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N Engl J Med ; 387(12): 1089-1098, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036975


BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death among patients with chronic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less. Whether SGLT2 inhibitors are effective in patients with a higher left ventricular ejection fraction remains less certain. METHODS: We randomly assigned 6263 patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 40% to receive dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or matching placebo, in addition to usual therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (which was defined as either an unplanned hospitalization for heart failure or an urgent visit for heart failure) or cardiovascular death, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. RESULTS: Over a median of 2.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 512 of 3131 patients (16.4%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 610 of 3132 patients (19.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.92; P<0.001). Worsening heart failure occurred in 368 patients (11.8%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 455 patients (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91); cardiovascular death occurred in 231 patients (7.4%) and 261 patients (8.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05). Total events and symptom burden were lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. Results were similar among patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% or more and those with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 60%, and results were similar in prespecified subgroups, including patients with or without diabetes. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the combined risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death among patients with heart failure and a mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DELIVER number, NCT03619213.).

Heart Failure , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left , Benzhydryl Compounds/adverse effects , Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Glucosides/adverse effects , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(9): e008354, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406681


BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the risk for in-hospital mortality of adults hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection with a history of heart failure (HF). METHODS: We examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to July 22, 2020, from 88 centers across the US participating in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease registry. The primary exposure was history of HF and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. To examine the association between history of HF and in-hospital mortality, we conducted multivariable modified Poisson regression models that included sociodemographics and comorbid conditions. We also examined HF subtypes based on left ventricular ejection fraction in the prior year, when available. RESULTS: Among 8920 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, mean age was 61.4±17.5 years and 55.5% were men. History of HF was present in 979 (11%) patients. In-hospital mortality occurred in 31.6% of patients with history of HF, and 16.9% in patients without a history of HF. In a fully adjusted model, history of HF was associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality (relative risk: 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.30]). Among 335 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in a fully adjusted model (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.10-1.79]; heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction relative risk: 1.06 [95% CI, 0.65-1.73]; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction relative risk, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.84-1.33]). CONCLUSIONS: Risk for in-hospital mortality was substantial among adults with history of HF, in large part due to age and comorbid conditions. History of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may confer especially elevated risk. This population thus merits prioritization for the COVID-19 vaccine.

COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Stroke Volume/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(10): e007218, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805484


Currently, South Asia accounts for a quarter of the world population, yet it already claims ≈60% of the global burden of heart disease. Besides the epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease already faced by South Asian countries, recent studies suggest that South Asians may also be at an increased risk of heart failure (HF), and that it presents at earlier ages than in most other racial/ethnic groups. Although a frequently underrecognized threat, an eventual HF epidemic in the densely populated South Asian nations could have dramatic health, social and economic consequences, and urgent interventions are needed to flatten the curve of HF in South Asia. In this review, we discuss recent studies portraying these trends, and describe the mechanisms that may explain an increased risk of premature HF in South Asians compared with other groups, with a special focus on highly relevant features in South Asian populations including premature coronary heart disease, early type 2 diabetes mellitus, ubiquitous abdominal obesity, exposure to the world's highest levels of air pollution, highly prevalent pretransition forms of HF such as rheumatic heart disease, and underdevelopment of healthcare systems. Other rising lifestyle-related risk factors such as use of tobacco products, hypertension, and general obesity are also discussed. We evaluate the prognosis of HF in South Asian countries and the implications of an anticipated HF epidemic. Finally, we discuss proposed interventions aimed at curbing these adverse trends, management approaches that can improve the prognosis of prevalent HF in South Asian countries, and research gaps in this important field.

Epidemics , Heart Failure/ethnology , Age of Onset , Asia/epidemiology , Health Services Needs and Demand , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Humans , Needs Assessment , Prevalence , Preventive Health Services , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors