Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 41
Filter
Add filters

Year range
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 753659, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556286

ABSTRACT

Background: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening complication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), but risk factors for COVID-19-associated IPA (CAPA) have not been fully characterized. The aim of the current study was to identify factors associated with CAPA, and assess long-term mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs from six hospitals was conducted in Hubei, China. CAPA was diagnosed via composite clinical criteria. Demographic information, clinical variables, and 180-day outcomes after the diagnosis of CAPA were analyzed. Results: Of 335 critically ill patients with COVID-19, 78 (23.3%) developed CAPA within a median of 20.5 days (range 13.0-42.0 days) after symptom onset. Compared to those without CAPA, CAPA patients were more likely to have thrombocytopenia (50 vs. 19.5%, p < 0.001) and secondary bacterial infection prior to being diagnosed with CAPA (15.4 vs. 6.2%, p = 0.013), and to receive vasopressors (37.2 vs. 8.6%, p < 0.001), higher steroid dosages (53.9 vs. 34.2%, p = 0.002), renal replacement therapy (37.2 vs. 13.6%, p < 0.001), and invasive mechanical ventilation (57.7 vs. 35.8%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis incorporating hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs), thrombocytopenia (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.16-3.37, p = 0.012), vasopressor use (HR 3.57, 95% CI 1.80-7.06, p < 0.001), and methylprednisolone use at a daily dose ≥ 40 mg (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.79, p = 1.02-2.79) before CAPA diagnosis were independently associated with CAPA. Patients with CAPA had longer median ICU stays (17 days vs. 12 days, p = 0.007), and higher 180-day mortality (65.4 vs. 33.5%, p < 0.001) than those without CAPA. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia, vasopressor use, and corticosteroid treatment were significantly associated with increased risk of incident IPA in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. The occurrence of CAPA may increase the likelihood of long-term COVID-19 mortality.

3.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 659793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497084

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) might benefit critically ill COVID-19 patients. But the considerations besides indications guiding ECMO initiation under extreme pressure during the COVID-19 epidemic was not clear. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality of severe critically ill COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO and without ECMO, exploring potential parameters for guiding the initiation during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: Observational cohort study of all the critically ill patients indicated for ECMO support from January 1 to May 1, 2020, in all 62 authorized hospitals in Wuhan, China. Results: Among the 168 patients enrolled, 74 patients actually received ECMO support and 94 not were analyzed. The in-hospital mortality of the ECMO supported patients was significantly lower than non-ECMO ones (71.6 vs. 85.1%, P = 0.033), but the role of ECMO was affected by patients' age (Logistic regression OR 0.62, P = 0.24). As for the ECMO patients, the median age was 58 (47-66) years old and 62.2% (46/74) were male. The 28-day, 60-day, and 90-day mortality of these ECMO supported patients were 32.4, 68.9, and 74.3% respectively. Patients survived to discharge were younger (49 vs. 62 years, P = 0.042), demonstrated higher lymphocyte count (886 vs. 638 cells/uL, P = 0.022), and better CO2 removal (PaCO2 immediately after ECMO initiation 39.7 vs. 46.9 mmHg, P = 0.041). Age was an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality of the ECMO supported patients, and a cutoff age of 51 years enabled prediction of in-hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 84.3% and specificity of 55%. The surviving ECMO supported patients had longer ICU and hospital stays (26 vs. 18 days, P = 0.018; 49 vs. 29 days, P = 0.001 respectively), and ECMO procedure was widely carried out after the supplement of medical resources after February 15 (67.6%, 50/74). Conclusions: ECMO might be a benefit for severe critically ill COVID-19 patients at the early stage of epidemic, although the in-hospital mortality was still high. To initiate ECMO therapy under tremendous pressure, patients' age, lymphocyte count, and adequacy of medical resources should be fully considered.

