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Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 16(3):302-308, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033604

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 the deadly virus, was declared a pandemic by WHO in March, 2020 because of its virulent nature. It has been a piece of work to understand the mechanism of action and the disease pathology of the virus, due to its novel origin. The quality of healthcare is seen to be severely degrading during these times. The two different types of COVID tests that are commonly available in the facility are RTPCR and Rapid Antigen Test or RAT. These help to identify whether the person is infected with the virus or not. With the current management being successful in majority of the cases, we should also consider strengthening the existing modalities. Objective: To find the prevalence of COVID-19 patients and study their clinical course and outcome Material and methods: Data regarding covid-19 patients was collected on basis of demographic profile by using google foms questionnaire at Dr. D.Y. Patil Hospital, Navi Mumbai. Results: A total of 500 patients were included in the present study with male preponderance with 61.4%. 99% patients were tested COVID positive, 73.2% had a history of exposure to COVID patients, 80% had a positive travel history, 99% lab tests were positive. 50.4% duration of the treatment lasted for 7-14 days. 67.6% were treated in the wards, whereas, the remaining 32.4% were treated in the ICU. 19.6% patients required mechanical ventilator support. 51% patients required oxygen therapy. 80.2% did not require intubation. All the patients were on antibiotics, and majority of the patients, i.e. 99.8% were on immuno-boosters as well. Antivirals were administered in 80.6%. 82.8% were discharged with a negative swab. Out of the 17.2% patients with positive swab, mortality was seen in 6.2% patients. 3.4% patients were referred to different centers, while the treatment of the remaining 7.6% patients was continued for a longer period of time. Conclusion: A stepwise perspective of non-pharmaceutical interventions, screening and testing procedures, implementation and compliance to distancing, hygiene measures and use of masks at airports, railway stations, other public places with pragmatic testing and tracing are effective measures that can be implemented. Worldwide numerous clinical trials are taking place for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Although, there is a rapid comprehensive expansion in regard to COVID-19 and few agents appear to be promising, there are no definitely proven effective therapies at this time. Evaluation of several agents by Scientists and researchers are progressive and commendable.

3.
1st International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Sustainable Engineering Solution, CISES 2022 ; : 433-439, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018634

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, mobile phones have quickly evolved from being a tool of communication to a key agent of social development because of its widespread reach in urban as well as rural areas, especially in the under-served communities. The underserved communities refer to populations which are disadvantaged because of their lack of ability to access care, ability to pay, ability to access comprehensive healthcare, or other disparities for reasons of race, caste, religion, gender, language group or social or economic status. Mobile phone-based information and communication technologies (ICTs) have proven to be significantly beneficial for this section of society and communities - those living in remote and media-dark areas, people who have mostly remained deprived of critical health-related information - by spreading awareness, facilitating interaction and engagement, which in turn leads to adapting of healthy practices, and strengthening a health-seeking behaviour among the target communities. The secondary effect of this change is clearly reflected in economic and social development as well as health indicators of these families. This paper evaluates the efficacy of the mobile phone-based intervention in spreading awareness about maternal and child health, during the time of COVID-19 pandemic, at a time when physical outreach by health workers to contact pregnant women and lactating mothers was significantly hindered due to restrictions in movement and face to face meetings. The digital media outreach mechanisms aided by ICTs proved to be a strong alternative in this scenario, which can be demonstrated by the wide uptake of this service among the target communities. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:1637, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009045

