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1.
mBio ; 14(3): e0340822, 2023 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305930

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the main etiologic agent causing acute swine epidemic diarrhea, leading to severe economic losses to the pig industry. PEDV has evolved to deploy complicated antagonistic strategies to escape from host antiviral innate immunity. Our previous study demonstrated that PEDV downregulates histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) expression by binding viral nucleocapsid (N) protein to the transcription factor Sp1, inducing enhanced protein acetylation. We hypothesized that PEDV inhibition of HDAC1 expression would enhance acetylation of the molecules critical in innate immune signaling. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a crucial transcription factor regulating expression of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) and anti-PEDV immune responses, as shown by overexpression, chemical inhibition, and gene knockdown in IPEC-J2 cells. We further show that PEDV infection and its N protein overexpression, although they upregulated STAT1 transcription level, could significantly block poly(I·C) and IFN-λ3-induced STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear localization. Western blotting revealed that PEDV and its N protein promote STAT1 acetylation via downregulation of HDAC1. Enhanced STAT1 acetylation due to HDAC1 inhibition by PEDV or MS-275 (an HDAC1 inhibitor) impaired STAT1 phosphorylation, indicating that STAT1 acetylation negatively regulated its activation. These results, together with our recent report on PEDV N-mediated inhibition of Sp1, clearly indicate that PEDV manipulates the Sp1-HDAC1-STAT1 signaling axis to inhibit transcription of OAS1 and ISG15 in favor of its replication. This novel immune evasion mechanism is realized by suppression of STAT1 activation through preferential modulation of STAT1 acetylation over phosphorylation as a result of HDAC1 expression inhibition. IMPORTANCE PEDV has developed sophisticated evasion mechanisms to escape host IFN signaling via its structural and nonstructural proteins. STAT1 is one of the key transcription factors in regulating expression of ISGs. We found that PEDV and its N protein inhibit STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear localization via inducing STAT1 acetylation as a result of HDAC1 downregulation, which, in turn, dampens the host IFN signaling activation. Our study demonstrates a novel mechanism that PEDV evades host antiviral innate immunity through manipulating the reciprocal relationship of STAT1 acetylation and phosphorylation. This provides new insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms of PEDV and even other coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Swine , Interferon Lambda , Phosphorylation , Cell Line , Acetylation , Antiviral Agents , Transcription Factors , STAT1 Transcription Factor
2.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118120

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection causes huge economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. DNAJA3, a member of the Hsp40 family proteins, is known to play an important role in the replication of several viruses. However, it remains unknown if it interacts with PEDV. We found that DNAJA3 interacted with PEDV S1, initially with yeast two-hybrid screening and later with Co-IP, GST pull-down, and confocal imaging. Further experiments showed the functional relationship between DNAJA3 and PEDV in the infected IPEC-J2 cells. DNAJA3 overexpression significantly inhibited PEDV replication while its knockdown had the opposite effect, suggesting that it is a negative regulator of PEDV replication. In addition, DNAJA3 expression could be downregulated by PEDV infection possibly as the viral strategy to evade the suppressive role of DNAJA3. By gene silencing and overexpression, we were able to show that DNAJA3 inhibited PEDV adsorption to IPEC-J2 cells but did not affect virus invasion. In conclusion, our study provides clear evidence that DNAJA3 mediates PEDV adsorption to host cells and plays an antiviral role in IPEC-J2 cells.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Adsorption , Virus Replication , Vero Cells , Proteins/pharmacology
4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 908844, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933866

ABSTRACT

A stable and motivated CDC workforce is critical for Chinese public health system improvement in the post-pandemic period of COVID-19. Meanwhile, the lack of career development prospects, low income, low status and the widespread and increasingly serious job burnout of employees CDC staff is a complex and difficult problem for the government. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between CDC personnel subjective socioeconomic status and turnover intention using a sample of 2,502 grass-roots CDC personnel who were administered with a subjective socioeconomic status scale, turnover intention scale, job burnout scale, and payment questionnaire. The results showed that: (1) subjective socioeconomic status had a significant association with job burnout and turnover intention; (2) all three dimensions of job burnout played a mediating role in the relationship between subjective socioeconomic status and turnover intention; (3) expected salary change played a moderating role between subjective socioeconomic status and turnover intention. The effect was stronger for workers with low expected salary change, which means due to the multidimensional comparative and complex mechanism of salary change, which had limited effect on turnover intention. These findings provide a basis for the relationship between turnover intention and socioeconomic status of grass-roots CDC personnel, and also provide ideas for reducing job burnout and staff turnover.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911707

ABSTRACT

The health of people with chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) complications will worsen following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions and factors related to COVID-19 vaccination uptake between subgroups of DM inpatients with and without chronic complications in China. A multivariate logistic regression model was used for data analysis. Of the 645 participants, those without any complications reported significantly higher uptake of at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination (43.2% versus 11.2%, p < 0.001). For people with chronic DM complications, a perception of higher risk and severer consequences of COVID-19 infection, a belief that doctors would suggest they receive COVID-19 vaccination, and a belief that relatives' vaccination uptake would influence their own decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccination were all associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination uptake. For their counterparts without chronic complications, a perception of severer consequences of COVID-19 infection, a belief that receiving COVID-19 vaccination could reduce the risk of infection, and a belief that relatives' vaccination uptake would influence their own decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccination were all associated with higher COVID-19 vaccination uptake. Concerns about the safety and the side effects of vaccination were negatively associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in both groups of DM patients. Different strategies might be applied to promote COVID-19 vaccination uptake in DM patients with and without chronic complications.

6.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(3):19-25, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812839

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia has aroused worldwide concern and caused a huge social and economic burden. In the current resumption of work and production, departments involved should take scientific measures of prevention, control and quarantine. Due attention should be attached to every stage of public health efforts. Specific measures for prevention and control in different regions and at different levels should be made clear to prevent recurrence of the epidemic. Based on the current status of epidemic development and research progress, this article reviews the literature concerning virus characteristics, epidemiological characteristics, treatment and prevention and control, so as to improve readers' awareness of this disease and enhance self-protection awareness. Meanwhile, a comprehensive review of literature can provide reference for the effective control of the disease and help to win the battle in a scientific way.

7.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.05.02.490272

ABSTRACT

Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic condensates that often form as part of the cellular antiviral response. Despite the growing interest in understanding the interplay between SGs and other biological condensates and viral replication, the role of SG formation during coronavirus infection remains poorly understood. Several proteins from different coronaviruses have been shown to suppress SG formation upon overexpression, but there are only a handful of studies analyzing SG formation in coronavirus-infected cells. To better understand SG inhibition by coronaviruses, we analyzed SG formation during infection with the human common cold coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV2. We did not observe SG induction in infected cells and both viruses inhibited eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2) phosphorylation and SG formation induced by exogenous stress (e.g. sodium arsenite treatment). Furthermore, in SARS-CoV2 infected cells we observed a sharp decrease in the levels of SG-nucleating protein G3BP1. Ectopic overexpression of nucleocapsid (N) and non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1) from both HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 inhibited SG formation. The Nsp1 proteins of both viruses inhibited arsenite-induced eIF2 phosphorylation, and the Nsp1 of SARS-CoV2 alone was sufficient to cause decrease in G3BP1 levels. This phenotype was dependent on the depletion of cytoplasmic mRNA mediated by Nsp1 and associated with nuclear retention of the SG-nucleating protein TIAR. To test the role of G3BP1 in coronavirus replication, we infected cells overexpressing EGFP-tagged G3BP1 with HCoV-OC43 and observed a significant decrease in infection compared to control cells expressing EGFP. The antiviral role of G3BP1 and the existence of multiple SG suppression mechanisms that are conserved between HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV2 suggest that SG formation may represent an important antiviral host defense that coronaviruses target to ensure efficient replication.

8.
biorxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.03.10.483772

ABSTRACT

There is an outstanding need for broadly acting antiviral drugs to combat emerging viral diseases. Here, we report that thiopurines inhibit the replication of the betacoronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2, and to a lesser extent, the alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E. 6-Thioguanine (6-TG) disrupted early stages of infection, limiting synthesis of full-length and subgenomic HCoV RNAs. Furthermore, consistent with our previous report on the effects of thiopurines on influenza A virus (IAV) glycoproteins, we observed that 6-TG inhibited accumulation of Spike glycoproteins from diverse HCoVs. Specifically, 6-TG treatment decreased the accumulation of Spike proteins and increased their electrophoretic mobility to match the properties of Spike following enzymatic removal of N-linked oligosaccharides with Peptide:N-glycosidase F (PNGaseF). SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs) harvested from 6-TG-treated cells were deficient in Spike. 6-TG treatment had a similar effect on lentiviruses pseudotyped with SARS-CoV-2 Spike; lentiviruses could be harvested from cell supernatants, but they were deficient in Spike and unable to infect human cells bearing ACE2 receptors. Together, these findings from complementary ectopic expression and infection models strongly indicate that defective Spike trafficking and processing is an outcome of 6-TG treatment. At low micromolar doses, the primary known mode of action of 6-TG is selective inhibition of the small GTPase Rac1. However, we show that selective chemical inhibitors of the small GTPases Rac1, CDC42 and Rho had no effect on Spike processing and accumulation, whereas the broad GTPase agonist ML099 was able to counter the effects of 6-TG, suggesting that an unknown GTPase could be the relevant 6-TG-target protein involved in regulating Spike processing and accumulation. Overall, these findings provide important clues about the mechanism of action of a candidate antiviral that can broadly target HCoVs and suggest that small GTPases may be promising targets for host-targeted antivirals.

9.
iScience ; 24(10): 103186, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446742

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused over 220 million infections and 4.5 million deaths worldwide. Current risk factor cannot fully explain the diversity in disease severity. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of a broad range of patients' laboratory and clinical assessments to investigate the genetic contributions to COVID-19 severity. By performing GWAS analysis, we discovered several concrete associations for laboratory traits and used Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to further investigate the causality of traits on disease severity. Two causal traits, WBC counts and cholesterol levels, were identified based on MR study, and their functional genes are located at genes MHC complex and ApoE, respectively. Our gene-based analysis and GSEA revealed four interferon pathways, including type I interferon receptor binding and SARS coronavirus and innate immunity. We hope that our work will contribute to studying the genetic mechanisms of disease and serve as a useful reference for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment.

10.
J Virol ; 95(18): e0085321, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299218

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric coronavirus causing acute intestinal infection in pigs, with high mortality often seen in neonatal pigs. The newborns rely on innate immune responses against invading pathogens because of lacking adaptive immunity. However, how PEDV disables the innate immunity of newborns toward severe infection remains unknown. We found that PEDV infection led to reduced expression of histone deacetylases (HDACs), especially HDAC1, in porcine IPEC-J2 cells. HDACs are considered important regulators of innate immunity. We hypothesized that PEDV interacts with certain host factors to regulate HDAC1 expression in favor of its replication. We show that HDAC1 acted as a negative regulator of PEDV replication in IPEC-J2 cells, as shown by chemical inhibition, gene knockout, and overexpression. A GC-box (GCCCCACCCCC) within the HDAC1 promoter region was identified for Sp1 binding in IPEC-J2 cells. Treatment of the cells with Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A inhibited HDAC1 expression, indicating direct regulation of HDAC1 expression by Sp1. Of the viral proteins that were overexpressed in IPEC-J2 cells, the N protein was found to be present in the nuclei and more inhibitory to HDAC1 transcription. The putative nuclear localization sequence 261PKKNKSR267 contributed to its nuclear localization. The N protein interacted with Sp1 and interfered with its binding to the promoter region, thereby inhibiting its transcriptional activity for HDAC1 expression. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of PEDV evasion of the host responses, offering implications for studying the infection processes of other coronaviruses. IMPORTANCE The enteric coronavirus porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes fatal acute intestinal infection in neonatal pigs that rely on innate immune responses. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play important roles in innate immune regulation. Our study found PEDV suppresses HDAC1 expression via the interaction of its N protein and porcine Sp1, which identified a novel mechanism of PEDV evasion of the host responses to benefit its replication. This study suggests that other coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, also make use of their N proteins to intercept the host immune responses in favor of their infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epithelial Cells/virology , Histone Deacetylase 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Sp1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Sp1 Transcription Factor/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/pathology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
11.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology ; 65(5):343-352, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-889930

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes severe infectious diseases in all ages of swine and leads to serious economic losses. Serologic tests are widely accepted and used to detect anti-PEDV antibodies that could indicate PEDV infection or vaccination. In this study, PEDV recombinant S1 protein (rS1) was expressed with the Bac-to-Bac system and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on rS1 (rS1-ELISA) was then developed and optimized by checkerboard assays with serial dilutions of antigen and serum. Serum samples from 453 domestic pigs and 42 vaccinated pigs were analyzed by the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and rS1-ELISA. Taking IFA as a gold standard, rS1-ELISA produced a high sensitivity (90.7%) and specificity (94.6%) by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In addition, ROC analysis also revealed that rS1-ELISA was consistent with IFA (area under the curve 0.9583 +or- 0.0082). This rS1-ELISA was then applied to antibody detection in inactivated PEDV vaccinated pigs. The antibody could be detected 2-4 weeks after the first inoculation. These results indicated that the rS1-ELISA established in this study provides a promising and reliable tool for serologic detection of anti-PEDV IgG antibodies in infected or vaccinated pigs.

12.
Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis ; 32(5):779-788, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-823632

ABSTRACT

Normally, type III interferon (IFN-lambda) was highly expressed in intestinal mucosa and other mucosal systems, with relatively stronger broad-spectrum antiviral ability and immune regulating ability. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacorona virus (PDCoV) were two major intestinal pathogens causing diarrhea in piglets, which hindered the swine industry severely. In this study, the recombinant plasmid containing PoIFN-lambda3 fragment was constructed. The recombinant plasmid was then transformed into E.coli Rosaetta cells for recombinant expression. Analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting, the results showed that the recombinant PoIFN-lambda3 (27 ku) was successfully expressed in the inclusion bodies of E. coli cells. After denaturation, purification and renaturation, the active PoIFN-lambda3 recombinant protein was obtained and was used to treat IPEC-J2 cells. Challenged by recombinant PoIFN-lambda3, the immune-stimulating genes (ISGs), such as ISG15-, OAS1, Mx-1, IFIT1, IFITM1 and IFITM3 were all up-regulated significantly and reached to the peak (P 0.001) at 12 h post challenge. For PEDV and PDCoV infection in IPEC-J2, the virus replication was detected after pretreatment, simultaneous treatment and post-infection treatment of recombinant PoIFN-lambda3. Compared with the control, the viral copy numbers of both PEDV and PDCoV were decreased significantly (P 0.05) after treatment of recombinant PoIFN-lambda3. The above results indicated that the purified and renatured PoIFN-lambda3 recombinant protein could have good biological activity. The recombinant PoIFN-lambda3 can induce high expression of different ISGs in IPEC-J2, and can also inhibit PEDV and PDCoV replication in the host cells. In summary, our study provided a basis for preventing and treating viral diarrhea in piglets.

13.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.09.30.319863

ABSTRACT

Enveloped viruses utilize the host cell secretory pathway to synthesize viral glycoproteins and direct them to sites of assembly. Using an image-based screen, we identified two thiopurines, 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and 6-thioguanosine (6-TGo), that selectively disrupted the processing and accumulation of influenza A virus glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Selective disruption of IAV glycoprotein processing and accumulation by 6-TG and 6-TGo correlated with unfolded protein response (UPR) activation. 6-TG and 6-TGo also inhibited replication of the human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43), which correlated with UPR/ISR activation and diminished accumulation of ORF1ab and nucleocapsid (N) mRNAs, which suggests broader disruption of coronavirus gene expression in ER-derived cytoplasmic compartments. The chemically similar thiopurine 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) had little effect on the UPR and did not affect IAV or HCoV-OC43 replication. Consistent with reports on other CoV Spike (S) proteins, ectopic expression of SARS-CoV-2 S protein caused UPR activation. 6-TG inhibited accumulation of full length S0 or furin-cleaved S2 fusion proteins, but spared the S1 ectodomain. DBeQ, which inhibits the p97 AAA-ATPase required for retrotranslocation of ubiquitinated misfolded proteins during ER-associated degradation (ERAD) restored accumulation of S0 and S2 proteins in the presence of 6-TG, suggesting that 6-TG induced UPR accelerates ERAD-mediated turnover of membrane-anchored S0 and S2 glycoproteins. Taken together, these data indicate that 6-TG and 6-TGo are effective host-targeted antivirals that trigger the UPR and disrupt accumulation of viral glycoproteins. Importantly, our data demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of these thiopurines in limiting IAV and HCoV-OC43 replication in cell culture models.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 821, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-275428

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel emerging enteric coronavirus found in pigs. Intestinal enteroids, which partially recreate the structure and function of intestinal villi-crypts, have many physiological similarities to the intestinal tissues in vivo. Enteroids exhibit advantages in studying the interactions between intestines and enteric pathogens. To create a novel infection model for PDCoV, we developed an in vitro system to generate porcine intestinal enteroids from crypts of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of pigs. Enterocytes, enteroendocrine cells, Paneth cells, stem cells, proliferating cells, and goblet cells were found in the differentiated enteroids. Replication of PDCoV was detected in the cultured enteroids by immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR. Double immunofluorescence labeling demonstrated that PDCoV was present in Sox9-positive intestinal cells and Villin1-positive enterocytes. There were multiple cellular responses shown as changes of transcription of genes related to mucosal immunity, antiviral genes, and marker genes of stem cells and other cells in the enteroids infected with PDCoV. We conclude that the 2-D enteroids derived from porcine jejunum can be used as an in vitro multicellular model for the investigation of pathogenesis and host immune responses to porcine enteric pathogens, such as PDCoV.

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