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1.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine ; 15(8):258-265, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2030810

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To explore the psychological status and perceived social support in non-anti-epidemic clinical nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic and the correlation between these two factors. Methods: Data of nonanti-epidemic clinical nurses from medical institutions in Nantong City of Jiangsu Province were collected using the Psychological Questionnaire for Emergent Events of Public Health (PQEEPH) and the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) from February to March, 2020. Results: A total of 1,187 non-anti-epidemic clinical nurses were included into this study. The scores of the following dimensions in PQEEPH ranked from highest to lowest: depression (0.52±0.02) points, neurasthenia (0.37±0.01) points, fear (0.87±0.02) points, obsession-anxiety (0.24±0.01) points, and hypochondriasis (0.25±0.01) points. The total PSSS score was 63.46 points, of which, the scores of family support, friend support and other support were (21.89±4.27), (21.25±4.16) and (20.32±4.18) points respectively, indicating that these three factors had a negative correlation with emotional response. Conclusions: Non-anti-epidemic clinical nurses experience a negative psychological state during the COVID-19 pandemic and experience great support from family and friends.

2.
Materials Chemistry Frontiers ; : 14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1984453

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infection is a major threat to public health around the world. Currently, antibiotics remain the most extensive mode of medical treatment for bacterial infection. However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have exacerbated the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, the improper and excessive use of biocides and disinfectants has a catastrophic impact on antibiotic management plans worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative antibacterial treatments to alleviate this crisis. In recent years, nanozymes have become promising new antibacterial agents because of their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, less drug resistance, and high stability. This review focuses on the classification of nanozymes and research progress of nanozymes as antibacterial agents, as well as perspectives for future research in this field.

3.
Journal of Electronic Imaging ; 31(2), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846312

ABSTRACT

Recent research on facial expression recognition (FER) in the wild shows challenges still remain. Different from laboratory-controlled expression in the past, images in the wild contain more uncertainties, such as different forms of face information occlusion, ambiguous facial images, noisy labels, and so on. Among them, real-world facial occlusion is the most general and crucial challenge for FER. In addition, because of the COVID-19 disease epidemic, people have to wear masks in public, which brings new challenges to FER tasks. Due to the recent success of the Transformer on numerous computer vision tasks, we propose a Collaborative Attention Transformer (CAT) network that first uses Cross-Shaped Window Transformer as the backbone for the FER task. Meanwhile, two attention modules are collaborated. Channel-Spatial Attention Module is designed to increase the attention of the network to global features. Moreover, Window Attention Gate is used to enhance the ability of the model to focus on local details. The proposed method is evaluated on two public in-The-wild facial expression datasets, RAF-DB and FERPlus, and the results demonstrate that our CAT performs superior to the state-of-The-Art methods. © 2022 SPIE and IST.

5.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1805663

ABSTRACT

In the version of this article initially published, the first name of Chuansheng Zheng was misspelled as Chuangsheng. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article. © The Author(s) 2022.

6.
1st CAAI International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, CICAI 2021 ; 13069 LNAI:89-100, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1626470

ABSTRACT

The global spread of coronavirus disease has become a major threat to global public health. There are more than 137 million confirmed cases worldwide at the time of writing. The spread of COVID-19 has resulted in a huge medical load due to the numerous suspected examinations and community screening. Deep learning methods to automatically classify COVID-19 have become an effective assistive technology. However, the current researches on data quality and the use of CT data to diagnose COVID-19 with convolutional neural networks are poor. This study is based on CT scan data of COVID-19 patients, patients with other lung diseases, and healthy people. In this work, we find that data smoothing can improve the quality of CT images of COVID-19 and improve the accuracy of the model. Specifically, an interpolation smoothing method is proposed using the bilinear interpolation algorithm. Besides, we propose an improved ResNet structure to improve the model feature extraction and fusion by optimizing the structure of the input stem and downsampling parts. Compared with the baseline ResNet, the model improves the accuracy of the three-class classification by 3.8% to 93.83%. Our research has particular significance for research on the automatic diagnosis of COVID-19 infectious diseases. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 3(12):1081-1089, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585763