4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 694754, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485067

ABSTRACT

To investigate the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and evaluate whether CT scans, especially at a certain CT level, could be used to predict the severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. In total 118 confirmed patients had been enrolled. All data including epidemiological, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and images were collected and analyzed when they were administrated for the first time. All patients were divided into two groups. There were 106 severe/critical patients and 12 common ones. A total of 38 of the patients were women. The mean age was 50.5 ± 11.5 years. Overall, 80 patients had a history of exposure. The median time from onset of symptoms to administration was 8.0 days. The main symptoms included fever, cough, anorexia, fatigue, myalgia, headaches, and chills. Lymphocytes and platelets decreased and lactate dehydrogenase increased with increased diseased severity (P < 0.05). Calcium and chloride ions were decreased more significantly in severe/critical patients than in common ones (P < 0.05). The main comorbidities were diabetes, chronic cardiovascular disease, and chronic pulmonary disease, which occurred in 47 patients. In all 69 patients had respiratory failure, which is the most common SARS-CoV-2 complication, and liver dysfunction presented in 37 patients. Nine patients received mechanical ventilation therapy. One patient received continuous blood purification and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (EMCO) treatments. The average stay was 18.1 ± 10.8 days. Four patients died. The median of the radiographic score was four in common, and five in the severe/critical illness, which was a significant difference between the two groups. The radiographic score was in negative correlation with OI (ρ = -0.467, P < 0.01). The OI in severe/critically ill cases decreased significantly as the disease progressed, which was related to the lesion area in the left lung and right lungs (ρ = 0.688, R = 0.733). OI, the lesion area in the left lung and right lungs, lymphocytes, etc. were associated with different degrees of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (P < 0.05). The lesion area in both lungs were possible predictive factors for severe/critical cases. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia showed obvious clinical manifestations and laboratory result changes. Combining clinical features and the quantity of the lesion area in the fourth level of CT could effectively predict severe/critical SARS-CoV-2 cases.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 713333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472389

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a life-saving technique for patients with severe respiratory and cardiac diseases, is being increasingly utilized worldwide, particularly during the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) pandemic, and there has been a sharp increase in the implementation of ECMO. However, due to the presence of various complications, the survival rate of patients undergoing ECMO remains low. Among the complications, the neurologic morbidity significantly associated with venoarterial and venovenous ECMO has received increasing attention. Generally, failure to recognize neurologic injury in time is reportedly associated with poor outcomes in patients on ECMO. Currently, multimodal monitoring is increasingly utilized in patients with devastating neurologic injuries and has been advocated as an important approach for early diagnosis. Here, we highlight the prevalence and outcomes, risk factors, current monitoring technologies, prevention, and treatment of neurologic complications in adult patients on ECMO. We believe that an improved understanding of neurologic complications presumably offers promising therapeutic solutions to prevent and treat neurologic morbidity.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 611460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389196

ABSTRACT

Background: The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. Methods: A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. Results: The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO2/FiO2 of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO2 of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. Conclusions: In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.

8.
Matern Fetal Med ; 3(1): 24-32, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288126

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of women who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that developed in early pregnancy. Methods: This case series analyzed five pregnant women (26-33 years) whom recovered from COVID-19 which were developed in early pregnancy (6-27 weeks) and admitted at the Wuhan Union Hospital from January 15, 2020 to April 30, 2020. The clinical manifestation, laboratory examinations, treatment, pregnancy outcomes, maternal and neonatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) throat swab reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test results, and SARS-CoV-2 antibody test results in neonates were reviewed. The placental pathology, placental angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression were studied by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining, SARS-CoV-2 presence was examined by QT-PCR. We also followed up the infants at 3-6 months. Results: Three pregnant women were diagnosed with COVID-19 in early pregnancy (Cases 1-3), and two were serum immunoglobulin G positive asymptomatic cases (Cases 4 and 5). Cases 1-3 showed complete recovery after severe COVID-19. Case 3 was infected at 6 weeks of gestation during the first trimester and had induced medical abortion at 12 weeks of gestation. All neonates had no pneumonia, SARS-CoV-2 mRNA reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and serum immunoglobulin M were negative, and immunoglobulin G were positive. All placental samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 in the nucleic acid test. Placental pathology showed chronic ischemia changes. ACE-2 expressed in both placenta and decidua. The follow-up showed that the infants were healthy and asymptomatic at 3-6 months. Conclusion: No adverse outcomes was observed in our case series. However, systemic inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause placental injury. At the time of delivery after recovery from COVID-19, no SARS-CoV-2 positive results was found in the placenta in this case series.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 651545, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278391