ABSTRACT

Background: Denosumab (Dmab), a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL), which selectively inhibits osteoclastogenesis can be used for a long period unlike the relatively short period with Teriparatide.1-2 However the effects of Dmab can quickly regress if the treatment is delayed.3 Objectives: The pandemic led to multiple prolonged lockdowns since March 2020 to Jan 2022 in India. This resulted in follow up Dmab treatment delays. The retrospective study was aimed to look for the effect of the delays. Methods: The bone mineral density (BMD) trends from the central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at our centre were studied. The trends of patients under Dmab for one year and delay in follow up for 10-12 months for the forth dose were evaluated. 21 postmenopausal women who had been under treatment with Dmab 60 mg subcutaneous injection at 6 monthly interval for one year followed up with such delays. 6 were excluded because of history of sars-cov-2 infection and glucocorticoid use. In the study group of 15 (n=15), the mean BMD at L2, L3 & L4 (sp BMD) and Right and Left Hip (hip BMD) were studied from before treatment (a BMD), 6 months after 1st and at the time of 2nd injection (b BMD), 6 months of the 2nd and at the time of 3 rd injection of Dmab (c BMD), and that due to delay in follow up of 10-12 months (d BMD). The mean percentage trend change between a-b, b-c, and c-d BMDs was evaluated. The least signifcant change (LSC) 4 from a single centre DXA was used to validate the fndings. Results: The mean percentage change after the treatment for the 1st 6 months of Dmab (a-b BMD) was 4.08% and 3.60% and the second injection resulted in a further change (b-c BMD) of 5.98% and 4.52% in the sp BMD & hip BMD respectively. The delay in follow up of 10-12 months resulted in a change (c-d BMD) of-7.81% in the sp BMD and-2.96% in the hip BMD. The LSC from a single centre DXA is 2.6% and 3.6% for sp BMD and hip BMD respectively. A p>0.05 was considered statistically signifcant. Table 1 shows the BMD changes. Conclusion: These fndings suggest that regressive trend in BMD are seen when the treatment with Dmab is delayed even as early as 10 to 12 months. It was seen much faster in the spine compared to the hip. It is therefore advised that short term treatment with Dmab without follow up could lead to loss of all gains and may also worsen the osteoporosis.

5.
PAKISTAN JOURNAL OF ANALYTICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY ; 23(1):102-108, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1969942

ABSTRACT

The use of sanitizers in the COVID19 pandemic is very common. While using sanitizers in Nepal, we have found people having problems with skin irritation and rashes;hence it was felt to know the amount of glycerol used as an emollient. A validated UV visible spectrophotometric and Reverse-phase High-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was designed to determine the amount of glycerol in the locally available sanitizers. The glycerol in sanitizers showed variation in amount, ranging from 0.78 to 1.66 g and 0.75 to 1.62 g/100 mL by HPLC and UV, respectively. The sanitizer samples with less purity or failed to meet the specification limit should be withdrawn, and their use must be limited. Hence this method seems to be easy, reliable, and cost-effective for determining glycerol based on the chemical derivatization technique.

6.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE COMMONS ; 16(1):189-208, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939314

ABSTRACT

India has been hard hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the context of a larger quasi -experimental impact assessment, we assess the pandemic???s effects on household coping behavior in 80 villages spread across four districts and three states (n = 772). Half of these villages were targeted by a largescale common land restoration program spearheaded by an NGO, the Foundation for Ecological Security (FES). The other half are yet to be targeted but are statistically similar vis-??-vis FES???s village targeting criteria. Analyzing the results of a phone survey administered eight to ten months into the pandemic and its associated lockdowns, we find that the livelihood activities of households in both sets of villages were adversely impacted by COVID-19. Consequently, most households had to resort to various negative coping behaviors, e.g., distressed asset sales and reduced farm input expenditure. From the same mobile survey data, we construct a Livelihoods Coping Strategies Index (LCSI) and find that households in villages targeted by FES???s common land restoration initiative score 11.3% lower on this index on average, equating to a 4.5 percentage point difference. While modest, this statistically significant effect estimate (p < 0.05) is consistent across the four districts and robust to alterative model and outcome specifications. We find no empirical support that our observed effect was due to improved access to common pool resources or government social programs. Instead, we speculate that this effect may be driven by institutional factors, rather than economic, a proposition we will test in future work.

