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2.
Journal of Management in Engineering ; 37(3):1-14, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1164998

ABSTRACT

The rapid construction of emergency hospitals in areas with a severe COVID-19 outbreak was one of the effective ways to contain and fight the pandemic. However, such rapid construction megaprojects need more than a formal management system to drive the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) of participants in order to compensate for the lack of formal rules and regulations. Two emergency hospitals especially built for COVID-19 are taken as case studies in this paper to establish a mechanism model and examine the impact of the perceived strength of the COVID-19 event on the emergency megaproject citizenship behavior (EMCB) based on affective events theory (AET). Data from 340 project participants in the two hospitals were collected and tested using structural equation modeling. The results demonstrate that first, the positive affect induced by the COVID-19 event is the direct antecedent that promotes EMCB. Participants' cognition of event criticality and event novelty was seen to have a positive driving effect on the positive affect. However, their cognition of event urgency and event disruption only triggers negative affect. Second, the positive affect induced by the COVID-19 event was seen to have a strong positive and direct promoting effect on the six dimensions of EMCB. Contrary to expectations, the negative affect induced by the COVID-19 event does not significantly influence the six dimensions of EMCB. This study provides empirical suggestions for project managers on how to motivate EMCB through public emergency management to help achieve project objectives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Management in Engineering is the property of American Society of Civil Engineers and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

3.
Resour Conserv Recycl ; 168: 105467, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062578

ABSTRACT

Social impacts and serious damages caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have resulted in public introspection on the issue of ecological environmental protection. However, whether the public cognition of COVID-19 can promote pro-environmental behavioral intentions (PEBI) has not yet been determined; this is crucial for studying the ecological significance of the pandemic. Based on the affective events theory (AET), this study investigated the mechanism by which COVID-19 emergency cognition influences public PEBI. Following an analysis of 873 public questionnaires, the results reveal that public cognition of COVID-19 emergency can significantly promote PEBI. Among them, the effect of emergency coping is stronger than that of emergency relevance. Besides, the positive and negative environmental affective reactions aroused by COVID-19 pandemic play a mediating role between the emergency cognition and PEBI. Moreover, the positive environmental affective reactions show a stronger positive effect on household-sphere PEBI. However, the negative environmental affective reactions are more prominent in promoting public-sphere PEBI. This research aims to bridge a research gap by establishing a link between COVID-19 pandemic and PEBI. The findings can provide useful recommendations for policymakers to find the opportunity behind the COVID-19 emergency to promote public PEBI.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(15): 762-768, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of all confirmed cases with COVID-19 on admission at Tongji Hospital from 10 January to 12 February 2020 were collected and analyzed. The data on laboratory examinations, including peripheral lymphocyte subsets, were analyzed and compared between patients with severe and nonsevere infection. RESULTS: Of the 452 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 286 were diagnosed as having severe infection. The median age was 58 years and 235 were male. The most common symptoms were fever, shortness of breath, expectoration, fatigue, dry cough, and myalgia. Severe cases tend to have lower lymphocyte counts, higher leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as well as lower percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Most severe cases demonstrated elevated levels of infection-related biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines. The number of T cells significantly decreased, and were more impaired in severe cases. Both helper T (Th) cells and suppressor T cells in patients with COVID-19 were below normal levels, with lower levels of Th cells in the severe group. The percentage of naive Th cells increased and memory Th cells decreased in severe cases. Patients with COVID-19 also have lower levels of regulatory T cells, which are more obviously decreased in severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: The novel coronavirus might mainly act on lymphocytes, especially T lymphocytes. Surveillance of NLR and lymphocyte subsets is helpful in the early screening of critical illness, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/immunology , Cough/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Fever/immunology , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Chaos ; 30(4): 041101, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831315

ABSTRACT

Evolution and popularity are two keys of the Barabasi-Albert model, which generates a power law distribution of network degrees. Evolving network generation models are important as they offer an explanation of both how and why complex networks (and scale-free networks, in particular) are ubiquitous. We adopt the evolution principle and then propose a very simple and intuitive new model for network growth, which naturally evolves modular networks with multiple communities. The number and size of the communities evolve over time and are primarily subjected to a single free parameter. Surprisingly, under some circumstances, our framework can construct a tree-like network with clear community structures-branches and leaves of a tree. Results also show that new communities will absorb a link resource to weaken the degree growth of hub nodes. Our models have a common explanation for the community of regular and tree-like networks and also breaks the tyranny of the early adopter; unlike the standard popularity principle, newer nodes and communities will come to dominance over time. Importantly, our model can fit well with the construction of the SARS-Cov-2 haplotype evolutionary network.


Subject(s)
Community Networks , Models, Theoretical , Algorithms , Biological Evolution , Humans
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