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute, complex disorder that was caused by a new ß-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Based on current reports, it was surprising that the characteristics of many patients with COVID-19, who fulfil the Berlin criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), are not always like those of patients with typical ARDS and can change over time. While the mechanisms of COVID-19-related respiratory dysfunction in COVID-19 have not yet been fully elucidated, pulmonary microvascular thrombosis is speculated to be involved. Considering that thrombosis is highly related to other inflammatory lung diseases, immunothrombosis, a two-way process that links coagulation and inflammation, seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of COVID-19, including respiratory dysfunction. Thus, the current manuscript will describe the proinflammatory milieu in COVID-19, summarize current evidence of thrombosis in COVID-19, and discuss possible interactions between these two.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology
10.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 768-775, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217479

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma therapy has been implemented in a few cases of severe coronavirus disease 2019. No report about convalescent plasma therapy in treating patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been published. In this study, we conducted a retrospective observational study in 27 patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the clinical benefit of convalescent plasma therapy were analyzed. qRT-PCR test of SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned negative (≤ 7 days) in a part of patients (early negative group, n = 15) after therapy, others (late negative group, n = 12) turned negative in more than 7 days. Pulmonary imaging improvement was confirmed in 7 patients in early negative group and 8 in late negative group after CP therapy. Viral load decreased in early negative group compared with late negative group at day 3, 5, 7 after implementing convalescent plasma therapy. Patients in early negative group had a shorter median length of hospital stay. In conclusion, convalescent plasma therapy might help eliminate virus and shorten length of hospital stay in patients with prolonged positivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive/methods , RNA, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load
11.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 744-751, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217476

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has spread around the world with high mortality. To diagnose promptly and accurately is the vital step to effectively control its pandemic. Dynamic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies which are important for diagnosis of infection have not been fully demonstrated. In this retrospective, single-center, observational study, we enrolled the initial 131 confirmed cases of COVID-19 at Jin-Yin-Tan Hospital who had at least one-time antibody tested during their hospitalization. The dynamic changes of IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in 226 serum samples were detected by ELISA. The sensitivities of IgM and IgG ELISA detection were analyzed. Result showed that the sensitivity of the IgG ELISA detection (92.5%) was significantly higher than that of the IgM (70.8%) (P < 0.001). The meantimes of seroconversion for IgM and IgG were 6 days and 3 days, respectively. The IgM and IgG antibody levels peaked at around 18 days and 23 days, and then IgM fell to below the baseline level at about day 36, whereas IgG maintained at a relatively high level. In conclusion, antibodies should be detected to aid in diagnosis of COVID-19 infection. IgG could be a sensitive indicator for retrospective diagnosis and contact tracing, while IgM could be an indicator of early infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , China/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
13.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(3): 197-209, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145182

ABSTRACT

Although millions of patients have clinically recovered from COVID-19, little is known about the immune status of lymphocytes in these individuals. In this study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a clinically recovered (CR) cohort were comparatively analyzed with those of an age- and sex-matched healthy donor cohort. We found that CD8+ T cells in the CR cohort had higher numbers of effector T cells and effector memory T cells but lower Tc1 (IFN-γ+), Tc2 (IL-4+), and Tc17 (IL-17A+) cell frequencies. The CD4+ T cells of the CR cohort were decreased in frequency, especially the central memory T cell subset. Moreover, CD4+ T cells in the CR cohort showed lower programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression and had lower frequencies of Th1 (IFN-γ+), Th2 (IL-4+), Th17 (IL-17A+), and circulating follicular helper T (CXCR5+PD-1+) cells. Accordingly, the proportion of isotype-switched memory B cells (IgM-CD20hi) among B cells in the CR cohort showed a significantly lower proportion, although the level of the activation marker CD71 was elevated. For CD3-HLA-DR- lymphocytes in the CR cohort, in addition to lower levels of IFN-γ, granzyme B and T-bet, the correlation between T-bet and IFN-γ was not observed. Additionally, by taking into account the number of days after discharge, all the phenotypes associated with reduced function did not show a tendency toward recovery within 4‒11 weeks. The remarkable phenotypic alterations in lymphocytes in the CR cohort suggest that  severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection profoundly affects lymphocytes and potentially results in dysfunction even after clinical recovery.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Lineage/genetics , Cell Lineage/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Granzymes/genetics , Humans , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Box Domain Proteins/genetics , Th1 Cells/immunology , Th1 Cells/virology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th17 Cells/virology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/virology
14.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(3): e1259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120286

ABSTRACT

Objective: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic of COVID-19. The existence of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 positivity (PP) has further increased the burden on the health system. Since T cells are vital for viral control, we aimed to evaluate the characteristics of T-cell responses associated with PP. Methods: We established a PP cohort and two age- and sex-matched control cohorts: a regular clinical recovery (CR) cohort and a healthy donor (HD) cohort. The mean time for RNA negativity conversion in the PP cohort was markedly longer than that in the CR cohort (66.2 vs 25.3 days), while the time from illness onset to sampling was not significantly different. T-cell responses in the PP cohort were assayed, analysed and compared with those in the CR and HD cohorts by flow cytometry and ELISpot analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results: Compared with the CR cohort, the proliferation, activation and functional potential of CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the PP cohort were not significantly different. However, the frequencies and counts of Teff and Tem in CD8+ but not in CD4+ T cells of the PP cohort were prominently lower. Moreover, a weaker SARS-CoV-2 N protein-specific IFN-γ+ T-cell response and a higher frequency of Tregs were detected in the PP cohort. Conclusion: Suppressed CD8+ T-cell differentiation is associated with PP and may be an indicator for the prediction of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 positivity in COVID-19 patients. The association between suppressed CD8+ T-cell differentiation and elevated Tregs warrants studies in the future.

15.
Natl Sci Rev ; 7(7): 1157-1168, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114858

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global public health crisis. The symptoms of COVID-19 range from mild to severe, but the physiological changes associated with COVID-19 are barely understood. In this study, we performed targeted metabolomic and lipidomic analyses of plasma from a cohort of patients with COVID-19 who had experienced different symptoms. We found that metabolite and lipid alterations exhibit apparent correlation with the course of disease in these patients, indicating that the development of COVID-19 affected their whole-body metabolism. In particular, malic acid of the TCA cycle and carbamoyl phosphate of the urea cycle result in altered energy metabolism and hepatic dysfunction, respectively. It should be noted that carbamoyl phosphate is profoundly down-regulated in patients who died compared with patients with mild symptoms. And, more importantly, guanosine monophosphate (GMP), which is mediated not only by GMP synthase but also by CD39 and CD73, is significantly changed between healthy subjects and patients with COVID-19, as well as between the mild and fatal cases. In addition, dyslipidemia was observed in patients with COVID-19. Overall, the disturbed metabolic patterns have been found to align with the progress and severity of COVID-19. This work provides valuable knowledge about plasma biomarkers associated with COVID-19 and potential therapeutic targets, as well as an important resource for further studies of the pathogenesis of COVID-19.

16.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 10(1): 6-15, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096511

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the association between levels of highly sensitive troponin I (hs-troponin I) and mortality in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cardiac injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all COVID-19 patients with increased levels of hs-troponin I from two hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographic information, laboratory test results, cardiac ultrasonographic findings, and electrocardiograms were collected, and their predictive value on in-hospital mortality was explored using multivariable logistic regression. Of 1500 patients screened, 242 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in our study. Their median age was 68 years, and (48.8%) had underlying cardiovascular diseases. One hundred and seventy-six (72.7%) patients died during hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression showed that C-reactive protein (>75.5 mg/L), D-dimer (>1.5 µg/mL), and acute respiratory distress syndrome were risk factors of mortality, and the peak hs-troponin I levels (>259.4 pg/mL) instead of the hs-troponin I levels at admission was predictor of death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the peak levels of hs-troponin I for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.86; sensitivity, 0.80; specificity, 0.72; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the risk of in-hospital death among COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury can be predicted by the peak levels of hs-troponin I during hospitalization and was significantly associated with oxygen supply-demand mismatch, inflammation, and coagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Diseases/blood , Heart Diseases/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Troponin I/blood , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 607583, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084623

