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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334422

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate for cardiac involvement in recovered COVID-19 patients using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: : A total of 30 subjects recently recovered from COVID-19 and abnormal left ventricular global longitudinal strain were enrolled. Routine investigations, inflammatory markers and cardiac MRI were done at baseline with follow-up scan at 6 months in individuals with abnormal baseline scan. Additionally, 20 age-and sex-matched individuals were enrolled as healthy controls (HCs). Results: : All 30 enrolled subjects were symptomatic during active COVID-19 disease and were categorized as mild: 11 (36.7%), moderate: 6 (20%) and severe: 13 (43.3%). Of the 30 patients, 16 (53.3%) had abnormal CMR findings. Myocardial edema was reported in 12 (40%) patients while 10 (33.3%) had LGE. No difference was observed in terms of conventional LV parameters however, COVID-19 recovered patients had significantly lower right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction, RV stroke volume and RV cardiac index compared to HCs. Follow-up scan was abnormal in 4/16 (25%) with LGE persisting in 3 patients. Myocardial T1 (1284 + 43.8 ms vs 1147.6 + 68.4 ms;P<0.0001) and T2 values (50.8+16.7 ms vs 42.6+3.6 ms;P=0.04) were significantly higher in post COVID-19 subjects compared to HCs. Similarly, T1 and T2 values of severe COVID-19 patients were significantly higher compared to mild and moderate cases. Conclusions: : An abnormal CMR was seen in half of recovered patients with persistent abnormality in one-fourth at six months. Our study suggests a need for closer follow-up among recovered subjects in order to evaluate for long term cardiovascular sequalae.

2.
Data Science for COVID-19 ; : 167-189, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782145

ABSTRACT

Witness the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus becoming more deadly. Artificial intelligence (AI) scientists are using social media, the web, and other knowledge machine learning techniques to look for subtle signs that the disease may spread elsewhere. AI is a weapon in the battle against the infectious pandemic that has had impacts on the whole planet since early 2020. It echoes the high hopes of data science to confront the coronavirus in the press and the scientific community. The AI approach is used in the battle for cure, prediction, and pandemic predictors. Improving AI is a good step toward growing such uncertainties, one of the essential data analytics tools built over the past decade or so. Data scientists have approached the task of motivation. The index is growing exponentially as work information surface, beyond the potential of humans to do it alone. AI describes large data models, and this chapter should clarify how this challenge has become one of the ace cards of humanity. Advances in AI software, such as natural language processing, expression understanding, data mining, etc., are used for diagnosis as well as traceability and production of vaccines. AI has supported and contributed to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We include an initial overview of the real and potential contribution of AI to the fight against COVID-19 and the existing constraints on these contributions. In this chapter, different technologic solutions using AI for COVID-19 have been discussed.

3.
J Educ Health Promot ; 11: 74, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To reduce the likelihood of transmission of infection to health-care workers (HCWs), personal protective equipment is used. However, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) increases the risk of heat stress and loss of dexterity, leads to poor compliance to PPE. To address the issues of poor compliance to PPE, it was necessary to gain a deeper understanding about the factors that influence compliance. Thus this qualitative study was planned to explore barriers faced by HCWs while using PPE during a pandemic situation in a tertiary care hospital, Uttarakhand, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A exploratory qualitative study was undertaken among health care workers involved in the care of COVID patients. FGDs were done and an unstructured interview guide with open-ended questions was used which helped to explore the factors which can be potential barriers to the HCWs while working wearing PPE. RESULTS: Organizational and individual factors acting as barriers such as unavailability of essential personal protective equipment, a disharmonious work environment, lack of comfort, inadequate size, and quality of PPE were identified as the major barriers in the present study. CONCLUSION: Future efforts to optimize PPE use should focus on to adequate supplies both in quality and quantity can help in avoidance of such barriers. Resources should be prioritized with the needs of the HCWs in the times of pandemic. Regular training and feedbacks are necessary for the satisfaction of HCWs and improving PPE compliance.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293156

