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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(5): 426-438, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study describes prevention behavior and psychosocial health among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative people during the early wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. We assessed differences by HIV status and associations between social disruption and psychosocial health. DESIGN: A cross-sectional telephone/videoconference administered survey of 3411 PLHIV and HIV-negative participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). METHODS: An instrument combining new and validated measures was developed to assess COVID-19 prevention efforts, social disruptions (loss of employment, childcare, health insurance, and financial supports), experiences of abuse, and psychosocial health. Interviews were performed between April and June 2020. Associations between social disruptions and psychosocial health were explored using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for sociodemographics and HIV status. RESULTS: Almost all (97.4%) participants reported COVID-19 prevention behavior; 40.1% participants reported social disruptions, and 34.3% reported health care appointment disruption. Men living with HIV were more likely than HIV-negative men to experience social disruptions (40.6% vs. 32.9%; P < 0.01), whereas HIV-negative women were more likely than women with HIV to experience social disruptions (51.1% vs. 39.8%, P < 0.001). Participants who experienced ≥2 social disruptions had significantly higher odds of depression symptoms [aOR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 1.56], anxiety (aOR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.27), and social support dissatisfaction (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.60). CONCLUSIONS: This study builds on emerging literature demonstrating the psychosocial health impact related to the COVID-19 pandemic by providing context specific to PLHIV. The ongoing pandemic requires structural and social interventions to decrease social disruption and address psychosocial health needs among the most vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Seronegativity , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 89(1): 1-8, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms among people living with HIV (PLWH) are not well described. SETTING: Longitudinal survey within the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS) of PLWH compared with similar HIV-seronegative (SN) individuals. METHODS: Telephone-administered survey of MWCCS participants at 13 clinical research sites across the United States addressing COVID-19 symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 testing, and pandemic impact on social distancing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. Primary data collection occurred during May (wave 1), June-July (wave 2), and August-September, 2020 (wave 3). RESULTS: One-third of MWCCS participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection; 10% was tested ≥2 times. Similar proportions of PLWH and SN participants were tested, but SARS-CoV-2 positivity was higher among PLWH than among SN individuals (9.4% vs 4.8%, P = 0.003). Odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity remained higher among PLWH after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and study site (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.2 to 3.2). SARS-CoV-2 positivity was not associated with CD4 cell counts among PLWH. Among SARS-CoV-2 positive participants, 9% had no symptoms, 7% had 1-2 mild symptoms, and 84% had ≥3 symptoms. Most of the (98%) participants reported physical distancing during all survey waves; self-reported ART adherence among PLWH was not adversely affected during the pandemic compared with the previous year (similar adherence in 89% of participants, improved in 9% of participants, and decreased in 2% of participants). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar SARS-CoV-2 testing and physical distancing profiles by HIV serostatus among MWCCS participants, PLWH who reported SARS-CoV-2 testing were more likely to have a positive test result. Additional studies are needed to determine whether and why PLWH are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Pharyngitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Cough , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
3.
Vegetos ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415135

ABSTRACT

Tinospora cordifolia is an important medicinal plant species known for therapeutic action of starch along with other medicinal ingredients. The starch prepared from the aqueous extract of fresh stems is used in the Indian Systems of Medicines. The plant extract prepared from T. cordifolia is a  promising source for the treatment of COVID-19. This investigation explores for the first time, the morphological details of the starch granules and its accumulation pattern along with its variability among the germplasm of T. cordifolia collected from different parts of India. Starch content was 39.80% on dry weight basis and moisture content was about 28.21%. Starch granule recovery based on stem dry weight and starch content ranged from 14.70 to 20.28% and 52.02 to 71.76%, respectively in different starch settling methods. Starch accumulation pattern in the stem was also studied in the species. Even though wide variability in starch granule shapes was observed among the germplasm, majority of the genotypes had starch granules of round or oval shape. Similarly, starch granule size also varied greatly (38.32-88.03 µm) within and among the genotypes. Significantly small sized starch granules (p = 0.05) were present in the genotype, IC 283650 and biggest (p = 0.05) starch granules were present in the genotype, IC 310610. The information generated in the present study will have application in starch industry for the inclusion of T. cordifolia as an alternative source of starch in addition to its use in Traditional Systems of Medicine. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42535-021-00286-y.

4.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; : 1-5, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361337

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 pandemic struck the globe at a lightning speed mandating the use of containment measures like social distancing and work from home policies to prevent the transmission of this potentially lethal respiratory virus. Our institute, a tertiary referral cancer center catering to the whole of India (Western India in particular), implemented the "work from home" policy during COVID 19 pandemic. For the first time, the concept of "Practicing Pathology from the Distance" (telepathology) was implemented in the Department Of Pathology. This paper discusses how telepathology was factualized, integrated the problems faced during its reporting and possible solutions into the daily surgical pathology reporting at our institute. We analyzed 135 cases by Static Imagery Telepathology out of the total 385 cases reported during national lockdown in India (23rd March to 23rd May 2020) with later confirmation by light microscopy to search for percentage of diagnostic concordance and discrepancy, if any. We experienced 100% diagnostic concordance in all the cases which tested the experience skill and expertise of the concerned telepathology team. However some diagnostic challenges and technical pitfalls were noted while using static imagery technique like time constraints and image qualities. These problems could be resolved by integrating whole slide imaging telepathology for future use. We conclude that during the COVID 19 pandemic, practicing pathology at a distance by integration of technology, expertise, and team work is the need of the hour and the ultimate solution.

