19 had on IV and oral medication prescribing patterns pre and during the COVID-19 pandemic among MM patients. Methods: This is a retrospective review of adult MM patients insured by a large commercial and Medicare health plan in the United States who started a new IV or oral MM agent during the study period. To assess the impact of COVID-19 on IV and oral medication prescribing patterns, we compareda pre-COVID period (March 1-August 31, 2019) to a COVID period (March 1-August 31, 2020). We utilized medical and pharmacy claims to identify patients and calculated new therapy starts per newly diagnosed patient (defined as the number of patients starting a new IV or oral medication for MM divided by the total number of patients with a first indication date of MM within the study timeframe). We compared rates using a Chi-square test;p-values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: 1,754 patients were enrolled in the study;there were no significant differences in demographic characteristics pre and during COVID-19 between the two groups with respect to age (67.05 vs. 66.64;p=0.45), gender (p=0.80), insurance plan type (p=0.17), geographical region (p=0.26) and medication (p=0.59). During COVID-19, the number of newly diagnosed MM patients decreased by 22% (9,657 to 7,560) and the total number of new therapy starts decreased by 11% (930 to 824). When looking at rates of new therapy starts per newly diagnosed patient, both IV (11%;p=0.03) and oral (51%;p=0.03) medication rates significantly increased. Additionally, there were significant increases in new therapy start rates by region in the Northeast for oral (157%;p<0.01) and West for IV (32%;p=0.02) medications. There were no significant differences in new start rates by insurance plan type (all p>0.08). Conclusions: While the total count of new therapy starts, a proxy for new diagnoses, decreased during COVID-19, the rate of new starts for both IV and oral therapies for patients diagnosed with MM significantly increased. These increased start rates may be explained by a remarkable 22% drop in the total number of newly diagnosed MM patients during COVID-19. As the pandemic continues, further study is warranted to understand how COVID-19 may impact IV vs. oral usage in MM.

8.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005641

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has substantially decreased cancer screening, management visits and surgeries. CVS Health recently developed a best-in-class mobile app and website that enables oncology patients to start and stay on therapy. This study examined the impact of COVID-19 on adherence to oral oncolytic agents in a large health plan with a significant digital health platform. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), ovarian cancer or prostate cancer initiating oral oncolytics between 3/1/19 and 3/1/2021. Patients were divided into two groups: pre-COVID oral oncolytic initiators before 3/1/20 and COVID initiators after 3/1/20 and were followed for 1 year after therapy initiation. The primary outcome was optimal adherence to oral oncolytic agents as defined by a medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥ 0.8. Percent of digital engagement, defined as the number of times a patient interacted with the CVS digital platform, was examined as a secondary endpoint and was considered as a binary and categorical endpoint (none, low (< 28), moderate (28-105) and high (> 105)). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling were performed;p-values < 0.05 were significant. Results: In total, 15,494 patients were included in the study, with 8,067 (52.07%) in the pre-COVID initiator group. Patient demographics were similar across study groups, with the exception of pre-COVID initiators who were less likely to be male (75.32% vs. 77.34%;p < 0.01) and receive copay assistance (38.37% vs. 41.70%;p < 0.01). No difference in digital engagement pre and during COVID was noted (74.55% vs. 73.60%;p = 0.18). Pre-COVID initiators were less likely to be optimally adherent than COVID initiators (84.75% vs. 85.96%;p = 0.04). Therapy persistence was more common among COVID initiators, with greater number of fills (Median [quartile (Q) Q1-Q3]: 10 [4-12] vs. 9[4-12];p < 0.01) and less changes to therapy (8.87% vs. 9.95%;p = 0.02). After regression, COVID initiation of oral oncolytics was not associated with optimal adherence (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06 [95% (confidence interval (CI) 0.96-1.16]). Adherence increased as digital engagement increased (low: OR 0.64 [95% CI 0.56-0.72];moderate: OR 0.67 [95% CI 0.56-0.76];high: OR 1.71 [95% CI 1.48-1.99]). Other factors associated with increased adherence were copay assistance, male gender and age between 65 and 84 (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with decreased adherence were therapy change, CML and age < 50 years (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic did not significantly impact optimal adherence for new-to-therapy oral oncology patients. Patients with high digital engagement during the pandemic experienced significantly improved adherence than those not engaged. Additionally, persistence and number of fills were slightly improved in COVID initiators, suggesting that the current pandemic may have influenced adherence behaviors.

9.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S560, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995718

ABSTRACT

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM/QUESTION: The COVID-19 pandemic prompted a rapid shift to telemedicine as both a replacement and adjunct to usual in-person care, but in a recent estimate using 2018 data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, 13 million, or roughly 38% of older adults in the US, are not ready to participate in video visits primarily due to inexperience with technology. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM/INTERVENTION: The purpose of this community-based partnered program between Denver Health and Denver Housing Authority (DHA) is to provide the supports needed to engage older adults in telehealth. DHA manages approximately 3900 subsidized housing units across Denver with buildings designated specifically for low-income older adults (65+) and persons with disabilities. Up to 467 of these individuals already receive primary care at Denver Health which offers a unique opportunity to establish targeted supports for the equitable delivery of virtual health. These supports may include technology and digital health education, equipment deployment, and facilitated telehealth appointments. We conducted a formative evaluation of DHA resident interest and capability to participate in video visits. MEASURES OF SUCCESS: Outcomes for the formative survey include interest in video visits, perceived barriers to in-person care, comfort levels with technology, barriers to use of technology, healthcare topics of interest, and selfreported health status. The results of the survey helped to shape the key interventions proposed: 1) digital health literacy workshops and 2) facilitated on-site video visits. FINDINGS TO DATE: Survey responses were compiled for all participants across six participating sites. 115 participants provided responses to program interest and baseline comfort levels with technology. Of participants surveyed, 89% have a mobile phone, 46% have had experience with videoconferencing, and 53% have someone to help them with technology. Challenges accessing healthcare included scheduling an appointment 20%, getting a ride to clinic 23%, and difficulty walking 15%. Of the 76 participants who indicated their learning interests, 51% were interested in learning how to use the online patient portal, 465 in participating in a video visit, and 59% in understanding and managing chronic medical conditions. KEY LESSONS FOR DISSEMINATION: At baseline there were both barriers to seeking in person medical care and interest in technology as a tool for health. The survey participants showed a strong interest in sessions about using the online patient portal, how to have a video visit, and understanding chronic medical conditions. Video visits and technology have become an increasingly common and useful part of the primary care system, yet a portion of the population is not equipped with the knowledge or resources to utilize this resource. Older adults may also find transportation and mobility in getting to the doctor's office a significant challenge. This program is designed to outreach those individuals and give them the skills and resources to utilize technology to reduce barriers to health.

10.
Sleep Medicine ; 100:S135-S136, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967124

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A safety risk of some commonly prescribed sleep-promoting drugs, including benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine receptor agonists, is central respiratory depression. Subjects with coexisting respiratory disease such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and/or the elderly, are particularly at risk. Lemborexant (LEM) is a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) approved in multiple countries for the treatment of adults with insomnia. In study 102 (E2006-A001-102;NCT03471871), no differences between LEM 10 mg (LEM10) and placebo (PBO) were found on peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in adult and elderly subjects with mild OSA following a single dose and multiple doses. Study 113 (E2006-A001-113;NCT04647383) is the first to investigate the effect of LEM on respiratory safety in adults and elderly subjects with moderate to severe OSA. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter, multiple-dose, randomized, double-blind, PBO-controlled, 2-period crossover study in adult (age ≥45 to <65y) and elderly (age ≥65 to ≤90y) subjects with moderate (15≤AHI<30) to severe (AHI≥30) OSA. Subjects were randomized to two 8-night treatment periods (separated by a washout ≥14d) with either LEM10 or PBO. In-lab polysomnography and transmissive pulse oximetry were performed at screening, on Day 1 (after a single dose) and Day 8 of study drug during both treatment periods. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded throughout the study. Results: Forty-eight subjects were screened;33 (68.8%) were randomized;of these n=13 had moderate OSA and n=20 had severe OSA. Mean age was 60.6y;22/33 subjects (66.7%) were age ≥45 to <65y and 11/33 (33.3%) were ≥65 to ≤90y. During total sleep time, mean baseline SpO2 was 93.5% and mean AHI for moderate OSA and severe OSA groups together (n=33) was 44.2. No significant difference was found in AHI (least squares mean [LSM]) after a single dose or multiple doses of LEM10 versus PBO in subjects with moderate (single: LEM10, 31.49;PBO, 32.41, P=0.818;multiple: LEM10, 34.66;PBO, 37.16, P=0.442) or severe (single: LEM10, 48.22;PBO, 52.69, P=0.172;multiple: LEM10, 51.48;PBO, 51.15, P=0.902) OSA. LEM10 versus PBO was also not significantly different for SpO2 (LSM with moderate [single: LEM10, 93.68;PBO, 93.86, P=0.696;multiple: LEM10, 93.74;PBO, 93.86%, P=0.784] or severe [single: LEM10, 92.57;PBO, 92.65, P=0.841;multiple: LEM10, 92.63;PBO, 93.02, P=0.283] OSA). Furthermore, no significant difference was found in percentage of total sleep time during which SpO2 was below the thresholds of <90%, <85%, <80% for LEM10 vs PBO following a single dose (P=0.694, P=0.134, P=0.195, respectively) or multiple doses (P=0.481, P=0.711, P=0.699, respectively) in subjects with moderate or severe OSA. TEAEs were higher with LEM10 (18.2%) versus PBO (9.1%). One subject did not complete treatment due to an adverse event unrelated to LEM10 (COVID-19). Overall, LEM was well tolerated, and most TEAEs were mild. Conclusion: As objectively measured by AHI and SpO2 during TST, LEM, a DORA, demonstrated respiratory safety with single and multiple dosing in subjects with moderate and severe OSA, and was well tolerated. Acknowledgements: Supported by Eisai, Inc.

11.
ARAB WORLD ENGLISH JOURNAL ; 13(2):17-36, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939620

ABSTRACT

Google Classroom (GC) is a technical innovation that allows English as a Second Language (ESL) teachers and students to meet remotely to create a more engaging teaching and learning experience. This study investigated factors influencing ESL teachers' intentions to utilize GC for instructions during the Covid-19 pandemic. An exploratory sequential technique was implemented as part of a mixed-methods research design. Eleven prior studies on educators' views toward the use of GC were evaluated for the qualitative data analysis. The data from these investigations were analysed and categorized into topics and categories. The findings revealed that ESL teachers had a positive attitude toward utilizing GC with their pupils. For the quantitative data analysis, a research survey was performed. Technical support, attitude, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and technological knowledge were studied as factors that impacted ESL teachers' intentions to use GC. The sample includes 216 government secondary schools in the Kinta Selatan District of Perak. The outcomes of the study revealed that attitude, perceived usefulness, and technological knowledge all influenced the desire to use GC. The link between technical support and perceived ease of use, as well as the desire to use GC, was found to be negative. In linking the factors that determine GC intention, future research might incorporate a variety of moderating variables. The study's findings might assist educators to understand the challenges of online learning in Malaysian education, as well as how to overcome them.

12.
2021 IEEE India Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, InGARSS 2021 ; : 320-323, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922714

ABSTRACT

In the present study, the atmospheric concentrations of Carbon Monoxide (CO) over India during COVID-19 (2020) were studied by comparing it with 2019 and 2021. COVID-19 has created an undesirable impact all over the world. However, as a blessing in disguise, these measures have a positive effect on the environment due to closing the mass gathering places. The work has undergone using the TROPOMI instrument, on-board Sentinel-5 Precursor. The results, evidence that human activities like transportation in Delhi, Industrial activities near Indo-Gangetic Plain have sharply fallen during the lockdown phase. On Contrary, there is a sharp increment in the area of Thermal power plants being coal-based. On the whole, the mean concentration of CO over India has minimal change due to long lifetime (1~2 months), indicating the duration of the (68 days) lockdown did not capture prompt and short-term atmospheric change. © 2021 IEEE.

13.
2021 IEEE India Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, InGARSS 2021 ; : 258-260, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922712

ABSTRACT

The present study focuses over Ahmedabad City of Gujarat State, India for the time period 1st March to 30th June comprising of the Pre-Lockdown Phase (PLP), the National Lockdown Phase - 1 (NLP1) and the Unlock Phase - 1 (ULP1). We have considered this time period over the years 2019, 2020 and 2021 to explore the effect of COVID induced lockdown on LST and understanding its variation. Satellite data acquired from AQUA - MODIS with a spatial and temporal resolution of 1 Km and 1-2 days respectively was used for the analysis of the LST. The average LST over Ahmedabad was 314.18 K, 311.79 K and 315.67 K for PLP over the years 2019, 2020 and 2021. For NLP1 the average LST over those years were 321.68 K, 318.73 K and 319.39 K respectively. And for the ULP1 the average LST over those years were 319.87 K, 314.07 K and 312.19 K respectively. We observe a 2.38 %, 2.22 % and 1.17 % increase in LST from the PLP to NLP1 during the years 2019, 2020 and 2021. The increase of LST during the NLP1 in 2020 showed that as the pollution decreased, the active elements that were present in the atmosphere which caused disturbance to the sensor on the satellite while calculating LST were reduced and we got a brighter top of surface. The decrease in LST from 2019 levels for the ULP1 is also observed indicating the effects of lockdown and onset of monsoon in 2020 and 2021. © 2021 IEEE.