7.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:2, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880694
8.
Annals of Indian Psychiatry ; 6(1):44-48, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1855974

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the face of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the leadership of the institute felt a need for mental health interventions among patients admitted in COVID-19 isolation, university students, and health-care workers engaged in COVID-19 care. This article aims to share our experience in providing these services. Methodology: COVID-19 inpatients were telephonically counseled. Counseling protocol was based on national guidelines. Students of the university were assessed for emotional problems using a symptom checklist and Kessler 10-item Distress Scale. Subsequently, the faculty assigned as mentors were trained in providing telephonic psychological first aid (PFA) to the students. Psychosocial help was offered to health-care workers through daily guided relaxation sessions. Results: Forty-two of 69 COVID-19 inpatients were telephonically contacted. New-onset mental health problems were found in 40%. Half of the COVID-19 confirmed patients and half of the females had a higher prevalence of mental health problems. On the symptom checklist, 330 students were responded. Worry about the future, contagion, and boredom were reported by the majority of students. On the Kessler 10-item Distress Scale, 272 students were responded. Thirty-seven percent had likely mental disorders (22 males and 79 females). Twenty-two students contacted psychiatrists through mentors and were provided teleconsultation. Eighty health-care workers attended guided relaxation sessions. Twenty-nine responded on the feedback form. Most respondents felt guided relaxation was useful in reducing stress, with strongly agree (n = 12) and agree (n = 14) responses. Conclusions: Emotional problems were significantly prevalent among students and COVID-19 patients. Training faculty in PFA can help address students in distress. Guided relaxation may help frontline workers manage stress.& nbsp;

9.
Natural Volatiles & Essential Oils ; 8(4):2712-2720, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1849271

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has become a game-changer in the field of teaching. In most schools, emphasis is on introducing new online teaching methods because of which we are seeing a lot of positive things happening in the education sector, and there might be very few things more exciting than the flipped classroom. Free from the restrictions of the classroom lecture, the flipped classroom encourages students to follow individual learning speed and gives them an extended opportunity to think and interact objectively. Active learning via the flipped classroom and access to digital course material through the Internet brings productive education that benefits both students and teachers. A study was conducted by the undersigned to assess the effect of flipped classroom learning (F.C.L.)strategy on the self-efficacy of school students at the elementary level. Flipped classroom approach was compared to the traditional lecture method through quasi-experimental research. Fifty students ranging from grade eight were assigned to the control and experimental groups. The study revealed an overall increase in students' self-efficacy along with a promising increase in the Self-Confidence and Positive Attitude of the students. It shows that in the future also we will have to offer blended flipped methodologies that seemingly integrate face-to-face and online teaching for learning to be more flexible and logical.

10.
19th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, ISBI 2022 ; 2022-March, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846115

ABSTRACT

Continuous spread of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and availability of limited resources force the severity-based allocation of resources. While it is essential to have a reliable severity assessment method, it is even more critical to have a prognosis model to estimate infection progress in individuals. An accurate estimate of infection progression would naturally help in optimized treatment and morbidity reduction. We aim at the prognosis of the COVID-19 infections including, ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and pleural effusion, from the longitudinal chest X-ray (CXR) images of the patient. For this purpose, we first propose a learning-based framework that predicts infection type from a given CXR image. This helps in finding low dimensional embeddings of CXR images, which we use in a recurrent learning framework to predict the type of infection for the subsequent days. We achieve a test AUC of 0.85 for infection type prediction and a test AUC of 0.88 for prognosis on the benchmark COVID-19 dataset. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
International Conference on Computational Techniques and Applications, ICCTA 2021 ; 426:43-52, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1844331

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the pandemic that we are all facing these days, we all are advised to maintain some specified social distance from other people in order to keep ourselves safe. The CoVID-19 pandemic started showing its symptoms at the end of 2019 and is still killing thousands of people every day. Although the scientists have been successful in preparing the medicines for it, it is better to take some precautionary measures ourselves only. We are battling from it today as well. So, our tool is just a medium to make this battle a little easier. This will help us to monitor the distance between two objects, here, people, and whether they are at a safe distance from each other or not. This can also be helpful for the officials if they have to keep an eye on everyone and if they are following the proper guidelines to prevent COVID-19 from spreading. This will help us to detect the objects, in this case, people, and track their movements. Anyone can track whether people are maintaining a proper distance from each other or not. We are using three algorithms, object detection, object tracking, and distance measure algorithm, mainly to detect the objects, then track them, and then to analyze the distance between them. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(4):IC01-IC04, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818676