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence provides a promising solution for streamlining COVID-19 diagnoses;however, concerns surrounding security and trustworthiness impede the collection of large-scale representative medical data, posing a considerable challenge for training a well-generalized model in clinical practices. To address this, we launch the Unified CT-COVID AI Diagnostic Initiative (UCADI), where the artificial intelligence (AI) model can be distributedly trained and independently executed at each host institution under a federated learning framework without data sharing. Here we show that our federated learning framework model considerably outperformed all of the local models (with a test sensitivity/specificity of 0.973/0.951 in China and 0.730/0.942 in the United Kingdom), achieving comparable performance with a panel of professional radiologists. We further evaluated the model on the hold-out (collected from another two hospitals without the federated learning framework) and heterogeneous (acquired with contrast materials) data, provided visual explanations for decisions made by the model, and analysed the trade-offs between the model performance and the communication costs in the federated training process. Our study is based on 9,573 chest computed tomography scans from 3,336 patients collected from 23 hospitals located in China and the United Kingdom. Collectively, our work advanced the prospects of utilizing federated learning for privacy-preserving AI in digital health. The COVID-19 pandemic sparked the need for international collaboration in using clinical data for rapid development of diagnosis and treatment methods. But the sensitive nature of medical data requires special care and ideally potentially sensitive data would not leave the organization which collected it. Xiang Bai and colleagues present a privacy-preserving AI framework for CT-based COVID-19 diagnosis and demonstrate it on data from 23 hospitals in China and the United Kingdom.

8.
29th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Quality of Service (IWQOS) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1511245

ABSTRACT

As the growing proportion of aging population, the demand for sustainable, high quality, and timely healthcare services has become increasingly pressing, especially since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic in the early of 2020. To meet this demand, a promising strategy is to introduce cloud computing and digital twin techniques into the healthcare systems, where the cloud server is employed for storing healthcare data and offering efficient query services, and the digital twin is used for building digital representation for patients and leverages the query services of the cloud server to monitor healthcare states of patients. Although several cloud computing and digital twin based healthcare monitoring frameworks have been proposed, none of them has considered the data privacy issue, yet the leakage of the private healthcare information may cause catastrophic losses to patients. Aiming at the challenge, in this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving similarity query based healthcare monitoring scheme over digital twin cloud platform, named PSim-DTH. Specifically, we first formalize a similarity query based healthcare monitoring model over digital twin cloud platform. Then, we deploy a partition-based tree (PB-tree) to index the healthcare data and introduce matrix encryption to propose a privacy-preserving PB-tree based similarity range query (PSRQ) algorithm. Based on PSRQ algorithm, we propose our PSim-DTH scheme. Both security analysis and performance evaluation are extensively conducted, and the results demonstrate that our proposed PSim-DTH scheme is really privacy-preserving and efficient.

9.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(18):1368-1372, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1481061

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)infection is still worldwide.As a vulnerable group, severe and dead pediatric cases are also reported.Under this severe epidemic situation, children should be well protected.With the widespread vaccination of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in adults, the infection rate have decreased.Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 vaccine inoculation for children groups step by step is of great significance to the protection of children and the prevention and control of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) as a whole.But the safety of children vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine is a main concern of parents.Therefore, in order to ensure the safety of vaccination and the implementation of vaccination work, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health and the Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association organized experts to interpret the main issue of parents about SARS-CoV-2 vaccine for children, in order to answer the doubts of parents. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese Medical Association.

10.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(18):1361-1367, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1481060

ABSTRACT

At present, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)infection is still rampant worldwide.As of September 10, 2021, there were about 222 million confirmed cases of corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19)and more than 4.6 million deaths worldwide.With the development of COVID-19 vaccines and the gradual vaccination worldwide, the increasing number of cases in children and unvaccinated young people has drawn attention.According to World Health Organization surveillance data, the proportion of COVID-19 infection cases in children gradually increased, and the proportion of cases in the age groups of under 5 years and 5-14 years increased from 1.0% and 2.5% in January 2020 to 2.0% and 8.7% in July 2021, respectively.At present, billions of adults have been vaccinated with various COVID-19 vaccines worldwide, and their protective effects including reducing infection and transmission, reducing severe disease and hospitalization, and reducing death, as well as high safety have been confirmed.Canada, the United States, Europe and other countries have approved the emergency COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, and China has also approved the phased vaccination of COVID-19 vaccination in children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years. For smooth advancement and implementation of COVID-19 vaccination in children, academic institutions, including National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Center for Children's Health, and The Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association organized relevant experts to reach this consensus on COVID-19 vaccination in children. Copyright © 2021 by the Chinese Medical Association.

11.
American Journal of Translational Research ; 13(6):5943-5955, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1445036

ABSTRACT

The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. Data on the COVID-19 epidemic that were analyzed in this study were obtained from the official websites of the National Health Commission of China and the Health Commissions of 31 provinces in China. From January 26 to February 25, 2020, the cumulative number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in each region was counted daily using data from our database. Curve fitting of daily scatter plots of the relationship between epidemic growth rate (GR) with average temperature (AT) and average relative humidity (ARH) was conducted using the loess method. The heterogeneity across days and provinces was calculated to assess the necessity of using a longitudinal model. Fixed-effect models with polynomial terms were developed to quantify the relationship between variations in the GR and AT or ARH. An increased AT markedly reduced the GR when the AT was lower than -5°C, the GR was moderately reduced when the AT ranged from -5°C to 15°C, and the GR increased when the AT exceeded 15°C. ARH increased the GR when it was less than 72% and reduced the GR when it exceeded 72%. The temperature and relative humidity curves were not linearly associated with the GR of COVID-19. The GR was moderately reduced when the AT ranged from -5°C to 15°C. When the AT was lower or higher than -5°C to 15°C, the GR of COVID-19 increased. An increased ARH increased the GR when the ARH was lower than 72% and reduced the GR when the ARH exceeded 72%.

13.
Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; 36(10):721-732, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1278526

ABSTRACT

2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) outbreak is one of the public health emergency of international concern.Since the 2019-nCoV outbreak, China has been adopting strict prevention and control measures, and has achieved remarkable results in the initial stage of prevention and control.However, some imported cases and sporadic regional cases have been found, and even short-term regional epidemics have occurred, indicating that the preventing and control against the epidemic remains grim.With the change of the incidence proportion and the number of cases in children under 18 years old, some new special symptoms and complications have appeared in children patients.In addition, with the occurrence of virus mutation, it has not only attracted attention from all parties, but also proposed a new topic for the prevention and treatment of 2019-nCoV infection in children of China.Based on the second edition, the present consensus further summarizes the clinical characteristics and experience of children's cases, and puts forward recommendations on the diagnostic criteria, laboratory examination, treatment, prevention and control of children's cases for providing reference for further guidance of treatment of 2019-nCoV infection in children. © 2021 Chinese Medical Association

14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(20): 10867-10873, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience of three Chinese cities (Wuhan, Shanghai and Haikou) and provide a reference for global efforts to combat COVID-19 spread among children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through collecting the measures and outcomes of preventing and controlling COVID-19 in China's three hospitals, we compared the effect of different strategies. RESULTS: From January to March 2020, the number of suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases in Wuhan increased exponentially, and Wuhan Children's Hospital as a whole was transformed into a designated quarantine and treatment facility, which is the "Wuhan Model". Shanghai has more children's hospitals with better capabilities to tackle public health emergency. Besides, it is far away from Wuhan and had a small caseload. Children's Hospital of Fudan University, a facility in Shanghai to treat pediatric infectious diseases, is famous for its well-equipped building for infectious disease treatment and professional medical team, and therefore no major transformation was required. That is the "Shanghai Model". Haikou is located on an island. Amid the outbreak, large numbers of tourists and travelers from Hubei had already arrived in Haikou. Hainan Women and Children's Medical Center, as the only pediatric care hospital in Hainan Province, did not have a separate building for infectious disease treatment. After a citywide survey of the medical resources and facilities available, a temporarily idle hospital 3 kilometers away from Hainan Women and Children's Medical Center was requisitioned as the quarantine and treatment facility for pediatric cases. That is the "Hainan Model". The three models enabled the treatment of all suspected and confirmed cases and no fatality was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 coping strategies for children should be designed according to the existing conditions of the local children's hospitals and the risk levels of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hospitals, Isolation/organization & administration , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male
15.
Chinese Journal of New Drugs ; 29(16):1807-1812, 2020.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-831637

ABSTRACT

In the history of fighting the plague, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has the tradition of using "Universal Formula" with "cauldron boiling medicine". The practice of prevention and treatment of plague with "Universal Formula" is not only one of the important characteristics of TCM, but also deeply embodies the scientific connotation of the plague prevention and control model of "disease differentiation and treatment" combined with "syndrome differentiation and treatment". In the battle against COVID-19, a batch of contemporary anti-epidemic "Universal Formula" represented by "Hanshiyi Formula (Wuhan anti-epidemic prescription)" and "Qingfei Paidu Decoction" were used for both treatment and prevention. It covered a large number of people and had significant clinical effects. It has become a sharp weapon for TCM to intervene in anti-epidemic work. The "Universal Formula" used in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 not only retains the essence of the traditional "Universal Formula" for anti-epidemic, but also has innovations in legislative prescriptions, drug formulations, drug distribution forms, medication guidance, and drug efficacy research, which reflects the development of the anti-epidemic with "Universal Formula". This article discussed the overview and diagnosis of the plague and treatment model of "disease differentiation and treatment" combined with "syndrome differentiation and treatment", the theoretical basis of anti-epidemic theory of "Universal Formula", and the innovation and development of the application of "Universal Formula". Under the background of science and technology, the important value and strategic path of "Universal Formula" will be used to help the in-depth development of anti-epidemic work of TCM in the face of new and sudden large-scale plagues in the future. © 2020, Chinese Journal of New Drugs Co. Ltd. All right reserved.

17.
Colorectal Dis ; 22(9): 993-1001, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638013

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this work was to investigate the sensitivity and utility of CT of the chest in diagnosing active SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) infection, and its potential application to the surgical setting. METHOD: A literature review was conducted using Google Scholar® and MEDLINE®/PubMed® to identify current available evidence regarding the sensitivity of CT chest compared with RT-PCR for the diagnosis of COVID-19-positive patients. GRADE criteria and the QUADAS 2 tool were used to assess the level of evidence. RESULTS: A total of 20 articles were identified that addressed the question of sensitivity of CT for diagnosis of symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19-positive patients. Overall sensitivity of CT scan ranged from 57%-100% for symptomatic and 46%-100% for asymptomatic COVID-19 patients, while that of RT-PCR ranged from 39%-89%. CT chest was a better diagnostic modality and capable of detecting active infection earlier in the time course of infection than RT-PCR in symptomatic patients. In asymptomatic patients, disease prevalence seems to play a role in the positive predictive value. Minimal evidence exists regarding the sensitivity of CT in patients who are asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: In surgical patients, CT chest should be considered as an important adjunct for detection of COVID-19 infection in patients who are symptomatic with negative RT-PCR prior to any operation. For surgical patients who are asymptomatic, there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine preoperative CT chest for COVID-19 screening.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Mass Screening , Predictive Value of Tests , Preoperative Care , Prevalence , Sensitivity and Specificity
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