5.
AIDS Behav ; 26(2): 523-536, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333082

ABSTRACT

This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of a multi-session, evidence-based, lay counselor-delivered transdiagnostic therapy, the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA), in reducing unhealthy alcohol use and comorbidities among persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Zambia. Adult PLWH with (a) unhealthy alcohol use plus mental health or substance use comorbidities, or (b) severe unhealthy alcohol use were randomized to receive a single-session alcohol brief intervention (BI) alone or BI plus referral to CETA. Outcomes were measured at baseline and a 6-month follow-up and included Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score (primary), depression and trauma symptoms, and other substance use (secondary). We enrolled 160 participants; 78 were randomized to BI alone and 82 to BI plus CETA. Due to COVID-19, the trial ended early before 36 participants completed. Statistically and clinically significant reductions in mean AUDIT score from baseline to 6-month follow-up were observed in both groups, however, participants assigned to BI plus CETA had significantly greater reductions compared to BI alone (- 3.2, 95% CI - 6.2 to - 0.1; Cohen's d: 0.48). The CETA effect size for AUDIT score increased in line with increasing mental health/substance use comorbidity (0 comorbidities d = 0.25; 1-2 comorbidities d = 0.36; 3+ comorbidities d = 1.6). Significant CETA treatment effects were observed for depression, trauma, and several other substances. BI plus referral to CETA was feasible and superior to BI alone for unhealthy alcohol use among adults with HIV, particularly among those with comorbidities. Findings support future effectiveness testing of CETA for HIV outcomes among PLWH with unhealthy alcohol use.Clinical Trials Number: NCT03966885.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Alcoholism/therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Zambia/epidemiology
6.
Curr Res Pharmacol Drug Discov ; 2: 100026, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231984

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of existing public health distress is threatening the entire world with emergence and rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mild in most people. However, in some elderly people with co-morbid conditions, it may progress to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi organ dysfunction leading to death. COVID-19 has caused global panic in the healthcare sector and has become one of the biggest threats to the global economy. Drug discovery researchers are expected to contribute rapidly than ever before. The complete genome sequence of coronavirus had been reported barely a month after the identification of first patient. Potential drug targets to combat and treat the coronavirus infection have also been explored. The iterative structure-based drug design (SBDD) approach could significantly contribute towards the discovery of new drug like molecules for the treatment of COVID-19. The existing antivirals and experiences gained from SARS and MERS outbreaks may pave way for identification of potential drug molecules using the approach. SBDD has gained momentum as the essential tool for faster and costeffective lead discovery of antivirals in the past. The discovery of FDA approved human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors represent the foremost success of SBDD. This systematic review provides an overview of the novel coronavirus, its pathology of replication, role of structure based drug design, available drug targets and recent advances in in-silico drug discovery for the prevention of COVID-19. SARSCoV- 2 main protease, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike (S) protein are the potential targets, which are currently explored for the drug development.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015667

ABSTRACT

In-person interactions have traditionally been the gold standard for qualitative data collection. The COVID-19 pandemic required researchers to consider if remote data collection can meet research objectives, while retaining the same level of data quality and participant protections. We use four case studies from the Philippines, Zambia, India and Uganda to assess the challenges and opportunities of remote data collection during COVID-19. We present lessons learned that may inform practice in similar settings, as well as reflections for the field of qualitative inquiry in the post-COVID-19 era. Key challenges and strategies to overcome them included the need for adapted researcher training in the use of technologies and consent procedures, preparation for abbreviated interviews due to connectivity concerns, and the adoption of regular researcher debriefings. Participant outreach to allay suspicions ranged from communicating study information through multiple channels to highlighting associations with local institutions to boost credibility. Interviews were largely successful, and contained a meaningful level of depth, nuance and conviction that allowed teams to meet study objectives. Rapport still benefitted from conventional interviewer skills, including attentiveness and fluency with interview guides. While differently abled populations may encounter different barriers, the included case studies, which varied in geography and aims, all experienced more rapid recruitment and robust enrollment. Reduced in-person travel lowered interview costs and increased participation among groups who may not have otherwise attended. In our view, remote data collection is not a replacement for in-person endeavours, but a highly beneficial complement. It may increase accessibility and equity in participant contributions and lower costs, while maintaining rich data collection in multiple study target populations and settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Data Collection , Interpersonal Relations , Africa South of the Sahara , Data Accuracy , Data Collection/methods , Data Collection/standards , Humans , India , Internet , Pandemics , Philippines , Physical Distancing , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
8.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 21(5): 130-139, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection among People Living With HIV (PLWH) is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To study COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based swab testing among participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: A telephone survey was collected April-June 30, 2020. Symptom and testing prevalence were explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 3411 participants, including 2078 (61%) PLWH and 1333 HIV-seronegative (SN) participants from across the US. Thirteen percent (n = 441) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.4% of PLWH vs 12.2% of SN). Among those tested, positivity was higher in PLWH than SN (11.2% vs 6.1%, p = 0.08). Reasons for not being tested included testing not being available (30% of participants) and not knowing where to get tested (16% of participants). Most symptoms reported since January 2020 were similar in PLWH and SN, including headache (23% vs. 24%), myalgias (19% vs 18%), shortness of breath (14% vs 13%), chills (12% vs 10%), fever (6% vs 6%) and loss of taste or smell (6% vs 7%). Among PLWH who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 DNA, the most common symptoms were headache (71%), myalgia (68%), cough (68%) and chills (65%). In multivariable analysis among those tested, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity were higher among PLWH than SN (aOR = 2.22 95%CI = 01.01-4.85, p = 0.046) and among those living with others versus living alone (aOR = 2.95 95%CI = 1.18-7.40). CONCLUSION: Prevalence and type of COVID-19 symptoms were similar in PLWH and SN. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be elevated among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chills/epidemiology , Chills/virology , Coinfection , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
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