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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1780-1786, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835158

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the retinal microvascular changes in patients, recovered from severe COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic in North India. Methods: In this observational cross-sectional study, 70 eyes of 35 patients who recovered from severe COVID-19 during the second wave underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation 4-6 weeks after discharge. Twelve controls were also enrolled, and the difference in the findings between the case and control groups on optical coherence tomography (OCTA) were studied. Result: The ages of study participants ranged from 27 to 60 years with the male:female ratio being 1.05:1. The fundus changes suggestive of ischemia in the form of cotton wool spots and vascular tortuosity were seen in 25 eyes (35.71%). Increased venous tortuosity was the most common finding seen in 23 eyes (32.85%), of which 10 eyes (28.57%) had concurrent hypertensive retinopathy (HTR) changes. There was a significant reduction in the mean vascular density (VD) and perfusion density (PD) for both the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) at inner, outer ring, and whole (P < 0.05). Foveal avascular zone was significantly enlarged in both the SCP (P = 0.01) and the DCP (P = 0.03). The mean ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) was significantly reduced in comparison to controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 can result in microvascular changes at the macula in the form of reduction in vascular and perfusion density, which can be evaluated using OCTA. As structural changes precede functional changes, a close watch is recommended in patients showing compromise in retinal microvasculature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macula Lutea , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods
2.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; : 10499091221084653, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820074

ABSTRACT

The role of early Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) in hospitalized older adults (OAs) with SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. The objective of the study was to identify characteristics and outcomes associated with early DNR in hospitalized OAs with SARS-CoV-2. We conducted a retrospective chart review of older adults (65+) hospitalized with COVID-19 in New York, USA, between March 1, 2020, and April 20, 2020. Patient characteristics and hospital outcomes were collected. Early DNR (within 24 hours of admission) was compared to non-early DNR (late DNR, after 24 hours of admission, or no DNR). Outcomes included hospital morbidity and mortality. Of 4961 patients, early DNR prevalence was 5.7% (n = 283). Compared to non-early DNR, the early DNR group was older (85.0 vs 76.8, P < .001), women (51.2% vs 43.6%, P = .012), with higher comorbidity index (3.88 vs 3.36, P < .001), facility-based (49.1% vs 19.1%, P < .001), with dementia (13.3% vs 4.6%, P < .001), and severely ill on presentation (57.9% vs 32.3%, P < .001). In multivariable analyses, the early DNR group had higher mortality risk (OR: 2.94, 95% CI: 2.10-4.11), less hospital delirium (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.40-.77), lower use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV, OR: 0.37, 95% CI: .21-.67), and shorter length of stay (LOS, 4.8 vs 10.3 days, P < .001), compared to non-early DNR. Regarding early vs late DNR, while there was no difference in mortality (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.85-1.62), the early DNR group experienced less delirium (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: .40-.75), IMV (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29-.96), and shorter LOS (4.82 vs 10.63 days, OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.30-.41). In conclusion, early DNR prevalence in hospitalized OAs with COVID-19 was low, and compared to non-early DNR is associated with higher mortality but lower morbidity.

3.
Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg ; 38(3): 242-249, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593635

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To correlate the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features in Covid-associated Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis cases presenting with acute visual loss. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Covid-associated Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis cases with unilateral visual loss, planned for exenteration, underwent orbital and ophthalmological ocular examination. The available radiological sequences, doppler ultrasonography and histopathology findings were correlated with clinical manifestations. RESULTS: The median age was 51 years and the male: female ratio was 3:1. All except one presented with unilateral ophthalmoplegia. The ocular media were hazy in 2 eyes. In 8 eyes, retinal changes were suggestive of occlusion of CRA (6), combined occlusion of CRA and central retinal vein (1), and myopic degeneration with hypertensive retinopathy (1). The contralateral eye showed retinal ischemic changes in one patient. Radiological imaging showed orbital apex involvement in the 10 affected eyes and one contralateral eye. Ipsilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis, diffusion restriction on MRI of optic nerve, internal carotid artery narrowing/thrombosis, and cortical watershed infarcts were seen in 8, 4, 4, and 2 cases, respectively. The blood flow in CRA and ophthalmic artery was absent or reduced in all the 10 affected eyes and in 1 contralateral eye. On histopathology, orbital fat necrosis, fungal hyphae, acute inflammation, granuloma formation, ischemic thrombosis of ophthalmic artery was observed in 10 specimens. CRA was patent in 9 and thrombosed in 1 eye. Optic nerve was ischemic in 8 and viable in 2 eyes. CONCLUSION: Acute visual loss in ROCM cases is associated with orbital apex involvement and thrombotic ischemia of ophthalmic artery. Cessation of flow in CRA possibly occurs secondary to ophthalmic artery thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Orbital Diseases/etiology , Orbital Diseases/microbiology , Vision Disorders/diagnosis , Vision Disorders/etiology
4.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 15: 3505-3514, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To list the clinico-epidemiological profile and possible risk factors of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (CA-ROCM) patients presenting to a COVID dedicated hospital during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, single-center study was done on 60 cases of probable CA-ROCM based on clinical features and supportive diagnostic nasal endoscopic findings and/or radiologic findings. Patients with recent or active COVID-19 were included. The demographic profile, clinical features, possible risk factors and diagnostic workup (microbiological, pathological and radiological) were analysed to identify the triggering factors for CA-ROCM. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged from 29 to 75 years and male-female ratio was 3:1. The duration between the first positive COVID report and onset of CA-ROCM was 0 to 47 days. Forty-nine (81.66%) patients had a recent COVID infection and 11 (18.33%) had active COVID infection at presentation. Thirty-five patients (58%) had ocular/orbital involvement at presentation. In the affected eye, 10 had no perception of light and in the rest visual acuity ranged from log MAR 0 to +1.5. Ocular manifestations were ptosis (29), ophthalmoplegia (23), periocular tenderness and edema (33), proptosis (14), black discoloration of eyelids (3), facial palsy (3), endophthalmitis (4), retinal artery occlusion (8), disc edema (4) and disc pallor (5). Twenty-two (25%) patients had neither received steroids nor oxygen. Thirty patients (50%) were managed with oxygen while 38 patients (63.3%) with systemic steroids. The most common risk factor was diabetes in 59 patients. The average glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 10.31 ± 2.59%. Systemic Amphotericin B was started in all the patients. Radical surgical debridement was performed in 12 patients and the remaining were planned. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 variant with accompanying glycaemic dysregulation was found to be the triggering factor for the epidemic of CA-ROCM.

5.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 5(4): 567-572, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829357

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, minimizing exposure risk for patients with cancer and health care personnel was of utmost importance. Here, we present steps taken to date to flatten the curve at the radiation oncology division of a tertiary cancer center with the goal of mitigating risk of exposure among patients and staff, and optimizing resource utilization. Response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in this large tertiary referral center included volume reduction, personal protective equipment recommendations, flexible clinic visit interaction types dictated by need and risk reduction, and numerous social distancing strategies. We hope these outlined considerations can assist the wider radiation oncology community as we collectively face this ongoing challenge.

6.
Cureus ; 12(5): e8054, 2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601018

ABSTRACT

Current literature has documented numerous different presentations of SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19). Common symptoms include fever, cough and shortness of breath, however, lack of these symptoms does not exclude COVID-19. Given the incomplete understanding of the virus at this time, healthcare professionals must continue to remain informed of the vast number of clinical presentations of the virus to ensure early supportive treatment, ideally leading to improved outcomes.

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