ABSTRACT

The characteristics of immune memory established in response to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines remains unclear. We determined the magnitude, quality and persistence of cellular and humoral memory responses up to 6 months after vaccination with BBV152/Covaxin. Here, we show that the quantity of vaccine-induced spike- and nucleoprotein-antibodies is comparable to that following natural infection and the antibodies are detectable up to 6 months. The RBD-specific antibodies decline in the range of 3 to 10-fold against the SARS-CoV-2 variants in the order of alpha (B.1.1.7) > delta (B.1.617.2) > beta (B.1.351), with no observed impact of gamma (P.1) and kappa (B.1.617.1) variant. We found that the vaccine induces memory B cells, similar to natural infection, which are impacted by virus variants in the same order as antibodies. The vaccine further induced antigen-specific functionally potent multi-cytokine expressing CD4+ T cells in ~85% of the subjects, targeting spike and nucleoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Marginal ~1.3 fold-reduction was observed in vaccine-induced CD4+ T cells against the beta variant, with no significant impact of the alpha and the delta variants. The antigen-specific CD4+ T cells were populated in the central memory compartment and persisted up to 6 months of vaccination. Importantly the vaccine generated Tfh cells that are endowed with B cell help potential, similar to the Tfh cells induced after natural infection. Altogether, these findings establish that the inactivated virus vaccine BBV152 induces robust immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern, which persist for at least 6 months after vaccination. This study provides insight into the attributes of BBV152-elicited immune memory, and has implication for future vaccine development, guidance for use of inactivated virus vaccine, and booster immunization.

6.
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology ; 39:S61-S61, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1517227
7.
Homeopathy ; 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several homeopathic prognostic factor research (PFR) projects have been undertaken. We found two projects with comparable outcomes to assess consistency and possible flaws. METHODS: Two comparisons were made. (1) Outcome of a PFR data collection from the Liga Medicorum Homoeopathica Internationalis (LMHI) by about 100 doctors with 541 cases was compared with a previous analysis of 161 cases in the same database. (2) The updated LMHI database was also compared with a data collection carried out in India by four doctors with a total of 1,445 cases. Differences that resulted in conflicting outcomes (indication in one, contraindication in the other) were examined for possible causes. RESULTS: There was only a single outcome in the updated LMHI database that conflicted with the previous dataset, and this could have been due to statistical variation. The Indian data contained many cases, from few doctors, while the LMHI database had few cases per doctor, but many doctors. The overlap between the projects (individual cases entered in both) was between zero and 22%. In 72 comparisons we found six (8.3%) conflicting outcomes. Possible causes were statistical error due to small numbers of cases and/or observers, confirmation bias, and keynote prescribing if this resulted in symptoms being inadequately checked. CONCLUSION: There was little conflict between the outcomes of the two versions of one project and between the two different PFR projects. Differences could mostly be explained by causes that can be managed. This consistency should primarily be interpreted as showing a strong overall consensus between homeopathic practitioners worldwide, but with variation of consensus between small groups of practitioners.

8.
Homeopathy ; 111(1): 57-65, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factor research (PFR), prevalence of symptoms and likelihood ratio (LR) play an important role in identifying prescribing indications of useful homeopathic remedies. It involves meticulous unbiased collection and analysis of data collected during clinical practice. This paper is an attempt to identify causes of bias and suggests ways to mitigate them for improving the accuracy in prescribing for better clinical outcomes and execution of randomized controlled studies. METHODS: A prospective, open label, observational study was performed from April 2020 to December 2020 at two COVID Health Centers. A custom-made Excel spreadsheet containing 71 fields covering a spectrum of COVID-19 symptoms was shared with doctors for regular reporting. Cases suitable for PFR were selected. LR was calculated for commonly occurring symptoms. Outlier values with LR ≥5 were identified and variance of LRs was calculated. RESULTS: Out of 1,889 treated cases of confirmed COVID-19, 1,445 cases were selected for pre-specified reasons. Nine medicines, Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, Pulsatilla nigricans, Hepar sulphuricus, Magnesia muriaticum, Phosphorus, Nux vomica and Belladonna, were most frequently prescribed. Outlier values and large variance for Hepar sulphuricus and Magnesia muriaticum were noticed as indication of bias. Confirmation bias leading to lowering of symptom threshold, keynote prescribing, and deficiency in checking of all symptoms in each case were identified as the most important sources of bias. CONCLUSION: Careful identification of biases and remedial steps such as training of doctors, regular monitoring of data, checking of all pre-defined symptoms, and multicenter data collection are important steps to mitigate biases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeopathy , Bias , Data Collection , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 636768, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156122

