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1.
Elife ; 112022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776585

ABSTRACT

Despite mass public health efforts, the SARS-CoV2 pandemic continues as of late 2021 with resurgent case numbers in many parts of the world. The emergence of SARS-CoV2 variants of concern (VoCs) and evidence that existing vaccines that were designed to protect from the original strains of SARS-CoV-2 may have reduced potency for protection from infection against these VoC is driving continued development of second-generation vaccines that can protect against multiple VoC. In this report, we evaluated an alphavirus-based replicating RNA vaccine expressing Spike proteins from the original SARS-CoV-2 Alpha strain and recent VoCs delivered in vivo via a lipid inorganic nanoparticle. Vaccination of both mice and Syrian Golden hamsters showed that vaccination induced potent neutralizing titers against each homologous VoC but reduced neutralization against heterologous challenges. Vaccinated hamsters challenged with homologous SARS-CoV2 variants exhibited complete protection from infection. In addition, vaccinated hamsters challenged with heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variants exhibited significantly reduced shedding of infectious virus. Our data demonstrate that this vaccine platform can be updated to target emergent VoCs, elicits significant protective immunity against SARS-CoV2 variants and supports continued development of this platform.


Since 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread worldwide and caused hundreds of millions of cases of COVID-19. Vaccines were rapidly developed to protect people from becoming severely ill from the virus and decrease the risk of death. However, new variants ­ such as Alpha, Beta and Omicron ­ have emerged that the vaccines do not work as well against, contributing to the ongoing spread of the virus. One way to overcome this is to create a vaccine that can be quickly and easily updated to target new variants, like the vaccine against influenza. Many of the vaccines made against COVID-19 use a new technology to introduce the RNA sequence of the spike protein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 into our cells. Once injected, our cells use their own machinery to build the protein, or 'antigen', so the immune system can learn how to recognize and destroy the virus. Here, Hawman et al. have renovated an RNA vaccine they made in 2020 which provides immunity against the original strain of SARS-CoV-2 in monkeys and mice. In the newer versions of the vaccine, the RNA was updated with a sequence that matches the spike protein on the Beta or Alpha variant of the virus. Both the original and updated vaccines were then administered to mice and hamsters to see how well they worked against SARS-CoV-2 infections. The experiment showed that all three vaccines caused the animals to produce antibodies that can neutralize the original, Alpha and Beta strains of the virus. Vaccinated hamsters were then infected with one of the three variants ­ either matched or mismatched to their vaccination ­ to see how much protection each vaccine provided. All the vaccines reduced the amount of virus in the animals after infection and mitigated damage in their lungs. But animals that received a vaccine which corresponded to the SARS-CoV-2 strain they were infected with had slightly better protection. These findings suggest that these vaccines work best when their RNA sequence matches the strain responsible for the infection; however, even non-matched vaccines still provide a decent degree of protection. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that the vaccine platform created by Hawman et al. can be easily updated to target new strains of SARS-CoV-2 that may emerge in the future. Recently, the Beta variant of the vaccine entered clinical trials in the United States (led by HDT Bio) to evaluate whether it can be used as a booster in previously vaccinated individuals as well as unvaccinated participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706054

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic moves into its third year, there remains a need for additional animal models better recapitulating severe COVID to study SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and develop countermeasures, especially treatment options. Pigs are known intermediate hosts for many viruses with zoonotic potential and are susceptible to infection with alpha, beta and delta genera of coronaviruses. Herein, we infected young (3 weeks of age) pigs with SARS-CoV-2 using a combination of respiratory and parenteral inoculation routes. Pigs did not develop clinical disease, nor macroscopic or microscopic pathologic lesions upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite occasional low levels of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA in the respiratory tract, subgenomic RNA and infectious virus were never found, and SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immune responses were not detectable over the 13-day study period. We concluded that pigs are not susceptible to productive SARS-CoV-2 infection and do not serve as a SARS-CoV-2 reservoir for zoonotic transmission.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319258

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an increased trend of systemic IL-10 and IL-6, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.Funding Information: This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing financial interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Approval of animal experiments was obtained from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Rocky Mountain Laboratories. Performance of experiments was done following the guidelines and basic principles in the United States Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Work with infectious SARS-CoV-2 strains under BSL3 conditions was approved by the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC). Inactivation and removal of samples from high containment was performed per IBC-approved standard operating procedures.

