Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
New Microbes New Infect ; 45: 100949, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611936

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed as a major health concern for people all across the globe. Along with the increasing confirmed patients being readmitted with complaints for fever, cough, cold, the effective monitoring of 'relapse' of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the previously discharged patients have become the next area of focus. However, availability of limited data on reactivation of SARS-CoV-2 makes the disease prognosis as well as the effective control of re-infection an immense challenge. Prompted by these challenges, we assessed the possibility of re-infection in discharged patients and the risk of the transmission, proficiency of RT-PCR results and approximate period required for the quarantine, and the real challenges for the development of vaccine. In the present review, the published literature on all the possible cases of re-infection from February to July were reported, thereby selected 142 studies from a hub of overall 669 studies after full text screening. The incomplete virus clearance, poor sensitivity of the present diagnostic testing, emergence of mutant strains, insufficient mucus collection from the throat swab etc., are some of the possible causes of re-infection. The new protocols for management of COVID-19 discharged patients should be revised in the guidelines.

2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6719-6730, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 vaccines have developed quickly, and vaccination programs have started in most countries to fight the pandemic. The aging population is vulnerable to different diseases, also including the COVID-19. A high death rate of COVID-19 was noted from the vulnerable aging population. A present scenario regarding COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination program foraging adults had been discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the current status and future projections till 2050 of the aging population worldwide. It also discusses the immunosenescence and inflammaging issues facing elderly adults and how it affects the vaccinations such as influenza, pneumococcal, and herpes zoster. RESULTS: This paper recommends clinical trials for all approved COVID-19 vaccines targeting the elderly adult population and to project a plan to develop a next-generation COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The review has mapped the COVID-19 vaccination status from the developed and developing countries for the elderly population. Finally, strategies to vaccinate all elderly adults globally against COVID-19 to enhance longevity has been suggested.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunosenescence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
3.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):165-166, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1148493
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1708-1723, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102757

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent pandemic virus SARS-CoV-2 is a global warning for the healthcare system. The spike protein of virus SARS-CoV-2 is significant because of two reasons. Firstly, the spike protein of this virus binds with the human ACE2 (hACE2) receptor. Secondly, it has several antigenic regions that might be targeted for vaccine development. However, the structural analytical data for the spike protein of this virus is not available. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we performed an analysis to understand the structural two subunits of S glycoprotein (S gp) of SARS-CoV-2. Further, an analysis of secondary structure components and the tertiary structure analysis of RBD was carried out. We also performed molecular interaction analysis between S gp of this virus and hACE2 as well as between SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 to compare the binding properties of these two viruses. RESULTS: We noted that the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 form eleven hydrogen bonds, while the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 receptor form seven hydrogen bonds, indicating that the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 receptor is more stable than SARS-CoV S gp and hACE2 receptor. The pairwise sequence alignment of S gp SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 shows several conserved residues of these two proteins. Besides, conserved pattern analysis of SARS-CoV-2 S gp and hACE2 revealed the presence of several highly conserved regions for these two proteins. The molecular dynamics simulation shows a stable interplay between SARS-CoV-2 S gp with the hACE2 receptor. CONCLUSIONS: The present study might help determine the SARS-CoV-2 virus entrance mechanism into the human cell. Moreover, the understanding of the conserved regions may help in the process of therapeutic development from the infection of the deadly virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Conserved Sequence , Glycosylation , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protein Subunits
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11409-11420, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937848

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a lifestyle disease and it has become an epidemic worldwide in recent decades. In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation, diabetes has become a serious health concern since large numbers of patients are vulnerable to die from the virus. Thus, diabetic patients affected by COVID-19 cause a major health crisis now. Reports show that large occurrence of diabetes makes it a serious comorbidity in COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is crucial to understand how COVID-19 affects diabetes patients. This paper has reviewed published literature extensively to understand the pattern, importance, care, and medication. RESULTS: This review summarizes the association between COVID-19 and diabetes in terms of susceptibility for pneumonia and other diseases. It also discusses the harshness of COVID-19 with diabetes populations and immunological impacts. It further adds the ACE2 receptor role in diabetes with COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Finally, this paper illustrates different types of diabetes management techniques, such as blood glucose management, self-management, mental health management, and therapeutic management. It also summarizes the current knowledge about diabetic patients with COVID-19 to fight this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Pancreas/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology
6.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 48(5): 507-517, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622045

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 is changing with country wise and depend on universal immunization policies. COVID-19 badly affects countries that did not have universal immunization policies or having them only for the selective population of countries (highly prominent population) like Italy, USA, UK, Netherland, etc. Universal immunization of BCG can provide great protection against the COVID-19 infection because the BCG vaccine gives broad protection against respiratory infections. BCG vaccine induces expressions of the gene that are involved in the antiviral innate immune response against viral infections with long-term maintenance of BCG vaccine-induced cellular immunity. COVID-19 cases are reported very much less in the countries with universal BCG vaccination policies such as India, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Israel, Japan, etc. as compared to without BCG implemented countries such as the USA, Italy, Spain, Canada, UK, etc. BCG vaccine provides protection for 50-60 years of immunization, so the elderly population needs to be revaccinated with BCG. Several countries started clinical trials of the BCG vaccine for health care workers and elderly people. BCG can be uses as a prophylactic treatment until the availability of the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adaptive Immunity , BCG Vaccine/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Mass Vaccination , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines
7.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(7): 4016-4026, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-123794

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the outbreak of severe respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, China and is now spreading rapidly throughout the world. The prompt outbreak of COVID-19 and its quick spread without any controllable measure defines the severity of the situation. In this crisis, a collective pool of knowledge about the advancement of clinical diagnostic and management for COVID-19 is a prerequisite. Here, we summarize all the available updates on the multidisciplinary approaches for the advancement of diagnosis and proposed therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. Moreover, the review discusses different aspects of the COVID-19, including its epidemiology; incubation period; the general clinical features of patients; the clinical features of intensive care unit (ICU) patients; SARS-CoV-2 infection in the presence of co-morbid diseases and the clinical features of pediatric patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2. Advances in various diagnostic approaches, such as the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) imaging; and other modern diagnostic methods, for this infection have been highlighted. However, due to the unavailability of adequate evidence, presently there are no officially approved drugs or vaccines available against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, we have discussed various therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 under different categories, like the possible treatment plans with drug (antiviral drugs and anti-cytokines) therapy for disease prevention. Lastly, potentials candidates for the vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection have been described. Collectively, the review provides an overview of the SARS-CoV-2 infection outbreak along with the recent advancements and strategies for diagnosis and therapy of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Pandemics , Radiography, Thoracic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Vaccines
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL