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1.
Heliyon ; : e11744, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179018

ABSTRACT

Over the past two decades, many countries that have reported a steady decline in reported cases of malaria and a few countries like China have been declared malaria-free by the World Health Organization. In 2020, global total malaria cases 108 malaria-endemic countries as in 2000, while the number of deaths from malaria has declined since 2000. COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected overall public health efforts and thus it is feasible that there might be resurgence of malaria. COVID-19 and malaria share some similarities in the immune responses of the patient and these two diseases also share overlapping early symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, and muscle pain/fatigue. In the absence of early diagnostics there can be a misdiagnosis of the infection(s) that can pose additional challenges due to delayed treatment. In both SARS-CoV-2 and Plasmodium infections there is a rapid release of cytokines/chemokines that play a key role in disease pathophysiology. In this review, we have discussed the cytokine/chemokine storm observed during COVID-19 and malaria. We observe that: (1) Severity in malaria and COVID-19 is likely a consequence primarily of an uncontrolled 'cytokine storm'; (2) five pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, type I IFN and IFN-γ) are significantly increased in severe/critically ill patients in both diseases; (3) Plasmodium and SARS-CoV-2 share some similar clinical manifestations and thus may result in fatal consequences if misdiagnosed during onset.

2.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(10):6320-6326, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2201937

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: The povidone-iodine (PvP-I) nasal antiseptic has been shown to completely inactivate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro at variable concentrations. This study was performed to investigate the effect of 0.5% PvP-I nasal drops and oral gargles on the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal viral loads in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients.

3.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(1): 1, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128602

ABSTRACT

India was severely affected by several waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection that occurred during April-June 2021 (second wave) and December 2021-January 2022 (third wave) and thereafter, resulting in >10 million new infections and a significant number of deaths. Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data database was used to collect the sequence information of ~10,000 SARS-CoV-2 patients from India and our sequence analysis identified three variants B.1.1.7 (alpha, α), B1.617.2 (delta, Δ), B.1.1.529 (Omicron, Oo) and one Omicron sub-variant BA.2.75 as the primary drivers for SARS-CoV-2 waves in India. Structural visualization and analysis of important mutations of alpha, delta, Omicron and its sub-variants of SARS-CoV-2 Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) was performed and our analysis clearly shows that mutations occur throughout the RBD, including the RBD surface responsible for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2) receptor-binding. A comparison between alpha, delta and omicron variants/sub-variants reveals many omicron mutations in the hACE-2 binding site and several other mutations within 5 Å of this binding region. Further, computational analysis highlights the importance of electrostatic interactions in stabilizing RBD-hACE-2-binding, especially in the omicron variant. Our analysis explores the likely role of key alpha, delta and omicron mutations on binding with hACE-2. Taken together, our study provides novel structural insights into the implications of RBD mutations in alpha, delta and omicron and its sub-variants that were responsible for India's SARS-CoV-2 surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(11): e1010983, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140721

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009885.].

5.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect ; 12(4): 7-13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081653

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a life-threatening condition associated with elevated inflammatory markers and multiple organ injury. A diagnosis of exclusion, it has been reported after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (SARS-CoV-2) in children and adults; recently it has been described in some post-COVID-19 vaccinated individuals. The prognosis with supportive care and immunomodulatory therapy is good, although some individuals may require treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here we report a case of a 58-year-old man who developed multi-organ failure after receiving the second dose of the Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. He required critical organ support in the ICU. An extensive workup was done to rule out alternative infectious and inflammatory processes. Following a period of gradual in-hospital convalescence, our patient made a full recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensively described case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with Moderna mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine in an adult over 50 years of age.

6.
Sci Adv ; 8(40): eadd2032, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053092

ABSTRACT

In this study, by characterizing several human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from single B cells of the COVID-19-recovered individuals in India who experienced ancestral Wuhan strain (WA.1) of SARS-CoV-2 during early stages of the pandemic, we found a receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific mAb 002-S21F2 that has rare gene usage and potently neutralized live viral isolates of SARS-CoV-2 variants including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron sublineages (BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5) with IC50 ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 µg/ml. Structural studies of 002-S21F2 in complex with spike trimers of Omicron and WA.1 showed that it targets a conformationally conserved epitope on the outer face of RBD (class 3 surface) outside the ACE2-binding motif, thereby providing a mechanistic insights for its broad neutralization activity. The discovery of 002-S21F2 and the broadly neutralizing epitope it targets have timely implications for developing a broad range of therapeutic and vaccine interventions against SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron sublineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
8.
Virulence ; 13(1): 634-653, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008470

ABSTRACT

Globally, malaria is a public health concern, with severe malaria (SM) contributing a major share of the disease burden in malaria endemic countries. In this context, identification and validation of SM biomarkers are essential in clinical practice. Some biomarkers (C-reactive protein, angiopoietin 2, angiopoietin-2/1 ratio, platelet count, histidine-rich protein 2) have yielded interesting results in the prognosis of Plasmodium falciparum severe malaria, but for severe P. vivax and P. knowlesi malaria, similar evidence is missing. The validation of these biomarkers is hindered by several factors such as low sample size, paucity of evidence-evaluating studies, suboptimal values of sensitivity/specificity, poor clinical practicality of measurement methods, mixed Plasmodium infections, and good clinical value of the biomarkers for concurrent infections (pneumonia and current COVID-19 pandemic). Most of these biomarkers are non-specific to pathogens as they are related to host response and hence should be regarded as prognostic/predictive biomarkers that complement but do not replace pathogen biomarkers for clinical evaluation of SM patients. This review highlights the importance of research on diagnostic/predictive/therapeutic biomarkers, neglected malaria species, and clinical practicality of measurement methods in future studies. Finally, the importance of omics technologies for faster identification/validation of SM biomarkers is also included.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Biomarkers , Humans , Pandemics , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax
9.
Virol J ; 19(1): 135, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lipids play a central role in the virus life cycle and are a crucial target to develop antiviral therapeutics. Importantly, among the other lipoproteins, the 'good cholesterol' high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been widely studied for its role in not only cardiovascular but several infectious diseases as well. Studies have suggested a role of serum lipids and lipoproteins including HDL, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in several viral infections including COVID-19. This disease is currently a major public health problem and there is a need to explore the role of these host lipids/lipoproteins in virus pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY: A total of 75 retrospective COVID-19 positive serum samples and 10 COVID-19 negative controls were studied for their lipid profiles including TC, HDL, LDL, and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and TG. RESULTS: Systematic literature search on dyslipidemia status in India shows that low HDL is the most common dyslipidemia. In this cohort, 65% (49) of COVID-19 patients had severely low HDL levels whereas 35% (26) had moderately low HDL and none had normal HDL levels. On the other hand, ~ 96% of samples had normal TC (72) and LDL (72) levels. VLDL and TG levels were also variable. In the controls, 100% of samples had moderately low HDL but none severely low HDL levels. CONCLUSION: HDL likely plays a crucial role in COVID-19 infection and outcomes. The causal relationships between HDL levels and COVID-19 need to be studied extensively for an understanding of disease pathogenesis and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dyslipidemias , Cholesterol , Humans , Lipoproteins , Lipoproteins, HDL , Lipoproteins, VLDL , Retrospective Studies , Triglycerides
10.
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association ; 37(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS Patients on long term haemodialysis have been found to be more vulnerable to COVID-19 infection with greater severity of infection and mortality rates. Vaccination is instrumental in preventing morbidity and mortality in this group. The study was conducted to evaluate the humoral response of vaccination in patients on long term haemodialysis and its evolution over time. METHOD The study was conducted between March 2021 and December 2021. It included 59 patients who received two doses of ChAdOx1-S vaccine. Demographic data was collected and antibody level against the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antigen was measured 4 weeks and 26 weeks after the administration of second dose. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on time interval between the two doses (Group I: up to 6 weeks and Group II: >6 weeks). RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 62.57 years. Out of 59 patients, 38 (64.40%) were males. 31 patients (52.54%) had history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and 7 (11.86%) had history of COVID-19 infection at least 3 months prior to vaccination (Table 1). Four weeks after the administration of second dose, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were present in 53 (89.83%) patients. 85.29% patients (29 out of 34) in group I and 96% patients (24 out of 25) in group II had detectable antibodies. There was a wide variation between the anti-spike antibody levels in the patients, ranging from 0.4 to as high as 18 933 U/mL (Figure 1) and the levels remained high even 26 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were present in 49 (92.45%) patients out of the total 53 patients in whom 26 weeks had elapsed after second dose of vaccination. 91.17% patients (31 out of 34) in group I and 94.7% (18 out of 19) in group II had detectable antibodies after 26 weeks of receiving second dose of the vaccine.Table 1. CONCLUSION The study provides evidence that two doses of ChAdOx1-S vaccine generate good antibody response in majority of patients on long-term haemodialysis. It is sustained at 26 weeks post second dose of vaccine. Increasing the time interval between two doses of the vaccine lead to better humoral response. The antibody levels decrease over time necessitating the administration of booster doses.

11.
The British journal of surgery ; 108(Suppl 9), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999361

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected over 140 million people worldwide (1). COVID-19 symptoms primarily involve the respiratory system. However, recent data suggests that gastrointestinal symptoms occur in 11-61% of cases (2, 3).Boerhaave’s syndrome is a rare and dangerous disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, associated with a mortality rate of up to 50% (4). It most commonly occurs due to a lack of coordination between upper and lower oesophageal sphincters during forceful emesis, leading to an abrupt rise in intra-oesophageal pressures which leads to a transmural tear (5). Less commonly, a tear can be secondary to prolonged coughing (6). The majority of tears occur in the distal posterolateral third of the oesophagus and have an average length of 2.2 cm (7). Risk factors include males, excess alcohol or food consumption (6). We present a case of Boerhaave’s syndrome secondary to prolonged coughing, from COVID-19 infection. The tear was 8 cm in length in the mid anterior oesophagus. The patient survived a major operation and prolonged intensive care stay. Meloy et al. (8) published one case of oesophageal rupture in symptomatic COVID-19 – unfortunately the patient passed away before intervention. Methods A 75-year-old Caucasian female was day seven of COVID-19 infection and had been coping in the community with a continuous dry cough and mild shortness of breath. She presented to Accident and Emergency in the late afternoon when her cough developed into unremitting retching, vomiting, a global headache and epigastric pain disproportionate to presentation. No associated haematemesis or change in bowel habit. Past medical history was significant for hypertension, hypothyroidism, depression and anxiety. Previous surgical history included an open appendicectomy, cholecystectomy and resection of a melanoma. She was previously independent, consumed alcohol socially, a non-smoker and compliant with her regular medications.A CT chest with contrast demonstrated distal oesophageal rupture transversely with pneumomediastinum and extensive surgical emphysema in the neck and secondary bilateral pleural effusions, consistent with Boerhaave’s syndrome. The patient was taken to theatre the next morning for an oesophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (OGD), right posterolateral thoracotomy and primary repair of the oesophageal perforation.On endoscopy, an 8cm defect in the anterior oesophagus starting at the T4 vertebral level was identified and was repaired using tunnelled permanent mesh. During the surgery, mediastinitis was noted and washed out. The antimicrobial therapy was altered post-operatively to intravenous tazocin and fluconazole.  Results The management of this patient was a huge multidisciplinary team achievement. She spent forty-six days recovering in ICU, intubated, ventilated and sedated with noradrenaline vasopressor support. The patient developed a severe acute kidney injury, requiring haemofiltration. The mediastinal fluid culture grew Enterococcus faecalis, sensitive to vancomycin and antibiotic therapy was adjusted accordingly. The patient’s recovery was burdened by seizures, whilst being weaned off sedation, and episodes of bradycardia and asystole, most of which were self-resolving except one requiring thirty seconds of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. After chest drain removal, the patient redeveloped a right sided loculated pleural effusion so a further drain was inserted.A gastrografin contrast swallow study performed thirty-five days post-operatively demonstrated no evidence of contrast leak although some tracheobronchial aspiration. She was later stepped down to the ward and recovered very well. However, a component of post-ICU delirium and low mood was persistent. The patient had a repeat water-soluble contrast study on day 77 which demonstrated a contained anastomotic leak, managed conservatively. She was deemed medically ready for discharge at day 110. She was readmitted due to dysphagia secondary to a stricture at the site of mesh repair. OGD was performed and a stent was inserted. Conclusions COVID-19 infection may lead to an abnormal presentation of Boerhaave’s syndrome, with oesophageal tears being secondary to coughing, longer and more proximal.Peri-operative morbidity in COVID patients is elevated and clinicians should consider the short and long term implications of this to provide a holistic approach to care. Clinicians should maintain an awareness of the diversity of COVID-associated complications whilst ensuring that they do not succumb to the diagnostic overshadowing that becomes commonplace during a pandemic.

12.
World J Stem Cells ; 13(6): 568-593, 2021 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306609

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic value of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of infectious diseases and the repair of disease-induced tissue damage has been explored extensively. MSCs inhibit inflammation, reduce pathogen load and tissue damage encountered during infectious diseases through the secretion of antimicrobial factors for pathogen clearance and they phagocytose certain bacteria themselves. MSCs dampen tissue damage during infection by downregulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibiting the excessive recruitment of neutrophils and proliferation of T cells at the site of injury. MSCs aid in the regeneration of damaged tissue by differentiating into the damaged cell types or by releasing paracrine factors that direct tissue regeneration, differentiation, and wound healing. In this review, we discuss in detail the various mechanisms by which MSCs help combat pathogens, tissue damage associated with infectious diseases, and challenges in utilizing MSCs for therapy.

13.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; 5: 100057, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966924
14.
Journal of Oral Research & Review ; 14(2):109-113, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1954374

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aims to study the predictors and the pattern of adverse drug reactions to Covishield vaccine which is being used in the mass vaccination program of the Government of India. Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among the dentists working as faculty in four different tertiary care centers in Jaipur city. A prevalidated questionnaire was circulated through E-mail/social media groups to all the participants. Results: A total of 574 participants fulfilled the questionnaire platform;however, six had been excluded from the study due to incompletely filled questionnaires. The remaining 568 were enrolled for the final analysis. About 296 (52.11%) were male and 272 (47.89%) were female. About 52.8% were in the age group of 31–49 years. About 87.32% of the enrolled participants had received both doses of Covishield. Most common postvaccination symptoms were fever (n = 145), local pain at injection site (n = 123), tenderness at injection site (n = 117), and fatigue (n = 91). Female gender, presence of comorbid diseases, and past coronavirus disease-19 infection were statistically significant risk factors for having adverse reactions post vaccination, P = 0.02, 0.043, and 0.0002, respectively. Conclusions: The data suggest that Covishield is well tolerated in the Indian population. Fever, local pain, tenderness at injection site, and fatigue are few commonly reported side effects. All the side effects were mild to moderate in terms of severity. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Oral Research & Review is the property of Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

15.
Lancet Reg Health Southeast Asia ; : 100023, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945945

ABSTRACT

Background: Surge of SARS CoV-2 infections ascribed to omicron variant began in December 2021 in New Delhi. We determined the infection and reinfection density in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs) along with vaccine effectiveness (VE) against symptomatic infection within omicron transmission period (considered from December 01, 2021 to February 25, 2022. Methods: This is an observational study from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Data were collected telephonically. Person-time at risk was counted from November 30, 2021 till date of infection/ reinfection, or date of interview. Comparison of clinical features and severity was done with previous pandemic periods. VE was estimated using test-negative case-control design [matched pairs (for age and sex)]. Vaccination status was compared and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed by conditional logistic regression. VE was estimated as (1-adjusted OR)X100-. Findings: 11474 HCWs participated in this study. The mean age was 36⋅2 (±10⋅7) years. Complete vaccination with two doses were reported by 9522 (83%) HCWs [8394 (88%) Covaxin and 1072 Covishield (11%)]. The incidence density of all infections and reinfection during the omicron transmission period was 34⋅8 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 33⋅5-36⋅2] and 45⋅6 [95% CI: 42⋅9-48⋅5] per 10000 person days respectively. The infection was milder as compared to previous periods. VE was 52⋅5% (95% CI: 3⋅9-76⋅5, p = 0⋅036) for those who were tested within 14-60 days of receiving second dose and beyond this period (61-180 days), modest effect was observed. Interpretation: Almost one-fifth of HCWs were infected with SARS CoV-2 during omicron transmission period, with predominant mild spectrum of COVID-19 disease. Waning effects of vaccine protection were noted with increase in time intervals since vaccination. Funding: None.

16.
Methods of Mathematical Modeling ; : 173-187, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939832

ABSTRACT

Several techniques, including mathematical models, have been explored since the onset of COVID-19 transmission to evaluate the end outcome and implement drastic measures for this illness. Using the currently infected, noninfected, exposed, susceptible, and recovered cases in the Indian community, we created a mathematical model to describe the transmission of COVID-19. In particular, we used the semianalytical Adomian decomposition method without considering any discretization to perform the first-order differential equations related to COVID-19 cases. According to our early findings, rigorous initial isolation for 22–25 days would reduce the number of exposed and newly infected people. As a result of the downstream effect, the number of suspected and recovered persons would remain stable, assuming that social distance is properly recognized. In a larger sense, the parameters established by our mathematical model may aid in the refinement of future pandemic tactics.

18.
Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research ; : 10963480221086846, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1785059

ABSTRACT

The government-mandated closure of U.S. restaurants for in-restaurant dining during the early stages of the COVID-19 crisis cast a spotlight on operators? ability to effectively innovate, and re-imagine their product offerings. In this context, this research draws on the resource-advantage theory of competitive advantage, proposing that (1) an adhocracy culture is a key internal resource that operators can leverage to drive rapid incremental product innovation under forced change, and (2) firm size is a contextual factor that moderates the degree of incremental product innovation-firm performance relationship. Findings from two empirical studies indicate that adhocracy culture positively and indirectly effects firm performance through degree of incremental product innovation, and that this effect is moderated by firm size. Larger firms yield superior performance effects due to access to a network of interconnected resources for rapid innovation diffusion in a crisis.

19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675034

ABSTRACT

Despite commendable progress in the control of malaria in India and other countries, there are hidden reservoirs of parasites in human hosts that continually feed malaria transmission. Submicroscopic infections are known to be a significant proportion in low-endemic settings like India and these infections do possess transmission potential. Hence, these reservoirs of infection add to the existing roadblocks for malaria elimination. It is crucial that this submerged burden of malaria is detected and treated to curtail further transmission. The currently used diagnostic tools including the so-called "gold standard" of microscopy are incapable of detecting these submicroscopic infections and thus are suboptimal. It is an opportune time to usher in more sensitive molecular tools like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for routine diagnosis at all levels of healthcare as an additional diagnostic tool in routine settings. Polymerase chain reaction assays have been developed into user-friendly formats for field diagnostics and are near point of care. In India, because of the COVID-19 pandemic, these are being used rampantly across the country. The facilities created for COVID-19 diagnosis can easily be co-opted and harnessed for malaria diagnosis to augment surveillance by the inclusion of molecular techniques like PCR in the routine national malaria control program.

20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607349
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