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1.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231385

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: End-stage lung disease from severe COVID-19 infection is an increasingly common indication for lung transplantation (LT), but there are limited data on outcomes. We evaluated 1-year COVID-19 LT outcomes. METHODS: We identified all adult US LT recipients January 2020 to October 2022 in the Scientific Registry for Transplant Recipients, using diagnosis codes to identify recipients transplanted for COVID-19. We used multivariable regression to compare in-hospital acute rejection, prolonged ventilator support, tracheostomy, dialysis, and 1-year mortality between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 recipients, adjusting for donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics. RESULTS: LT for COVID-19 increased from 0.8% to 10.7% of total LT volume during 2020 to 2021. The number of centers performing LT for COVID-19 increased from 12 to 50. Recipients transplanted for COVID-19 were younger; were more likely to be male and Hispanic; were more likely to be on a ventilator, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and dialysis pre-LT; were more likely to receive bilateral LT; and had higher lung allocation score and shorter waitlist time than other recipients (all P values < .001). COVID-19 LT had higher risk of prolonged ventilator support (adjusted odds ratio, 2.28; P < .001), tracheostomy (adjusted odds ratio 5.3; P < .001), and longer length of stay (median, 27 vs 19 days; P < .001). Risk of in-hospital acute rejection (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99; P = .95) and 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.73; P = .12) were similar for COVID-19 LTs and LTs for other indications, even accounting for center-level differences. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 LT is associated with higher risk of immediate postoperative complications but similar risk of 1-year mortality despite more severe pre-LT illness. These encouraging results support the ongoing use of LT for COVID-19-related lung disease.

2.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 42(7): 953-963, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections (RVI) are associated with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and mortality in lung transplant recipients (LTRs). However, the prevalence and impact of secondary invasive fungal infections (IFIs) post RVIs in LTRs have not been investigated. METHODS: We performed a single center retrospective study including LTRs diagnosed with 5 different respiratory viral pathogens between January 2010 to May 2021 and evaluated their clinical outcomes in 1 year. The risk factors of IFIs were evaluated by logistic regression. The impact of IFIs on CLAD stage progression/death was examined by Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 202 RVI episodes (50 influenza, 31 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, 30 metapneumovirus, 44 parainfluenza, and 47 respiratory syncytial virus) in 132 patients was included for analysis. Thirty-one episodes (15%) were associated with secondary IFIs, and 27 occurred in LTRs with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI; 28% from 96 LRTI episodes). Aspergillosis was the most common IFI (80%). LTRs with IFIs had higher disease severity during RVI episodes. In multivariable analysis, RVI with LTRI was associated with IFI (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 7.85 (2.48-24.9). Secondary IFIs were associated with CLAD stage progression/death after accounting for LRTI, pre-existing CLAD, intensive care unit admission, secondary bacterial pneumonia and underlying lung diseases pre-transplant with adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI) of 2.45 (1.29-4.64). CONCLUSIONS: This cohort demonstrated 15% secondary IFI prevalence in LTRs with RVIs. Importantly, secondary IFIs were associated with CLAD stage progression/death, underscoring the importance of screening for fungal infections in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Lung Transplantation , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , Lung , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Allografts , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects
4.
Transplant Direct ; 8(1): e1268, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few reports have focused on newer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapies (remdesivir, dexamethasone, and convalescent plasma) in solid organ transplant recipients; concerns had been raised regarding possible adverse impact on allograft function or secondary infections. METHODS: We studied 77 solid organ transplant inpatients with COVID-19 during 2 therapeutic eras (Era 1: March-May 2020, 21 patients; and Era 2: June-November 2020, 56 patients) and 52 solid organ transplant outpatients. RESULTS: In Era 1, no patients received remdesivir or dexamethasone, and 4 of 21 (19.4%) received convalescent plasma, whereas in Era 2, remdesivir (24/56, 42.9%), dexamethasone (24/56, 42.9%), and convalescent plasma (40/56, 71.4%) were commonly used. Mortality was low across both eras, 4 of 77 (5.6%), and rejection occurred in only 2 of 77 (2.8%) inpatients; infections were similar in hypoxemic patients with or without dexamethasone. Preexisting graft dysfunction was associated with greater need for hospitalization, higher severity score, and lower survival. Acute kidney injury was present in 37.3% of inpatients; renal function improved more rapidly in patients who received remdesivir and convalescent plasma. Post-COVID-19 renal and liver function were comparable between eras, out to 90 d. CONCLUSIONS: Newer COVID-19 therapies did not appear to have a deleterious effect on allograft function, and infectious complications were comparable.

10.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(4): 458-466, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a marker of underlying lung allograft injury, donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) may be used to identify episodes of acute allograft injury in lung transplant recipients. We investigated the utility of dd-cfDNA to monitor subjects at risk of acute rejection or infection in routine clinical practice. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study collected data from lung transplant recipients within 3 years of transplant at 4 centers between March 24, 2020 and September 1, 2020. During this period, as part of routine care during the COVID-19 pandemic, these centers implemented a home-based surveillance program using plasma dd-cfDNA in preference to surveillance bronchoscopy. Dd-cfDNA was used to detect acute lung allograft dysfunction (ALAD) - a composite endpoint of acute rejection and infection. dd-cfDNA levels in patients with ALAD were compared to stable patients. The performance characteristics of dd-cfDNA ≥ 1.0% to detect ALAD were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 175 patients underwent 380 dd-cfDNA measurements, of which 290 were for routine surveillance purposes. dd-cfDNA was higher in patients with ALAD than stable patients (Median (IQR) 1.7% (0.63, 3.1) vs 0.35% (0.22, 0.79), p < 0.001). As an indication of underlying ALAD during surveillance testing, the estimated sensitivity of dd-cfDNA ≥1% was 73.9%, specificity of 87.7%, positive predictive value of 43.4% and negative predictive value of 96.5%. CONCLUSIONS: dd-cfDNA identified acute lung allograft dysfunction in asymptomatic lung transplant patients that may not have been identified by using a clinically indicated biopsy strategy alone. dd-cfDNA <1.0% may be useful in ruling out acute rejection and infection, supporting its use as a potential noninvasive marker for surveillance monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Kidney Transplantation , Allografts , Graft Rejection/genetics , Humans , Lung , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
11.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 40(12): 1579-1588, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While several studies have observed that solid organ transplant recipients experience diminished antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, data specific to heart and lung transplant (HT/LT) recipients remains sparse. METHODS: US adult HT and LT recipients completed their vaccine series between January 7 and April 10, 2021. Reactogencity and SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody were assessed after a priming dose (D1) and booster dose (D2). Modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to evaluate associations between participant characteristics and antibody development. RESULTS: Of 134 heart recipients, there were 38% non-responders (D1-/D2-), 48% booster responders (D1-/D2+), and 14% priming dose responders (D1+/D2+). Of 103 lung recipients, 64% were non-responders, 27% were booster responders, and 9% were priming dose responders. Lung recipients were less likely to develop antibodies (p < .001). Priming dose antibody response was associated with younger recipient age (p = .04), transplant-to-vaccination time ≥6 years (p < .01), and lack of anti-metabolite maintenance immunosuppression (p < .001). Pain at injection site was the most commonly reported reaction (85% after D1, 76% after D2). Serious reactions were rare, the most common being fatigue (2% after D1 and 3% after D2). No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: HT and LT recipients experienced diminished antibody response following vaccination; reactogenicity was comparable to that of the general population. LT recipients may exhibit a more impaired antibody response than HT recipients. While current recommendations are to vaccinate eligible candidates and recipients, further studies characterizing the cell-mediated immune response and clinical efficacy of these vaccines in this population are needed.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Heart Transplantation , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
12.
Transplantation ; 105(9): 2072-2079, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of COVID-19 on lung allograft function, rejection, secondary infection, and clinical outcomes in lung transplant recipients (LTRs) remain unknown. METHODS: A 1:2 matched case-control study was performed to evaluate rehospitalization, lung allograft function, and secondary infections up to 90 d after COVID-19 diagnosis (or index dates for controls). RESULTS: Twenty-four LTRs with COVID-19 (cases) and 48 controls were identified. Cases and controls had similar baseline characteristics and lung allograft function. LTRs with COVID-19 had higher incidence of secondary bacterial infection (29.2% versus 6.3%, P = 0.008), readmission (29.2% versus 10.4%, P = 0.04), and for-cause bronchoscopy (33.3% versus 12.5%, P = 0.04) compared with controls. At d 90, mortality in cases versus controls was 8.3% versus 2.1% (P = 0.21), incidence of invasive fungal infections in cases versus controls was 20.8% versus 8.3% (P = 0.13) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) decline ≥10% from baseline occurred in 19% of cases versus 12.2% of controls (P = 0.46). No acute cellular rejection, acute antibody-mediated rejection, or new donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies were observed among cases or controls within 90 d post index date. CONCLUSIONS: We found LTRs with COVID-19 were at risk to develop secondary infections and rehospitalization post COVID-19, compared with controls. While we did not observe post viral acute cellular rejection or antibody-mediated rejection, further studies are needed to understand if LTRs with COVID-19 who did not recover baseline lung function within 90 d have developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction stage progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/surgery , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Allografts , Comorbidity , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
13.
Am J Transplant ; 21(7): 2498-2508, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960766

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppression and comorbidities might place solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients at higher risk from COVID-19, as suggested by recent case series. We compared 45 SOT vs. 2427 non-SOT patients who were admitted with COVID-19 to our health-care system (March 1, 2020 - August 21, 2020), evaluating hospital length-of-stay and inpatient mortality using competing-risks regression. We compared trajectories of WHO COVID-19 severity scale using mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression, adjusting for severity score at admission. SOT and non-SOT patients had comparable age, sex, and race, but SOT recipients were more likely to have diabetes (60% vs. 34%, p < .001), hypertension (69% vs. 44%, p = .001), HIV (7% vs. 1.4%, p = .024), and peripheral vascular disorders (19% vs. 8%, p = .018). There were no statistically significant differences between SOT and non-SOT in maximum illness severity score (p = .13), length-of-stay (sHR: 0.9 1.11.4 , p = .5), or mortality (sHR: 0.1 0.41.6 , p = .19), although the severity score on admission was slightly lower for SOT (median [IQR] 3 [3, 4]) than for non-SOT (median [IQR] 4 [3-4]) (p = .042) Despite a higher risk profile, SOT recipients had a faster decline in disease severity over time (OR = 0.76 0.810.86 , p < .001) compared with non-SOT patients. These findings have implications for transplant decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic, and insights about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on immunosuppressed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Humans , Inpatients , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
14.
Curr Transplant Rep ; 7(4): 366-378, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898184

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Insufficient knowledge about COVID-19 and the potential risks of COVID-19 are limiting organ transplantation in wait-listed candidates and deferring essential health care in solid organ transplant recipients. In this review, we expand the understanding and present an overview of the optimized management of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: Transplant recipients are at an increased risk of severe COVID-19. The unique characteristics of transplant recipients can make it more difficult to identify COVID-19. Based on the COVID-19 data to date and our experience, we present testing, management, and prevention methods for COVID-19. Comprehensive diagnostic tests should be performed to determine disease severity, phase of illness, and identify other comorbidities in transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19. Outpatients should receive education for preventative measures and optimal health care delivery minimizing potential infectious exposures. Multidisciplinary interventions should be provided to hospitalized transplant recipients for COVID-19 because of the complexity of caring for transplant recipients. SUMMARY: Transplant recipients should strictly adhere to infection prevention measures. Understanding of the transplant specific pathophysiology and development of effective treatment strategies for COVID-19 should be prioritized.

15.
Am J Transplant ; 20(8): 2254-2259, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155106

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and rapidly spreading disease. There are limited published data on the epidemiology and outcomes of COVID-19 infection among organ transplant recipients. After initial flulike symptoms, progression to an inflammatory phase may occur, characterized by cytokine release rapidly leading to respiratory and multiorgan failure. We report the clinical course and management of a liver transplant recipient on hemodialysis, who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia, and despite completing a 5-day course of hydroxychloroquine, later developed marked inflammatory manifestations with rapid improvement after administration of off-label, single-dose tocilizumab. We also highlight the role of lung ultrasonography in early diagnosis of the inflammatory phase of COVID-19. Future investigation of the effects of immunomodulators among transplant recipients with COVID-19 infection will be important.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Renal Dialysis , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/surgery , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Reoperation , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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