ABSTRACT

Understanding the causes of the diverse outcome of COVID-19 pandemic in different geographical locations is important for the worldwide vaccine implementation and pandemic control responses. We analyzed 42 unexposed healthy donors and 28 mild COVID-19 subjects up to 5 months from the recovery for SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory. Using HLA class II predicted peptide megapools, we identified SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive CD4+ T cells in around 66% of the unexposed individuals. Moreover, we found detectable immune memory in mild COVID-19 patients several months after recovery in the crucial arms of protective adaptive immunity; CD4+ T cells and B cells, with a minimal contribution from CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the persistent immune memory in COVID-19 patients is predominantly targeted towards the Spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2. This study provides the evidence of both high magnitude pre-existing and persistent immune memory in Indian population. By providing the knowledge on cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, our work has implication for the development and implementation of vaccines against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/virology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
10.
Epigenomics ; 13(6): 465-480, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123737

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 is a positive-sense RNA virus, a causal agent of ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. ACE2R methylation across three CpG sites (cg04013915, cg08559914, cg03536816) determines the host cell's entry. It regulates ACE2 expression by controlling the SIRT1 and KDM5B activity. Further, it regulates Type I and III IFN response by modulating H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 histone mark. SARS-CoV-2 protein with bromodomain and protein E mimics bromodomain histones and evades from host immune response. The 2'-O MTases mimics the host's cap1 structure and plays a vital role in immune evasion through Hsp90-mediated epigenetic process to hijack the infected cells. Although the current review highlighted the critical epigenetic events associated with SARS-CoV-2 immune evasion, the detailed mechanism is yet to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Epigenesis, Genetic , Immune Evasion , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antigen Presentation , DNA Methylation , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Histones , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(3): 868-873, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713606

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (or COVID-19) has become a global risk and scientists are attempting to investigate antiviral vaccine. Berberis are important plants due to the presence of bioactive phytochemicals, especially berberine from the protoberberine group of benzylisoquinoline and recent studies have shown its potential in treating COVID-19. B. lycium Royle growing in subtropical regions of Asia had wide applications in Indian system of medicine. Rapid determination and novel optimisation method for berberine extraction has been developed by Soxhlet extraction utilising central composite design-response surface methodology (CCD-RSM). Berberine was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the highest yield (13.39%) was obtained by maintaining optimal extraction conditions i.e., extraction time (7.28 hrs), ethyl alcohol (52.21%) and solvent to sample ratio (21.78 v/w). Investigation of two geographic regions (Ramnagar and Srinagar) showed high berberine content in lower altitude. This novel optimisation technique has placed berberine as a potential candidate for developing pharmaceutical products for human health care.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Berberis , COVID-19 , Lycium , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Humans , Plant Extracts , Quality Control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Aging Dis ; 11(3): 509-522, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459255

ABSTRACT

The World health organization (WHO) declared Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic and a severe public health crisis. Drastic measures to combat COVID-19 are warranted due to its contagiousness and higher mortality rates, specifically in the aged patient population. At the current stage, due to the lack of effective treatment strategies for COVID-19 innovative approaches need to be considered. It is well known that host cellular miRNAs can directly target both viral 3'UTR and coding region of the viral genome to induce the antiviral effect. In this study, we did in silico analysis of human miRNAs targeting SARS (4 isolates) and COVID-19 (29 recent isolates from different regions) genome and correlated our findings with aging and underlying conditions. We found 848 common miRNAs targeting the SARS genome and 873 common microRNAs targeting the COVID-19 genome. Out of a total of 848 miRNAs from SARS, only 558 commonly present in all COVID-19 isolates. Interestingly, 315 miRNAs are unique for COVID-19 isolates and 290 miRNAs unique to SARS. We also noted that out of 29 COVID-19 isolates, 19 isolates have identical miRNA targets. The COVID-19 isolates, Netherland (EPI_ISL_422601), Australia (EPI_ISL_413214), and Wuhan (EPI_ISL_403931) showed six, four, and four unique miRNAs targets, respectively. Furthermore, GO, and KEGG pathway analysis showed that COVID-19 targeting human miRNAs involved in various age-related signaling and diseases. Recent studies also suggested that some of the human miRNAs targeting COVID-19 decreased with aging and underlying conditions. GO and KEGG identified impaired signaling pathway may be due to low abundance miRNA which might be one of the contributing factors for the increasing severity and mortality in aged individuals and with other underlying conditions. Further, in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to validate some of these targets and identify potential therapeutic targets.

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