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1.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117607, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336665

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The common reported adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccination consist of the injection site's local reaction followed by several non-specific flu-like symptoms. However, rare cases of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after viral vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, Ad26.COV2 vaccine) have been reported. Herein we systemically reviewed the reported cases of CVST and VITT following the COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: This systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. We searched PubMed until May 19, 2021, and the following Keywords were used: COVID Vaccine & Neurology, AstraZeneca COVID vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 COVID vaccine, AZD1222 COVID vaccine, Janssen COVID vaccine, Johnson & Johnson COVID vaccine, Ad26.COV2 COVID vaccine. The authors evaluated the abstracts and titles of each article for screening and inclusion. English reports about post-vaccine CVST and VITT in humans were collected. RESULTS: Until May 19, we found 877 articles with the searched terms. We found 12 articles, which overall present clinical features of 36 patients with CVST and VITT after the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Moreover, two articles were noted, which present 13 patients with CVST and VITT after Ad26.COV2 vaccine. The majority of the patients were females. Symptom onset occurred within one week after the first dose of vaccination (Range 4-19 days). Headache was the most common presenting symptom. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and/or Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were reported in 49% of the patients. The platelet count of the patients was between 5 and 127 cells×109/l, PF4 IgG Assay and d-Dimer were positive in the majority of the reported cases. Among 49 patients with CVST, at least 19 patients died (39%) due to complications of CVST and VITT. CONCLUSION: Health care providers should be familiar with the clinical presentations, pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria, and management consideration of this rare but severe and potentially fatal complication of the COVID-19 vaccination. Early diagnosis and quick initiation of the treatment may help to provide patients with a more favorable neurological outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects
3.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 50: 102800, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057142

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to expand across the world. This pandemic has had a significant impact on patients with chronic diseases. Among patients with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) or Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD), concerns remain about the potential impact of COVID-19 on these patients given their treatment with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapies. In this study, we review the existing literature investigating the impact of disease-modifying therapies(DMT) on COVID-19 risks in this group of patients. METHOD: For this systematic review, we searched PubMed from January 1, 2020, to December 3, 2020. The following keywords were used: "COVID-19" AND "Multiple Sclerosis" OR "Neuromyelitis Optica." Articles evaluating COVID-19 in patients with demyelinating diseases of CNS were included. This study evaluates the different aspects of the DMTs in these patients during the COVID-19 era. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A total of 262 articles were found. After eliminating duplicates and unrelated research papers, a total of 84 articles met the final inclusion criteria in our study. Overall, the experiences of 2493 MS patients and 37 NMOSD patients with COVID-19 were included in this review. Among them, 46(1.8%) MS patients died(the global death-to-case ratio of Covid-19 was reported about 2.1%). Among DMTs, Rituximab had the highest mortality rate (4%). Despite controversies, especially concerning anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapies, a relation between DMT-use and COVID-19 disease- course was not found in many studies. This observation reinforces the recommendation of not stopping current DMTs. Other variables such as age, higher expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, cardiac comorbidities, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19. Despite the risks of infection, most patients were willing to continue their DMT during the pandemic because of more significant concern about the risk of relapse or worsening MS symptoms. After the infection, an immune response's attenuation was seen in the patients on Fingolimod and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. This may be a critical finding in future vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Central Nervous System , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105353, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796759

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to grow all over the world. Neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, including acute ischemic Stroke (AIS), have been reported in recent studies. In most of these, the patients are older, have multiple co-morbidities as risk factors for AIS and have developed a severe respiratory illness. Herein, we report a 36-year-old man with no significant past medical history who recently recovered from a mild COVID-19 infection and presented with unusual pattern of arterial macrothrombosis causing AIS. When the AIS happened, he had no COVID-19 related symptoms, had two negative screening tests for the infection and his chest CT was unremarkable.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Carotid Stenosis/etiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Stenosis/therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Thrombosis/therapy , Male , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117085, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to grow all over the world. Several studies have been performed, focusing on understanding the acute respiratory syndrome and treatment strategies. However, there is growing evidence indicating neurological manifestations occur in patients with COVID-19. Similarly, the other coronaviruses (CoV) epidemics; severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) have been associated with neurological complications. METHODS: This systematic review serves to summarize available information regarding the potential effects of different types of CoV on the nervous system and describes the range of clinical neurological complications that have been reported thus far in COVID-19. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-five studies on CoV infections associated neurological manifestations in human were reviewed. Of those, 208 articles were pertinent to COVID-19. The most common neurological complaints in COVID-19 were anosmia, ageusia, and headache, but more serious complications, such as stroke, impairment of consciousness, seizures, and encephalopathy, have also been reported. CONCLUSION: There are several similarities between neurological complications after SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and COVID-19, however, the scope of the epidemics and number of patients are very different. Reports on the neurological complications after and during COVID-19 are growing on a daily basis. Accordingly, comprehensive knowledge of these complications will help health care providers to be attentive to these complications and diagnose and treat them timely.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Neuroimaging , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Stroke/etiology
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