14.
2021 IEEE India Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, InGARSS 2021 ; : 385-388, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922711

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) monitoring is a necessary step towards the understanding of climate change and public health. In this study, we tried to understand the comparative analysis of variation of NO2 over the region of Ahmedabad city. We have extracted NO2 concentration data for the year 2019 and 2020. The data was collected from both ground-based measurements and satellite based measurements of NO2 concentrations values. The results highlighted complete dynamics of seasonal NO2 concentration during the year 2019 and 2020 including the lockdown effect of COVID-19 outbreak. The validation approach of satellite data, based on cross-correlation analysis with ground data, it provided value of the Pearson correlation factor of 0.613 and correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.376. The huge fall in seasonal trend of NO2 concentration because of the pandemic is also shown in this study. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
Medical Science ; 26(122):8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1887480

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus infectious disease 2019) denotes an ever changing and varied disease which has crippled the health care systems throughout the world. There have been studies conducted across the globe to establish the important factors for severity and mortality associated with COVID-19. We tried to study the effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the severity as well as outcome of COVID-19. Material and methods: A total of 180 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study and were then screened for history of COPD. There were 49 patients with history of COPD and 131 patients with no history of COPD. Inflammatory markers and HRCT scores were assessed for all the patients and they were followed up to study the outcome. Result: COPD was significantly associated HRCT Score, inflammatory markers and outcome. The mean HRCT Score for patients with COPD was more in COPD group (15.39 +/- 4.65) when compared with Non-COPD group (9.39 +/- 3.98). Mortality was also significantly higher in patients with COPD (67.3%) when compared to the patients without COPD (3.3%). Conclusion: We conclude that COPD is an important factor which has to be considered while treating the patients of COVID-19 especially in the rural India where lockdown restrictions and lack of knowledge have provided hinderance in achieving optimal follow up as there is increased severity and mortality associated with it.

16.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880703
17.
Human Communication Research ; : 27, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868325

ABSTRACT

Social bots, or algorithmic agents that amplify certain viewpoints and interact with selected actors on social media, may influence online discussion, news attention, or even public opinion through coordinated action. Previous research has documented the presence of bot activities and developed detection algorithms. Yet, how social bots influence attention dynamics of the hybrid media system remains understudied. Leveraging a large collection of both tweets (N = 1,657,551) and news stories (N = 50,356) about the early COVID-19 pandemic, we employed bot detection techniques, structural topic modeling, and time series analysis to characterize the temporal associations between the topics Twitter bots tend to amplify and subsequent news coverage across the partisan spectrum. We found that bots represented 8.98% of total accounts, selectively promoted certain topics and predicted coverage aligned with partisan narratives. Our macro-level longitudinal description highlights the role of bots as algorithmic communicators and invites future research to explain micro-level causal mechanisms.

18.
COVID-19 by Cases: A Pandemic Review ; : 295-314, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1837790
19.
Journal of Clinical Neonatology ; 11(2):139-142, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822509

ABSTRACT

In the face of the emergence of COVID-19, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in neonates, which is associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, has increasingly been reported. The clinical presentation and evolution of multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) mimics neonatal diseases such as sepsis. Because of the similarities, these cases present clinical and laboratory peculiarities that necessitate distinguishing them from more common neonatal illnesses to reach a consensus on this new disease in the future. Here, we present two cases from India in which neonates had MIS-like manifestations but were later diagnosed with sepsis and metabolic disorder, posing a management dilemma.

20.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections revealed a protective effect of the intervention. Since then, 20 new RCTs have been completed. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D for ARI prevention using a random effects model. Pre-specified sub-group analyses were done to determine whether effects of vitamin D on risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration or dosing regimen. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry from inception to 1st May 2020. Double-blind RCTs of supplementation with vitamin D or calcidiol, of any duration, were eligible if they were approved by a Research Ethics Committee and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and pre-specified as an efficacy outcome. Aggregate data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration, were obtained from study authors. The study was registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42020190633). FINDINGS: We identified 45 eligible RCTs (total 73,384 participants). Data were obtained for 46,331 (98.0%) of 47,262 participants in 42 studies, aged 0 to 95 years. For the primary comparison of vitamin D supplementation vs. placebo, the intervention reduced risk of ARI overall (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99;P for heterogeneity 0.01). No statistically significant effect of vitamin D was seen for any of the sub-groups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects were seen for trials in which vitamin D was given using a daily dosing regimen (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93);at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.89);and for a duration of <=12 months (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.93). No significant interaction was seen between allocation to vitamin D vs. placebo and dose frequency, dose size, or study duration. Vitamin D did not influence the proportion of participants experiencing at least one serious adverse event (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.09). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials. A funnel plot showed left-sided asymmetry (P=0.008, Egger's test). INTERPRETATION: Vitamin D supplementation was safe and reduced risk of ARI, despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU vitamin D for up to 12 months. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires investigation. FUNDING: None.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL