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Cureus ; 14(12), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2203374


IntroductionDespite the availability of a vaccine and extensive vaccination, breakthrough infections are commonly noted, which is jeopardizing the vaccine-based protection against COVID-19. The present study aims to evaluate COVID-19 breakthrough infections and to compare the clinical profile and outcomes of the vaccinated and unvaccinated populations. MethodsA retrospective observational study was conducted for two months (March-April 2021), and all cases reported during the study period were included in the study. Socio-demographic details, COVID-19 profiles, clinical outcomes, vaccination statuses, and types of vaccine were collected from the patients. Further, COVID-19-positive samples were screened for lineages using next-generation sequencing (NGS).ResultsOf the total 103 patients included in the study, 79 (76.7%) were symptomatic and 24 (23.3%) were asymptomatic. Only 32% were vaccinated and 68% were unvaccinated. 29.2% were hospitalized due to COVID-19 and all of them were unvaccinated. The mortality among hospitalized patients was extremely high (60%). The time to positivity after complete vaccination was noted to be 37.09±23.74 days. The unvaccinated study participants showed lower Cycle threshold (Ct) values (E Gene/N Gene: 17.38±4.53) as compared to the vaccinated people (E Gene/N Gene: 22±4.25). The Delta (B. 1.1. 629) (76.7%) was the predominant variant among the study population followed by AY.4 (20.4%) and Kappa (2.9%) variants.ConclusionAlthough the vaccination does not restrict/avoid infection, it appears to protect the vaccinated people from severe forms of COVID-19. Also, the higher Ct values among vaccinated people indicate that the viral load among such people may be lower and, therefore, minimizes viral transmission.

Micro and Nanosystems ; 14(2):156-165, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875264


The novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that has emerged and spread throughout the world causing CoV disease-19 (COVID-19) has since its discovery affected not only humans and animals but also the environment. Because of the highly infectious nature of the virus, and the respiratory aerosol transmission route, face masks and personal protective equipment have become mandatory for public and healthcare workers, respectively. Also, the complex nature of the pathogenicity of the virus, wherein, it has been associated with mild, moderate, and severe life-threatening infections, has warranted increased laboratory testing and placing the infected people in isolation and under constant observation in quarantine centers or at dedicated hospitals. Some infected people, who are generally healthy, and do not show symptoms have been placed in home quarantines. At this juncture, there has been increased amount of Biomedical Waste (BMW), and infectious general waste along with plastic disposable recyclable and non-recyclable waste. The increased BMW along with the potentially hazardous plastic waste collection, segregation, transport, and disposal has assumed increased significance during the ongoing pandemic. Therefore, this review attempts to investigate the current scenario of BMW management and strategies to minimize BMW and prevent potential environmental pollution. © 2022 Bentham Science Publishers.