4.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637974

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a key predictor of severe COVID-19. To gain insight into this relationship, we used the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eight older and eight younger macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Animals were evaluated using viral RNA quantification, clinical observations, thoracic radiographs, single-cell transcriptomics, multiparameter flow cytometry, multiplex immunohistochemistry, cytokine detection, and lipidomics analysis at predefined time points in various tissues. Differences in clinical signs, pulmonary infiltrates, and virus replication were limited. Transcriptional signatures of inflammation-associated genes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 3 dpi revealed efficient mounting of innate immune defenses in both cohorts. However, age-specific divergence of immune responses emerged during the post-acute phase. Older animals exhibited sustained local inflammatory innate responses, whereas local effector T-cell responses were induced earlier in the younger animals. Circulating lipid mediator and cytokine levels highlighted increased repair-associated signals in the younger animals, and persistent pro-inflammatory responses in the older animals. In summary, despite similar disease outcomes, multi-omics profiling suggests that age may delay or impair antiviral cellular immune responses and delay efficient return to immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute Disease , Animals , Antibody Formation/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genomics , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Models, Biological , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription, Genetic
5.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(2): 213-223, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621245

ABSTRACT

The major transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 is airborne. However, previous studies could not elucidate the contribution between large droplets and aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Here, we designed and validated an optimized transmission caging setup, which allows for the assessment of aerosol transmission efficiency at various distances. At a distance of 2 m, only particles of <5 µm traversed between cages. Using this setup, we investigated the relative efficiency of aerosol transmission between the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant (B.1.1.7) and lineage A in Syrian hamsters. Aerosol transmission of both variants was confirmed in all sentinels after 24 h of exposure as demonstrated by respiratory virus shedding and seroconversion. Productive transmission also occurred after 1 h of exposure, highlighting the efficiency of this transmission route. Interestingly, after donors were infected with a mix of both variants, the Alpha variant outcompeted the lineage A variant in an airborne transmission chain. Overall, these data indicate that a lower infectious dose of the Alpha variant, compared to lineage A, could be sufficient for successful transmission. This highlights the continuous need to assess emerging variants and the development for pre-emptive transmission mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aerosols , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Female , Male , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
6.
Vet Pathol ; : 3009858211067468, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582697

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an emergent, amphixenotic infection that resulted in a pandemic declaration in March 2020. A rapid search for appropriate animal models of this newly emergent viral respiratory disease focused initially on traditional nonhuman primate research species. Nonhuman primate models have previously been shown to be valuable in evaluation of emerging respiratory coronaviruses with pandemic potential (ie, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus). In this article, we review the pulmonary histopathologic characteristics and immunohistochemical evaluation of experimental SARS-CoV-2 infection in the rhesus macaque, pigtail macaque, African green monkey, and squirrel monkey. Our results indicate that all evaluated nonhuman primate species developed variably severe histopathologic changes typical of coronavirus respiratory disease characterized by interstitial pneumonia with or without syncytial cell formation, alveolar fibrin, and pulmonary edema that progressed to type II pneumocyte hyperplasia. Lesion distribution was multifocal, frequently subpleural, and often more severe in lower lung lobes. However, squirrel monkeys showed the least severe and least consistent lesions of the evaluated nonhuman primates. Additionally, our results highlight the disparate physical relationship between viral antigen and foci of pulmonary lesions. While classic respiratory coronaviral lesions were observed in the lungs of all nonhuman primates evaluated, none of the primates exhibited severe lesions or evidence of diffuse alveolar damage and therefore are unlikely to represent the severe form of SARS-CoV-2 infection observed in fatal human cases.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296710

ABSTRACT

Despite mass public health efforts, the SARS-CoV2 pandemic continues as of late-2021 with resurgent case numbers in many parts of the world. The emergence of SARS-CoV2 variants of concern (VoC) and evidence that existing vaccines that were designed to protect from the original strains of SARS-CoV-2 may have reduced potency for protection from infection against these VoC is driving continued development of second generation vaccines that can protect against multiple VoC. In this report, we evaluated an alphavirus-based replicating RNA vaccine expressing Spike proteins from the original SARS-CoV-2 Alpha strain and recent VoCs delivered in vivo via a lipid inorganic nanoparticle. Vaccination of both mice and Syrian Golden hamsters showed that vaccination induced potent neutralizing titers against each homologous VoC but reduced neutralization against heterologous challenges. Vaccinated hamsters challenged with homologous SARS-CoV2 variants exhibited complete protection from infection. In addition, vaccinated hamsters challenged with heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variants exhibited significantly reduced shedding of infectious virus. Our data demonstrate that this vaccine platform elicits significant protective immunity against SARS-CoV2 variants and supports continued development of this platform.

