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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321124

ABSTRACT

Background: The management of COVID-19 in organ transplant recipients is among the most imperative, yet less discussed, issues based on their immunocompromised status along with their vast post-transplant medication regimens. No conclusive study has been published to evaluate proper anti-viral and immunomodulator medications effect in treating COVID-19 patients to this date. Method: This retrospective study was conducted in Shiraz Transplant Hospital, Iran from March 2020 to May 2021 and included COVID-19 diagnosed patients based on SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive test who had been hospitalized for at least 48 hours before enrolling in the study. Clinical and demographic information of patients, along with their treatment course and the medication used were evaluated and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 245 patients with a mean age of 49.59 years were included with a mortality rate of 8.16%. The administration of Remdesivir as an anti-viral drug (P-value˂0.001) and Tocilizumab as an immunomodulator drug (P-value < 0.001) could reduce the hospitalization period in the hospital and the intensive care unit, as well as the mortality rates significantly. Meanwhile, the patients treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir experienced a lower chance of survival (OR < 1, P-value = 0.04). No significant difference was observed between various therapeutic regimens in clinical complications such as bacterial coinfections, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal adverse reactions, and liver or kidney dysfunctions. Conclusion The administration of Remdesivir as an anti-viral and Tocilizumab as an immunomodulatory drug in SOT recipients could be promising treatments of choice to manage COVID-19.

2.
Virol J ; 18(1): 228, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The management of COVID-19 in organ transplant recipients is among the most imperative, yet less discussed, issues based on their immunocompromised status along with their vast post-transplant medication regimens. No conclusive study has been published to evaluate proper anti-viral and immunomodulator medications effect in treating COVID-19 patients to this date. METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted in Shiraz Transplant Hospital, Iran from March 2020 to May 2021 and included COVID-19 diagnosed patients based on SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive test who had been hospitalized for at least 48 h before enrolling in the study. Clinical and demographic information of patients, along with their treatment course and the medication used were evaluated and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 245 patients with a mean age of 49.59 years were included with a mortality rate of 8.16%. The administration of Remdesivir as an anti-viral drug (P value < 0.001) and Tocilizumab as an immunomodulator drug (P value < 0.001) could reduce the hospitalization period in the hospital and the intensive care unit, as well as the mortality rates significantly. Meanwhile, the patients treated with Lopinavir/Ritonavir experienced a lower chance of survival (OR < 1, P value = 0.04). No significant difference was observed between various therapeutic regimens in clinical complications such as bacterial coinfections, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal adverse reactions, and liver or kidney dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: The administration of Remdesivir as an anti-viral and Tocilizumab as an immunomodulatory drug in solid-organ transplant recipients could be promising treatments of choice to manage COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(6): 1650-1661, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214420

ABSTRACT

No proven remedy is identified for COVID-19 yet. SARS-CoV-2, the viral agent, is recognized by some endosomal and cytosolic receptors following cell entry, entailing innate and adaptive immunity stimulation, notably through interferon induction. Impairment in immunity activation in some patients, mostly elderlies, leads to high mortalities; thus, promoting immune responses may help. BCG vaccine is under investigation to prevent COVID-19 due to its non-specific effects on the immune system. However, other complementary immune-induction methods at early stages of the disease may be needed. Here, the potentially preventive immunologic effects of BCG and influenza vaccination are compared with the immune response defects caused by aging and COVID-19. BCG co-administration with interferon-α/-ß, or influenza vaccine is suggested to overcome its shortcomings in interferon signaling against COVID-19. However, further studies are highly recommended to assess the outcomes of such interventions considering their probable adverse effects especially augmented innate immune responses and overproduction of proinflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
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