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading and has resulted in grievous morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the high infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2, the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms and could eventually recover as a result of their balanced immune function. On the contrary, immuno-compromised patients are prone to progress into severe or critical types underpinned by the entanglement of an overexuberant proinflammatory response and injured immune function. Therefore, well-coordinated innate and adaptive immune systems are pivotal to viral eradication and tissue repair. An in-depth understanding of the immunological processes underlying COVID-19 could facilitate rapidly identifying and choosing optimal immunotherapy for patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, based on current immunological evidence, we describe potential immune mechanisms and discuss promising immunotherapies for COVID-19, including IL-6R blockades, convalescent plasma, intravenous gamma globulin, thymosin alpha1, corticosteroids, and type-I interferon, and recent advances in the development of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 600989, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021898

ABSTRACT

SARS-coronavirus-2-induced immune dysregulation and inflammatory responses are involved in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, very little is known about immune cell and cytokine alterations in specific organs of COVID-19 patients. Here, we evaluated immune cells and cytokines in postmortem tissues, i.e., lungs, intestine, liver, kidneys, and spleen of three patients with COVID-19. Imaging mass cytometry revealed monocyte, macrophage, and dendritic cell (DC) infiltration in the lung, intestine, kidney, and liver tissues. Moreover, in patients with COVID-19, natural killer T cells infiltrated the liver, lungs, and intestine, whereas B cells infiltrated the kidneys, lungs, and intestine. CD11b+ macrophages and CD11c+ DCs also infiltrated the lungs and intestine, a phenomenon that was accompanied by overproduction of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. However, CD11b+ macrophages and CD11c+ DCs in the lungs or intestine of COVID-19 patients did not express human leukocyte antigen DR isotype. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was higher in the lungs, intestine, liver, and kidneys, but not in the spleen, of all COVID-19 patients (compared to levels in controls). Collectively, these findings suggested that IL-10 and TNF-α as immunosuppressive and pro-inflammatory agents, respectively,-might be prognostic and could serve as therapeutic targets for COVID-19.

20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 615845, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016068

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a large and increasing number of patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. The indication and optimal timing of tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients are still unclear, and the outcomes about tracheostomy have not been extensively reported. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia who underwent elective tracheostomies. Methods: The multi-center, retrospective, observational study investigated all the COVID-19 patients who underwent elective tracheostomies in intensive care units (ICUs) of 23 hospitals in Hubei province, China, from January 8, 2020 to March 25, 2020. Demographic information, clinical characteristics, treatment, details of the tracheostomy procedure, successful weaning after tracheostomy, and living status were collected and analyzed. Data were compared between early tracheostomy patients (tracheostomy performed within 14 days of intubation) and late tracheostomy patients (tracheostomy performed after 14 days). Results: A total of 80 patients were included. The median duration from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 17.5 [IQR 11.3-27.0] days. Most tracheotomies were performed by ICU physician [62 (77.5%)], and using percutaneous techniques [63 (78.8%)] at the ICU bedside [76 (95.0%)]. The most common complication was tracheostoma bleeding [14 (17.5%)], and major bleeding occurred in 4 (5.0%) patients. At 60 days after intubation, 31 (38.8%) patients experienced successful weaning from ventilator, 17 (21.2%) patients discharged from ICU, and 43 (53.8%) patients had died. Higher 60 day mortality [22 (73.3%) vs. 21 (42.0%)] were identified in patients who underwent early tracheostomy. Conclusions: In patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, tracheostomies were feasible to conduct by ICU physician at bedside with few major complications. Compared with tracheostomies conducted after 14 days of intubation, tracheostomies within 14 days were associated with an increased mortality rate.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...