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1.
Transplant Direct ; 8(1): e1268, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few reports have focused on newer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapies (remdesivir, dexamethasone, and convalescent plasma) in solid organ transplant recipients; concerns had been raised regarding possible adverse impact on allograft function or secondary infections. METHODS: We studied 77 solid organ transplant inpatients with COVID-19 during 2 therapeutic eras (Era 1: March-May 2020, 21 patients; and Era 2: June-November 2020, 56 patients) and 52 solid organ transplant outpatients. RESULTS: In Era 1, no patients received remdesivir or dexamethasone, and 4 of 21 (19.4%) received convalescent plasma, whereas in Era 2, remdesivir (24/56, 42.9%), dexamethasone (24/56, 42.9%), and convalescent plasma (40/56, 71.4%) were commonly used. Mortality was low across both eras, 4 of 77 (5.6%), and rejection occurred in only 2 of 77 (2.8%) inpatients; infections were similar in hypoxemic patients with or without dexamethasone. Preexisting graft dysfunction was associated with greater need for hospitalization, higher severity score, and lower survival. Acute kidney injury was present in 37.3% of inpatients; renal function improved more rapidly in patients who received remdesivir and convalescent plasma. Post-COVID-19 renal and liver function were comparable between eras, out to 90 d. CONCLUSIONS: Newer COVID-19 therapies did not appear to have a deleterious effect on allograft function, and infectious complications were comparable.

2.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(12): 6911-6923, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To highlight recent developments in the utilization of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices as bridge-to-transplant strategies and to discuss trends in MCS use following the changes to the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) heart allocation system. BACKGROUND: MCS devices have played an increasingly important role in the treatment of heart failure patients. Over the past several years, technological advancements have led to new developments in MCS devices and expanding indications for MCS use. In October of 2018, the UNOS heart allocation policy was revised to prioritize higher-urgency patients, including those supported with temporary MCS devices. Since then, changes in trends of MCS utilization have been observed. METHODS: Articles from the PubMed database regarding the use of MCS devices as bridge-to-transplant strategies were reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past decade, utilization of temporary MCS devices, which include the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP), percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVADs), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), has become increasingly common. Recent advancements in MCS include the development of pVADs that can fully unload the left ventricle (LV) as well as devices designed to provide right-sided support. Technological advancements in durable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have also led to improved outcomes both on the device and following heart transplantation. Following the 2018 UNOS heart allocation policy revision, the utilization of temporary MCS in advanced heart failure patients has further increased and the proportion of patients bridged directly from a temporary MCS device has exponentially risen. However, following the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the trends have reversed, with a decrease in the percentage of patients bridged from a temporary MCS device. As long-term data following the allocation policy revision becomes available, future studies should investigate how trends in MCS use for patients with advanced heart failure continue to evolve.

3.
Homeopathy ; 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several homeopathic prognostic factor research (PFR) projects have been undertaken. We found two projects with comparable outcomes to assess consistency and possible flaws. METHODS: Two comparisons were made. (1) Outcome of a PFR data collection from the Liga Medicorum Homoeopathica Internationalis (LMHI) by about 100 doctors with 541 cases was compared with a previous analysis of 161 cases in the same database. (2) The updated LMHI database was also compared with a data collection carried out in India by four doctors with a total of 1,445 cases. Differences that resulted in conflicting outcomes (indication in one, contraindication in the other) were examined for possible causes. RESULTS: There was only a single outcome in the updated LMHI database that conflicted with the previous dataset, and this could have been due to statistical variation. The Indian data contained many cases, from few doctors, while the LMHI database had few cases per doctor, but many doctors. The overlap between the projects (individual cases entered in both) was between zero and 22%. In 72 comparisons we found six (8.3%) conflicting outcomes. Possible causes were statistical error due to small numbers of cases and/or observers, confirmation bias, and keynote prescribing if this resulted in symptoms being inadequately checked. CONCLUSION: There was little conflict between the outcomes of the two versions of one project and between the two different PFR projects. Differences could mostly be explained by causes that can be managed. This consistency should primarily be interpreted as showing a strong overall consensus between homeopathic practitioners worldwide, but with variation of consensus between small groups of practitioners.

