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3.
Mol Pharm ; 19(11): 4264-4274, 2022 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016525

ABSTRACT

Tracking the pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in live subjects may help estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vivo. This study developed a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer of the S2 subunit of spike (S) protein for imaging SARS-CoV-2. A pan-coronavirus inhibitor, EK1 peptide, was synthesized and radiolabeled with copper-64 after being conjugated with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triyl-triacetic acid (NOTA). The in vitro stability tests indicated that [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-EK1 was stable up to 24 h both in saline and in human serum. The binding assay showed that [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-EK1 has a nanomolar affinity (Ki = 3.94 ± 0.51 nM) with the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2. The cell uptake evaluation used HEK293T/S+ and HEK293T/S- cell lines that showed that the tracer has a high affinity with the S-protein on the cellular level. For the in vivo study, we tested [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-EK1 in HEK293T/S+ cell xenograft-bearing mice (n = 3) and pseudovirus of SARS-CoV-2-infected HEK293T/ACE2 cell bearing mice (n = 3). The best radioactive xenograft-to-muscle ratio (X/Nxenograft 8.04 ± 0.99, X/Npseudovirus 6.47 ± 0.71) was most evident 4 h postinjection. Finally, PET imaging in the surrogate mouse model of beta-coronavirus, mouse hepatic virus-A59 infection in C57BL/6 J mice showed significantly enhanced accumulation in the liver than in the uninfected mice (1.626 ± 0.136 vs 0.871 ± 0.086 %ID/g, n = 3, P < 0.05) at 4 h postinjection. In conclusion, our experimental results demonstrate that [64Cu]Cu-NOTA-EK1 is a potential molecular imaging probe for tracking SARS-CoV-2 in extrapulmonary infections in living subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , HEK293 Cells , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Copper Radioisotopes/chemistry , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Molecular Probes , Cell Line, Tumor
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 854788, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952377

ABSTRACT

Objective: The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset, that patients first developed symptoms. The potential risk factors were also explored. Methods: A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients' health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed. Findings: 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0-70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0-467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12-11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13-4.14) in females to males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3-198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity. Conclusions: 15-month follow-up in this study demonstrated the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients.

5.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(5): e14844, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776709

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that often correlate with the severity of COVID-19. Here, we explored the pathogenesis underlying the intestinal inflammation in COVID-19. Plasma VEGF level was particularly elevated in patients with GI symptoms and significantly correlated with intestinal edema and disease progression. Through an animal model mimicking intestinal inflammation upon stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, we further revealed that VEGF was over-produced in the duodenum prior to its ascent in the circulation. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 spike promoted VEGF production through activating the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling in enterocytes, but not in endothelium, and inducing permeability and inflammation. Blockage of the ERK/VEGF axis was able to rescue vascular permeability and alleviate intestinal inflammation in vivo. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation and therapeutic targets for the GI symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Enterocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 770982, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775662

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 is a major target for diagnosis and vaccine development because of its essential role in viral infection and host immunity. Currently, time-dependent responses of humoral immune system against various S protein epitopes are poorly understood. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), peptide microarray, and antibody binding epitope mapping (AbMap) techniques were used to systematically analyze the dynamic changes of humoral immune responses against the S protein in a small cohort of moderate COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized for approximately two months after symptom onset. Recombinant truncated S proteins, target S peptides, and random peptides were used as antigens in the analyses. The assays demonstrated the dynamic IgM- and IgG recognition and reactivity against various S protein epitopes with patient-dependent patterns. Comprehensive analysis of epitope distribution along the spike gene sequence and spatial structure of the homotrimer S protein demonstrated that most IgM- and IgG-reactive peptides were clustered into similar genomic regions and were located at accessible domains. Seven S peptides were generally recognized by IgG antibodies derived from serum samples of all COVID-19 patients. The dynamic immune recognition signals from these seven S peptides were comparable to those of the entire S protein or truncated S1 protein. This suggested that the humoral immune system recognized few conserved S protein epitopes in most COVID-19 patients during the entire duration of humoral immune response after symptom onset. Furthermore, in this cohort, individual patients demonstrated stable immune recognition to certain S protein epitopes throughout their hospitalization period. Therefore, the dynamic characteristics of humoral immune responses to S protein have provided valuable information for accurate diagnosis and immunotherapy of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Peptides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Radiology ; 295(3): 200463, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723927

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective study, chest CTs of 121 symptomatic patients infected with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) from four centers in China from January 18, 2020 to February 2, 2020 were reviewed for common CT findings in relationship to the time between symptom onset and the initial CT scan (i.e. early, 0-2 days (36 patients), intermediate 3-5 days (33 patients), late 6-12 days (25 patients)). The hallmarks of COVID-19 infection on imaging were bilateral and peripheral ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities. Notably, 20/36 (56%) of early patients had a normal CT. With a longer time after the onset of symptoms, CT findings were more frequent, including consolidation, bilateral and peripheral disease, greater total lung involvement, linear opacities, "crazy-paving" pattern and the "reverse halo" sign. Bilateral lung involvement was observed in 10/36 early patients (28%), 25/33 intermediate patients (76%), and 22/25 late patients (88%).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Young Adult
8.
Gut ; 69(6): 997-1001, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723830

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the GI symptoms in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. DESIGN: We analysed epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory data of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 caused coronavirus disease 2019. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in faeces and GI tissues. RESULTS: Among the 95 patients, 58 cases exhibited GI symptoms of which 11 (11.6%) occurred on admission and 47 (49.5%) developed during hospitalisation. Diarrhoea (24.2%), anorexia (17.9%) and nausea (17.9%) were the main symptoms with five (5.3%), five (5.3%) and three (3.2%) cases occurred on the illness onset, respectively. A substantial proportion of patients developed diarrhoea during hospitalisation, potentially aggravated by various drugs including antibiotics. Faecal samples of 65 hospitalised patients were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2, including 42 with and 23 without GI symptoms, of which 22 (52.4%) and 9 (39.1%) were positive, respectively. Six patients with GI symptoms were subjected to endoscopy, revealing oesophageal bleeding with erosions and ulcers in one severe patient. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and rectum specimens for both two severe patients. In contrast, only duodenum was positive in one of the four non-severe patients. CONCLUSIONS: GI tract may be a potential transmission route and target organ of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 27: 751-762, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586912

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a serious impact on the world. In this study, small RNAs from the blood of COVID-19 patients with moderate or severe symptoms were extracted for high-throughput sequencing and analysis. Interestingly, the levels of a special group of tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) were found to be dramatically upregulated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe symptoms. In particular, the 3'CCA tsRNAs from tRNA-Gly were highly consistent with the inflammation indicator C-reactive protein (CRP). In addition, we found that the majority of significantly changed microRNAs (miRNAs) were associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/unfolded protein response (UPR) sensors, which may lead to the induction of proinflammatory cytokine and immune responses. This study found that SARS-CoV-2 infection caused significant changes in the levels of stress-associated small RNAs in patient blood and their potential functions. Our research revealed that the cells of COVID-19 patients undergo tremendous stress and respond, which can be reflected or regulated by small non-coding RNA (sncRNAs), thus providing potential thought for therapeutic intervention in COVID-19 by modulating small RNA levels or activities.

11.
Sci Adv ; 7(50): eabi6802, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559211

ABSTRACT

Limited understanding of T cell responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has impeded vaccine development and drug discovery for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We found that triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) was induced in T cells in the blood and lungs of patients with COVID-19. After binding to SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein through its immunoglobulin domain, TREM-2 then activated the CD3ζ/ZAP70 complex, leading to STAT1 phosphorylation and T-bet transcription. In vitro stimulation with M protein-reconstituted pseudovirus or recombinant M protein, and TREM-2 promoted the T helper cell 1 (TH1) cytokines interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor. In vivo infection of CD4­TREM-2 conditional knockout mice with murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus A-59 showed that intrinsic TREM-2 in T cells enhanced TH1 response and viral clearance, thus aggravating lung destruction. These findings demonstrate a previously unidentified role for TREM-2 in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and suggest potential strategies for drug discovery and clinical management of COVID-19.

12.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 391, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Considering the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, there is an urgent need to develop effective treatments. At present, neutralizing antibodies and small-molecule drugs such as remdesivir, the most promising compound to treat this infection, have attracted considerable attention. However, some potential problems need to be concerned including viral resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization caused by selective pressure from a single antibody treatment, the unexpected antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect, and the toxic effect of small-molecule drugs. RESULTS: Here, we constructed a type of programmed nanovesicle (NV) derived from bispecific CAR-T cells that express two single-chain fragment variables (scFv), named CR3022 and B38, to target SARS-CoV-2. Nanovesicles that express both CR3022 and B38 (CR3022/B38 NVs) have a stronger ability to neutralize Spike-pseudovirus infectivity than nanovesicles that express either CR3022 or B38 alone. Notably, the co-expression of CR3022 and B38, which target different epitopes of spike protein, could reduce the incidence of viral resistance. Moreover, the lack of Fc fragments on the surface of CR3022/B38 NVs could prevent ADE effects. Furthermore, the specific binding ability to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the drug loading capacity of CR3022/B38 NVs can facilitate targeted delivery of remdesiver to 293 T cells overexpressing spike protein. These results suggest that CR3022/B38 NVs have the potential ability to target antiviral drugs to the main site of viral infection, thereby enhancing the antiviral ability by inhibiting intracellular viral replication and reducing adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we demonstrate that nanovesicles derived from CAR-T cells targeting the spike protein of SARS-COV-2 have the ability to neutralize Spike-pseudotyped virus and target antiviral drugs. This novel therapeutic approach may help to solve the dilemma faced by neutralizing antibodies and small-molecule drugs in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Models, Theoretical
13.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1180: 338881, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338317

ABSTRACT

Gut ecosystem has profound effects on host physiology and health. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Compared with other organs, gut antiviral response can result in more complicated immune responses because of the interactions between the gut microbiota and host immunity. However, there are still large knowledge gaps in the impact of COVID-19 on gut molecular profiles and commensal microbiome, hindering our comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the treatment of COVID-19. We performed longitudinal stool multi-omics profiling to systemically investigate the molecular phenomics alterations of gut ecosystem in COVID-19. Gut proteomes of COVID-19 were characterized by disturbed immune, proteolysis and redox homeostasis. The expression and glycosylation of proteins involved in neutrophil degranulation and migration were suppressed, while those of proteases were upregulated. The variable domains of Ig heavy chains were downregulated and the overall glycosylation of IgA heavy chain constant regions, IgGFc-binding protein, and J chain were suppressed with glycan-specific variations. There was a reduction of beneficial gut bacteria and an enrichment of bacteria derived deleterious metabolites potentially associated with multiple types of diseases (such as ethyl glucuronide). The reduction of Ig heave chain variable domains may contribute to the increase of some Bacteroidetes species. Many bacteria ceramide lipids with a C17-sphingoid based were downregulated in COVID-19. In many cases, the gut phenome did not restore two months after symptom onset. Our study indicates widely disturbed gut molecular profiles which may play a role in the development of symptoms in COVID-19. Our findings also emphasis the need for ongoing investigation of the long-term gut molecular and microbial alterations during COVID-19 recovery process. Considering the gut ecosystem as a potential target could offer a valuable approach in managing the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Ecosystem , Feces , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
NPJ Biofilms Microbiomes ; 7(1): 61, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322476

ABSTRACT

The human oral and gut commensal microbes play vital roles in the development and maintenance of immune homeostasis, while its association with susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is barely understood. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of the oral and intestinal flora before and after the clearance of SARS-CoV-2 in 53 COVID-19 patients, and then examined their microbiome alterations in comparison to 76 healthy individuals. A total of 140 throat swab samples and 81 fecal samples from these COVID-19 patients during hospitalization, and 44 throat swab samples and 32 fecal samples from sex and age-matched healthy individuals were collected and then subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and viral load inspection. We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with alterations of the microbiome community in patients as indicated by both alpha and beta diversity indexes. Several bacterial taxa were identified related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, wherein elevated Granulicatella and Rothia mucilaginosa were found in both oral and gut microbiome. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load in those samples was also calculated to identify potential dynamics between COVID-19 and the microbiome. These findings provide a meaningful baseline for microbes in the digestive tract of COVID-19 patients and will shed light on new dimensions for disease pathophysiology, potential microbial biomarkers, and treatment strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mouth/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 173, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worldwide pandemic of COVID-19 remains a serious public health menace as the lack of efficacious treatments. Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) characterized with elevated inflammation and multi-organs failure is closely correlated with the bad outcome of COVID-19. Hence, inhibit the process of CSS by controlling excessive inflammation is considered one of the most promising ways for COVID-19 treatment. RESULTS: Here, we developed a biomimetic nanocarrier based drug delivery system against COVID-19 via anti-inflammation and antiviral treatment simultaneously. Firstly, lopinavir (LPV) as model antiviral drug was loaded in the polymeric nanoparticles (PLGA-LPV NPs). Afterwards, macrophage membranes were coated on the PLGA-LPV NPs to constitute drugs loaded macrophage biomimetic nanocarriers (PLGA-LPV@M). In the study, PLGA-LPV@M could neutralize multiple proinflammatory cytokines and effectively suppress the activation of macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, the formation of NETs induced by COVID-19 patients serum could be reduced by PLGA-LPV@M as well. In a mouse model of coronavirus infection, PLGA-LPV@M exhibited significant targeted ability to inflammation sites, and superior therapeutic efficacy in inflammation alleviation and tissues viral loads reduction. CONCLUSION: Collectively, such macrophage biomimetic nanocarriers based drug delivery system showed favorable anti-inflammation and targeted antiviral effects, which may possess a comprehensive therapeutic value in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biomimetics , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Drug Carriers , Inflammation/prevention & control , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
NPJ Prim Care Respir Med ; 31(1): 33, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258582