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Delhi, India’s capital, witnessed the first Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) case on February 10, 2020, and subsequently three waves of the pandemic due to which the government had to impose lockdown starting March 25. It led to a decrease in patients seeking health care services for non emergency problems. Janakpuri Super Speciality Hospital (JSSH), a three hundred bedded autonomous institute under Delhi Government, also encountered a decrease in patient footfall. Aim: To identify the changes in trend in Outpatient Department (OPD) registrations and Inpatient Department (IPD) admissions during one year (January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020) of COVID-19 pandemic in comparison to 2019 and also to analyse the collected data with the publicly available data on daily COVID-19 incidence in Delhi. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was done by collecting data from the Janakpuri Super Speciality Hospital, Medical Record Department from 1st January 2019 to 31s December 2020, for daily OPD visits and IPD admissions. The collected data was analysed with the publicly available data on daily COVID-19 incidence in Delhi. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel 2017. The non parametric exponential smoothening technique (dampening factor= 0.9) was applied over the dot plot graphs. Results: In 2020, compared to 2019, the daily OPD visits decreased by 37%. After an initial fall with March lockdown, there was a gradual increase in daily load. The OPD load peaked near middle of August 2020, The second big fall in OPD footfall occurred near second wave in September 2020, After that, OPD volume remained low till the 31st December 2020. Similarly, IPD admission volume peaked near the first wave in June 2020. The 2020 IPD admission volume also witnessed a massive decrease of 40.67% compared to 2019 and was maximum in gastroenterology admissions (65.63%). Conclusion: The study’s findings suggest that temporal associations between COVID-19 pandemic and hospital OPD and IPD admissions during 2020. The possibility of increased morbidity and mortality amongst non COVID-19 patients due to the unavailability of timely health care cannot be ruled out. The government should do capacity building to guide patients to identify the best doctor, clinic and hospital nearest to them in case of future pandemics.

13.
5th International Conference on Microelectronics and Telecommunication Engineering, ICMETE 2021 ; 373:525-532, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1750648

ABSTRACT

Object detection is the task of classifying and finding certain objects including people, cars, handwritten text, and more. This is a growing field with application in several fields, identifying and locating cars, pedestrians and other objects for self-driving cars, monitoring objects such as crops, or the ball during sports, facial detection for protection and many more. Handwritten text recognition comprises character recognition and digit recognition. An effective CNN based model with high accuracy can help an OCR (Optical Character Recognition) system for accurate conversion of written text into digital text. In this work, we have explained a CNN based approach for recognizing hand written digits and predict the written numbers. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

14.
5th International Conference on Microelectronics and Telecommunication Engineering, ICMETE 2021 ; 373:517-524, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1750647

ABSTRACT

Games in any form have always been a part of human life. These play a very important part in socializing and competitive enhancement of human nature. With the invention of computer and various other portal electronic devices, video games came into picture. Advancement in computer technology in last few decades and accessibility of the same has exponentially increased the number of people playing video games. These video games in competitive form are called esports which stands for electronic sports. Nevertheless with the recent outburst because of COVID, the engagement on the same has peaked like never before. Further, these have some positive and some negative outcomes on the life of people. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

15.
Impacts and Implications of COVID-19: An Analytical and Empirical Study ; : 63-85, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1717474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus has upset the world in the years 2019-20. Every business and sector got affected due to the circumstances created by this epidemic. We should know the virology, epidemiology, and safeguards needed to take in this pandemic to understand its impact. Due to its highly contiguous nature, it is essential to save the next generation from its impact as much as possible. The education sector is one of the sectors, which have a huge number of youngsters evolved. Governments around the world have closed their educational institutes physically to stop its spread in public. But, this has raised the issue of hampering continuous education. Our article discussed the impacts, policies, capabilities, and responses taken by the Indian education sector during this pandemic lockdown. Also, we have examined the role of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Tools and the Indian Government, which have enabled the students of Indian educational institutes to learn and continue their knowledge acquiring process. © 2021 Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

16.
1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Computational Electronics and Communication System, AICECS 2021 ; 2161, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1701178