4.
J Pediatr ; 238: 26-32.e1, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461628

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical course and outcomes of children 12-18 years of age who developed probable myopericarditis after vaccination with the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 25 children, aged 12-18 years, diagnosed with probable myopericarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for myopericarditis at 8 US centers between May 10, 2021, and June 20, 2021. We retrospectively collected the following data: demographics, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus detection or serologic testing, clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, imaging study results, treatment, and time to resolutions of symptoms. RESULTS: Most (88%) cases followed the second dose of vaccine, and chest pain (100%) was the most common presenting symptom. Patients came to medical attention a median of 2 days (range, <1-20 days) after receipt of Pfizer mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. All adolescents had an elevated plasma troponin concentration. Echocardiographic abnormalities were infrequent, and 92% showed normal cardiac function at presentation. However, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, obtained in 16 patients (64%), revealed that 15 (94%) had late gadolinium enhancement consistent with myopericarditis. Most were treated with ibuprofen or an equivalent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug for symptomatic relief. One patient was given a corticosteroid orally after the initial administration of ibuprofen or an nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; 2 patients also received intravenous immune globulin. Symptom resolution was observed within 7 days in all patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that symptoms owing to myopericarditis after the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination tend to be mild and transient. Approximately two-thirds of patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, which revealed evidence of myocardial inflammation despite a lack of echocardiographic abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
5.
Homeopathy ; 111(1): 57-65, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prognostic factor research (PFR), prevalence of symptoms and likelihood ratio (LR) play an important role in identifying prescribing indications of useful homeopathic remedies. It involves meticulous unbiased collection and analysis of data collected during clinical practice. This paper is an attempt to identify causes of bias and suggests ways to mitigate them for improving the accuracy in prescribing for better clinical outcomes and execution of randomized controlled studies. METHODS: A prospective, open label, observational study was performed from April 2020 to December 2020 at two COVID Health Centers. A custom-made Excel spreadsheet containing 71 fields covering a spectrum of COVID-19 symptoms was shared with doctors for regular reporting. Cases suitable for PFR were selected. LR was calculated for commonly occurring symptoms. Outlier values with LR ≥5 were identified and variance of LRs was calculated. RESULTS: Out of 1,889 treated cases of confirmed COVID-19, 1,445 cases were selected for pre-specified reasons. Nine medicines, Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, Pulsatilla nigricans, Hepar sulphuricus, Magnesia muriaticum, Phosphorus, Nux vomica and Belladonna, were most frequently prescribed. Outlier values and large variance for Hepar sulphuricus and Magnesia muriaticum were noticed as indication of bias. Confirmation bias leading to lowering of symptom threshold, keynote prescribing, and deficiency in checking of all symptoms in each case were identified as the most important sources of bias. CONCLUSION: Careful identification of biases and remedial steps such as training of doctors, regular monitoring of data, checking of all pre-defined symptoms, and multicenter data collection are important steps to mitigate biases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeopathy , Bias , Data Collection , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0498, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence of cardiovascular morbidity associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019). Pro-B-type natriuretic peptide is a biomarker of myocardial stress, associated with various respiratory and cardiac outcomes. We hypothesized that pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level would be associated with mortality and clinical outcomes in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients. DESIGN: We performed a retrospective analysis using adjusted logistic and linear regression to assess the association of admission pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (analyzed by both cutoff > 125 pg/mL and log transformed pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) with clinical outcomes. We additionally treated body mass index, a confounder of both pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels and coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes, as an ordinal variable. SETTING: We reviewed hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who had a pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level measured within 48 hours of admission between March 1, and August 31, 2020, from a multihospital U.S. health system. PATIENTS: Adult patients (≥ 18 yr old; n = 1232) with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to the health system. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and troponin I level, higher pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level was significantly associated with death and secondary outcomes of new heart failure, length of stay, ICU duration, and need for ventilation among hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients. This significance persisted after adjustment for body mass index as an ordinal variable. The adjusted hazard ratio of death for log transformed pro-B-type natriuretic peptide was 1.56 (95% CI, 1.23-1.97; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is warranted on the utility of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide for clinical prognostication in coronavirus disease 2019 as well as implications of abnormal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in the underlying pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019-related myocardial injury.

7.
Homeopathy ; 110(3): 160-167, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new disease; its clinical profile and natural history are evolving. Each well-recorded case in homeopathic practice is important for deciding the future course of action. This study aims at identifying clinically useful homeopathic remedies and their prescribing symptoms using the prognostic factor research model. METHODS: This was an open-label, multi-centric, observational study performed from April 2020 to July 2020 at various public health care clinics. The data were collected prospectively from clinical practice at integrated COVID-19 care facilities in India. Good-quality cases were selected using a specific set of criteria. These cases were analyzed for elucidating prognostic factors by calculating the likelihood ratio (LR) of each frequently occurring symptom. The symptoms with high LR values (>1) were considered as prescribing indications of the specific remedy. RESULTS: Out of 327 COVID-19 cases reported, 211 met the selection criteria for analysis. The most common complaints were fatigue, sore throat, dry cough, myalgia, fever, dry mouth and throat, increased thirst, headache, decreased appetite, anxiety, and altered taste. Twenty-seven remedies were prescribed and four of them-Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, and Pulsatilla nigricans-were the most frequently used. A high LR was obtained for certain symptoms, which enabled differentiation between the remedies for a given patient. CONCLUSION: Homeopathic medicines were associated with improvement in symptoms of COVID-19 cases. Characteristic symptoms of four frequently indicated remedies have been identified using prognostic factor research, findings that can contribute to accurate homeopathic prescribing during future controlled research in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Homeopathy , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Likelihood Functions , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 319(3): E562-E567, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690332

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological data in COVID-19 mortality indicate that men are more prone to die of SARS-CoV-2 infection than women, but biological causes for this sexual dimorphism are unknown. We discuss the prospective behavioral and biological differences between the sexes that could be attributed to this sex-based differentiation. The female sex hormones and the immune stimulatory genes, including Toll-like receptors, interleukins, and micro-RNAs present on X-chromosome, may impart lesser infectivity and mortality of the SARS-CoV-2 in females over males. The sex hormone estrogen interacts with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, one of the most critical pathways in COVID-19 infectivity, and modulates the vasomotor homeostasis. Testosterone on the contrary enhances the levels of the two most critical molecules, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine-type 2 (TMPRSS2), transcriptionally and posttranslationally, thereby increasing viral load and delaying viral clearance in men as compared with women. We propose that modulating sex hormones, either by increasing estrogen or antiandrogen, may be a therapeutic option to reduce mortality from SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Sex Characteristics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Estradiol/metabolism , Estradiol/pharmacology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Male , Mortality , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Sex Factors , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Load/genetics
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