ABSTRACT

Accurate prediction of the risk of progression of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is needed at the time of hospitalization. Logistic regression analyses are used to interrogate clinical and laboratory co-variates from every hospital admission from an area of 2 million people with sporadic cases. From a total of 98 subjects, 3 were severe COVID-19 on admission. From the remaining subjects, 24 developed severe/critical symptoms. The predictive model includes four co-variates: age (>60 years; odds ratio [OR] = 12 [2.3, 62]); blood oxygen saturation (<97%; OR = 10.4 [2.04, 53]); C-reactive protein (>5.75 mg/L; OR = 9.3 [1.5, 58]); and prothrombin time (>12.3 s; OR = 6.7 [1.1, 41]). Cutoff value is two factors, and the sensitivity and specificity are 96% and 78% respectively. The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve is 0.937. This model is suitable in predicting which unselected newly hospitalized persons are at-risk to develop severe/critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Infant , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Prognosis , Prothrombin Time , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
18.
Clin Respir J ; 15(8): 915-924, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging, rapidly evolving pandemic, hypertension is one of the most common co-existing chronic conditions and a risk factor for mortality. Nearly one-third of the adult population is hypertensive worldwide, it is urgent to identify the factors that determine the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: 148 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension with clarified outcomes (discharge or deceased) from a national cohort in China were included in this study, of whom 103 were discharged and 45 died in hospital. Multivariate regression showed higher odds of in-hospital death associated with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) > 28 pg/ml (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.55-6.91) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) > 7 pg/ml (HR: 3.63, 95% CI:1.54-8.55) at admission. Patients with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) (n = 52) which were defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg for more than once (≥2 times) during hospitalization, were more likely to have ICU admission (p = 0.037), invasive mechanical ventilation (p = 0.028), and renal injury (p = 0.005). A stricter BP control with the threshold of 130/80 mm Hg was associated with lower mortality. Treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) suppressors, including angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), and spironolactone, was associated with a lower rate of ICU admission compared to other types of anti-hypertensive medications (8 (22.9%) vs. 25 (43.1%), p = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Among COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension, elevated hs-cTn and IL-6 could help clinicians to identify patients with fatal outcomes at an early stage, blood pressure control is associated with better clinical outcomes, and RAAS suppressors do not increase mortality and may decrease the need for ICU admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , China/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2697, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225508

ABSTRACT

Although human antibodies elicited by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N) protein are profoundly boosted upon infection, little is known about the function of N-reactive antibodies. Herein, we isolate and profile a panel of 32 N protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from a quick recovery coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) convalescent patient who has dominant antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 N protein rather than to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The complex structure of the N protein RNA binding domain with the highest binding affinity mAb (nCoV396) reveals changes in the epitopes and antigen's allosteric regulation. Functionally, a virus-free complement hyperactivation analysis demonstrates that nCoV396 specifically compromises the N protein-induced complement hyperactivation, which is a risk factor for the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 patients, thus laying the foundation for the identification of functional anti-N protein mAbs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/drug effects , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Allosteric Regulation , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Complex/chemistry , Convalescence , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes , Humans , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Conformation
20.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(18): 20995-21006, 2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209173

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been diffusely pandemic around the world, characterized by massive morbidity and mortality. One of the remarkable threats associated with mortality may be the uncontrolled inflammatory processes, which were induced by SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients. As there are no specific drugs, exploiting safe and effective treatment strategies is an instant requirement to dwindle viral damage and relieve extreme inflammation simultaneously. Here, highly biocompatible glycyrrhizic acid (GA) nanoparticles (GANPs) were synthesized based on GA. In vitro investigations revealed that GANPs inhibit the proliferation of the murine coronavirus MHV-A59 and reduce proinflammatory cytokine production caused by MHV-A59 or the N protein of SARS-CoV-2. In an MHV-A59-induced surrogate mouse model of COVID-19, GANPs specifically target areas with severe inflammation, such as the lungs, which appeared to improve the accumulation of GANPs and enhance the effectiveness of the treatment. Further, GANPs also exert antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects, relieving organ damage and conferring a significant survival advantage to infected mice. Such a novel therapeutic agent can be readily manufactured into feasible treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Glycyrrhizic Acid/chemistry , Humans , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Murine hepatitis virus/drug effects , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , THP-1 Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Virus Diseases/pathology , Virus Replication/drug effects , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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