ABSTRACT

The Covid -19 is arguably the biggest pandemic in history and there are a lot of challenges that must be dealt with. One of the biggest challenges post Covid-19 is to tackle quality control challenges. This research paper discusses some of these challenges and solutions using an integrated internet of things (IoT) and internet of protocols (IoP) based approach and further showing its implementation in the industry world and hence, proving to be a solution for damage assessment. With the help of IoT- enabled quality control system, six-sigma rule is also analysed. Post Covid crisis, it is important for every institution to gain back customer trust so quality of materials should be maintained and IoT enables us to do the same. The unification of industrial IoT (IIoT) and industry 4.0 is also discussed as it leads us to understand that this unification is the next evolution of smart manufacturing and digital technologies. This methodology can lead us to accelerated innovation in applications for overcoming the eventual challenges post Covid in the near future. Also, small-scale/large-scale companies making use of the above research methodology can adhere to six-sigma criterion. © 2022 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.

17.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health ; 57(9):1549-1549, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1691487
18.
12th IEEE Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference, IEMCON 2021 ; : 106-112, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1672787

ABSTRACT

The accelerated spread of the COVID-19 (coronavirus) disease has put stress on healthcare systems. Some safety measures are provided, such as keeping social distance and wearing a mask, which can help curb transmission and save lives. This paper aims to detect whether a person is wearing a mask or not with video surveillance to enforce health and safety regulations in real-time. We propose a solution for face mask detection using two deep learning models, the MobileNetV2 and the Modified Convolutional Neural Network (MCNN). The trained models are converted to TensorFlow Lite to deploy an Android Application. Our models can achieve up to 99% accuracy. In this paper, an analysis of the number of individuals not wearing masks is provided by capturing the face and storing it on a mobile-backend-as-a-service. Our application can be adopted to increase health measures in real-time and control the spread of COVID-19. © 2021 IEEE.

19.
2nd International Conference on Data Science and Applications, ICDSA 2021 ; 287:783-795, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1597998

ABSTRACT

In this article, we have considered nine countries where the epidemic shows steady state or has a rising trend and used the traditional SEIR model to estimate the parameter for COVID-19 disease. These parameters are contact rate, removal rate, basic reproduction number, initial doubling time, point of inflection, and epidemic rate. In another part of the work, we have considered five countries where the epidemic trend has not settled and used exponential smoothing technique to forecast the infected cases. The study reports a magnifiable concern for reducing the transmission rate in order to combat the disease. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

20.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-293569

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy, especially in preventing severe illness and hospitalization. However, the emergence of several variants of concern and reports of declining antibody levels have raised uncertainty about the durability of immune memory following vaccination. In this study, we longitudinally profiled both antibody and cellular immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 naive and recovered individuals from pre-vaccine baseline to 6 months post-mRNA vaccination. Antibody and neutralizing titers decayed from peak levels but remained detectable in all subjects at 6 months post-vaccination. Functional memory B cell responses, including those specific for the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants, were also efficiently generated by mRNA vaccination and continued to increase in frequency between 3 and 6 months post-vaccination. Notably, most memory B cells induced by mRNA vaccines were capable of cross-binding variants of concern, and B cell receptor sequencing revealed significantly more hypermutation in these RBD variant-binding clones compared to clones that exclusively bound wild-type RBD. Moreover, the percent of variant cross-binding memory B cells was higher in vaccinees than individuals who recovered from mild COVID-19. mRNA vaccination also generated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and durable memory CD4+ T cells in most individuals, with early CD4+ T cell responses correlating with humoral immunity at later timepoints. These findings demonstrate robust, multi-component humoral and cellular immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 and current variants of concern for at least 6 months after mRNA vaccination. Finally, we observed that boosting of pre-existing immunity with mRNA vaccination in SARS-CoV-2 recovered individuals primarily increased antibody responses in the short-term without significantly altering antibody decay rates or long-term B and T cell memory. Together, this study provides insights into the generation and evolution of vaccine-induced immunity to SARS-CoV-2, including variants of concern, and has implications for future booster strategies. Graphical abstract:

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