8.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572667

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an altered, but not significantly different, systemic IL-10 and IL-6 profile, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, partially recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Lipid Metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Edema , Fibrin , Hemorrhage , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lipidomics , Lipids/blood , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugars , Vasculitis/pathology , Virus Shedding
9.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292809

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and resulted in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Several animal models have been rapidly developed that recapitulate the asymptomatic to moderate disease spectrum. Now, there is a direct need for additional small animal models to study the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for fast-tracked medical countermeasure development. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing the human SARS-CoV-2 receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [hACE2]) under a cytokeratin 18 promoter (K18) are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and that infection resulted in a dose-dependent lethal disease course. After inoculation with either 10 (4) TCID (50) or 10 (5) TCID (50) , the SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in rapid weight loss in both groups and uniform lethality in the 10 (5) TCID (50) group. High levels of viral RNA shedding were observed from the upper and lower respiratory tract and intermittent shedding was observed from the intestinal tract. Inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in upper and lower respiratory tract infection with high infectious virus titers in nasal turbinates, trachea and lungs. The observed interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary pathology, with SARS-CoV-2 replication evident in pneumocytes, were similar to that reported in severe cases of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration in the lungs and upregulation of Th1 and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Extrapulmonary replication of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of several animals at 7 DPI but not at 3 DPI. The rapid inflammatory response and observed pathology bears resemblance to COVID-19. Taken together, this suggests that this mouse model can be useful for studies of pathogenesis and medical countermeasure development. AUTHORS SUMMARY: The disease manifestation of COVID-19 in humans range from asymptomatic to severe. While several mild to moderate disease models have been developed, there is still a need for animal models that recapitulate the severe and fatal progression observed in a subset of patients. Here, we show that humanized transgenic mice developed dose-dependent disease when inoculated with SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19. The mice developed upper and lower respiratory tract infection, with virus replication also in the brain after day 3 post inoculation. The pathological and immunological diseases manifestation observed in these mice bears resemblance to human COVID-19, suggesting increased usefulness of this model for elucidating COVID-19 pathogenesis further and testing of countermeasures, both of which are urgently needed.

10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2173-2182, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493581

ABSTRACT

The continuing emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants calls for regular assessment to identify differences in viral replication, shedding and associated disease. In this study, we compared African green monkeys infected intranasally with either the UK B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant or its contemporary D614G progenitor. Both variants caused mild respiratory disease with no significant differences in clinical presentation. Significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus were found in upper and lower respiratory tract samples and tissues from B.1.1.7 infected animals. Interestingly, D614G infected animals showed significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus in rectal swabs and gastrointestinal tissues. Our results indicate that B.1.1.7 infection in African green monkeys is associated with increased respiratory replication and shedding but no disease enhancement similar to human B.1.1.7 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Host Specificity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/virology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
11.
mBio ; 12(4): e0150321, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327616

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with T cell lymphopenia, but no causal effect of T cell deficiency on disease severity has been established. To investigate the specific role of T cells in recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, we studied rhesus macaques that were depleted of either CD4+, CD8+, or both T cell subsets prior to infection. Peak virus loads were similar in all groups, but the resolution of virus in the T cell-depleted animals was slightly delayed compared to that in controls. The T cell-depleted groups developed virus-neutralizing antibody responses and class switched to IgG. When reinfected 6 weeks later, the T cell-depleted animals showed anamnestic immune responses characterized by rapid induction of high-titer virus-neutralizing antibodies, faster control of virus loads, and reduced clinical signs. These results indicate that while T cells play a role in the recovery of rhesus macaques from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections, their depletion does not induce severe disease, and T cells do not account for the natural resistance of rhesus macaques to severe COVID-19. Neither primed CD4+ nor CD8+ T cells appeared critical for immunoglobulin class switching, the development of immunological memory, or protection from a second infection. IMPORTANCE Patients with severe COVID-19 often have decreased numbers of T cells, a cell type important in fighting most viral infections. However, it is not known whether the loss of T cells contributes to severe COVID-19 or is a consequence of it. We studied rhesus macaques, which develop only mild COVID-19, similar to most humans. Experimental depletion of T cells slightly prolonged their clearance of virus, but there was no increase in disease severity. Furthermore, they were able to develop protection from a second infection and produced antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus. They also developed immunological memory, which allows a much stronger and more rapid response upon a second infection. These results suggest that T cells are not critical for recovery from acute SARS-CoV-2 infections in this model and point toward B cell responses and antibodies as the essential mediators of protection from re-exposure.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Lymphocyte Depletion/methods , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Male
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1284-1292, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268056

ABSTRACT

The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs). It is currently unclear whether the previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 provides protection against reinfection with VOCs. Here, we show that low dose aerosol exposure to hCoV-19/human/USA/WA-CDC-WA1/2020 (WA1, lineage A), resulted in a productive mild infection. In contrast, a low dose of SARS-CoV-2 via fomites did not result in productive infection in the majority of exposed hamsters and these animals remained non-seroconverted. After recovery, hamsters were re-exposed to hCoV-19/South African/KRISP-K005325/2020 (VOC B.1.351) via an intranasal challenge. Seroconverted rechallenged animals did not lose weight and shed virus for three days. They had a little infectious virus and no pathology in the lungs. In contrast, shedding, weight loss and extensive pulmonary pathology caused by B.1.351 replication were observed in the non-seroconverted animals. The rechallenged seroconverted animals did not transmit the virus to naïve sentinels via direct contact transmission, in contrast to the non-seroconverted animals. Reinfection with B.1.351 triggered an anamnestic response that boosted not only neutralizing titres against lineage A, but also titres against B.1.351. Our results confirm that aerosol exposure is a more efficient infection route than fomite exposure. Furthermore, initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 lineage A does not prevent heterologous reinfection with B.1.351 but prevents disease and onward transmission. These data suggest that previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure induces partial protective immunity. The reinfection generated a broadly neutralizing humoral response capable of effectively neutralizing B.1.351 while maintaining its ability to neutralize the virus to which the initial response was directed against.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Fomites/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Severity of Illness Index , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Replication
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(1): e1009195, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034958

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and resulted in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Several animal models have been rapidly developed that recapitulate the asymptomatic to moderate disease spectrum. Now, there is a direct need for additional small animal models to study the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for fast-tracked medical countermeasure development. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing the human SARS-CoV-2 receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [hACE2]) under a cytokeratin 18 promoter (K18) are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and that infection resulted in a dose-dependent lethal disease course. After inoculation with either 104 TCID50 or 105 TCID50, the SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in rapid weight loss in both groups and uniform lethality in the 105 TCID50 group. High levels of viral RNA shedding were observed from the upper and lower respiratory tract and intermittent shedding was observed from the intestinal tract. Inoculation with SARS-CoV-2 resulted in upper and lower respiratory tract infection with high infectious virus titers in nasal turbinates, trachea and lungs. The observed interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary pathology, with SARS-CoV-2 replication evident in pneumocytes, were similar to that reported in severe cases of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration in the lungs and upregulation of Th1 and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Extrapulmonary replication of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of several animals at 7 DPI but not at 3 DPI. The rapid inflammatory response and observed pathology bears resemblance to COVID-19. Additionally, we demonstrate that a mild disease course can be simulated by low dose infection with 102 TCID50 SARS-CoV-2, resulting in minimal clinical manifestation and near uniform survival. Taken together, these data support future application of this model to studies of pathogenesis and medical countermeasure development.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Keratin-18/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Keratin-18/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trachea/immunology , Trachea/virology
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(578)2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024212

ABSTRACT

Detailed knowledge about the dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is important for uncovering the viral and host factors that contribute to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Old-World nonhuman primates recapitulate mild to moderate cases of COVID-19, thereby serving as important pathogenesis models. We compared African green monkeys inoculated with infectious SARS-CoV-2 or irradiated, inactivated virus to study the dynamics of virus replication throughout the respiratory tract. Genomic RNA from the animals inoculated with the irradiated virus was found to be highly stable, whereas subgenomic RNA, an indicator of viral replication, was found to degrade quickly. We combined this information with single-cell RNA sequencing of cells isolated from the lung and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes and developed new analysis methods for unbiased targeting of important cells in the host response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Through detection of reads to the viral genome, we were able to determine that replication of the virus in the lungs appeared to occur mainly in pneumocytes, whereas macrophages drove the inflammatory response. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited to the lungs, rather than tissue-resident alveolar macrophages, were most likely to be responsible for phagocytosis of infected cells and cellular debris early in infection, with their roles switching during clearance of infection. Together, our dataset provides a detailed view of the dynamics of virus replication and host responses over the course of mild COVID-19 and serves as a valuable resource to identify therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology , Male , Mediastinum/pathology , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Load , Virus Replication
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