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1.
Journal of Urology ; 207(SUPPL 5):e665, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1886523

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Clinical research study can be expensive and time consuming due to high cost and/or long duration of a study. We hypothesized that research studies using online recruitment and engaging patients via social medial channels have the potential to reach a large population in a small timeframe, at a reasonable cost. This is an especially appropriate adaptation during COVID-19, with limited hospital and clinic access. To our knowledge, no prior study has performed a detailed cost analysis of the use of online recruitment of clinical sample collection. We sought to address this knowledge gap by comparing cost and efficiency of the recruitment of urine samples online compared to recruitment of urine samples at clinical research sites. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cost analysis of a cohort study comparing cost per sample and time per sample for both online and clinically recruited participants. The retrospective review was conducted from August 2020 to September 2021. During this time, cost data was collected based on patient surveys, urine sample analyses, invoices, and budget spreadsheets. The data was subsequently subjected to statistical analysis. This study was performed with full institutional IRB approval. RESULTS: Each sample collection kit contained 3 urine cups, 1 for the IC sample and 2 for control samples. Out of the 3576 (1192 IC + 2384 control) total sample cups mailed, 1,211 (677 control) samples were returned, with a return rate of 44.8% for IC samples and 28.4% for controls. Comparatively, the two clinical sites collected 305 samples in the same period. Men and women of all age groups (18+) and ethnicities enrolled in the study, representing all 50 states. Although the initial startup cost of online recruitment was higher, cost per sample for online recruited was found to be $147.06 compared to $398.14 for clinic sample. CONCLUSIONS: We conducted a nationwide, contactless, urine sample drive through online participant recruitment, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results were compared with the samples collected in traditional clinical setting. Online patient recruitment can be utilized to collect urine sample rapidly, efficiently and at a cost per sample that was 37% of in an in-person clinic and without risk of COVID-19 exposure.

2.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880884
4.
Journal of Global Health Reports ; 5(e2021069), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1865734

ABSTRACT

Background: There are various COVID-19 vaccines launched in different parts of the world. As the vaccination drive is increasing, the reports of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are increasingly reported. Therefore, this research aims to document the adverse events and their determinants following COVID-19 vaccination.

5.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S2-S3, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857731

ABSTRACT

Background: Autoimmune disease in adults, among spectrum of complications of COVID 19 is rare. Case Study: Both the cases were never smokers and had type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypothyroidism with history of severe COVID 19 eleven months back in case I and seven months back in case II. Case I is 36 year old female, had off and on cough and fever (with spikes of 102o F) for one month along with loss of appetite and weight. CECT thorax showed multifocal GGOs and nodules and CT guided biopsy showed epitheliod granulomas. Fever had not responded to course of ATT. Monteux test showed no induration and BAL was negative for CBNAAT, fungal smear and culture and malignant cytology for both patients. PET CT showed metabolically active bilateral lung nodules. NCCT PNS was suggestive of pansinusitis. cANCA was positive. Case II is a 63 year male, had off and on dry cough and dyspnea off and on (grade 2 mMRC) for 2 months associated with loss of appetite and weight. Hb was 6 gm/ dl and indirect Coombs test was positive. USG whole abdomen showed coarse echotexture with multiple small nodular hypoechoic lesions in liver and spleen and splenomegaly. Serum ACE level was 95 mcg/ L. CECT thorax showed discrete areas of consolidation and ground glass opacity with perifissural and peribronchovascular nodules. TBLB showed non necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Diagnosis of post COVID ANCA associated vasculitis was made in case I and post COVID sarcoidosis in case II. Both patients responded to immunosuppression. Discussion: Literature shows evidence for similar pathogenesis and clinical-radiological aspects between the hyper-inflammatory diseases and Covid-19 which might explain SARS-CoV-2 for the development of a rapid autoimmune and/or autoinflammatory dysregulation. Host-pathogen interactions at different points of the viral life cycle seem to be important for explaining in part the heterogeneity of clinical pictures that characterize COVID-19. Conclusion: In this progressively increasing global COVID-19 pandemic, it remains necessary to investigate early to find the effects and interactions of various immunological and autoimmune diseases in patients with recent history of COVID-19 and further intervene.

6.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S156, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857730

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 and its treatment with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy, mechanical ventilation, contaminated oxygen humidifier systems, prolonged hospital stay and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus increase the risk of fungal infections. Methodology: Inclusion criteria were patients with (i) recovery from moderate to severe COVID 19 & (ii) new onset cavitary lung lesions. Exclusion criteria were rhino orbito cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). Results: Of all the 44 patients, (40, 90.9%) were males and never smoker (32, 72.7%). Mean age was 59.7 years. Comorbidities were DM (20, 45.4%) with HbA1c>5.4% in 16 (36.3%) and HTN (16, 36.3%). Mean ESR was 81.5 mm/1 hr & CRP was 112 mg/L. 22 (50%) underwent mechanical ventilation. Presenting symptoms were fever (34, 77.27%) and hemoptysis (28, 63.6%). Mean d-dimer was 1.93 g/ dL. Sputum yielded growth on fungal smear culture in 8 (18.18%). BAL galactomannan was raised in 26(59.1%) patients. 30 (68.2%) had cavitatory lesion in right lung with upper lobe involvement in (16, 53.3%). 36 (81.8%) patients underwent FOB. Most common endobronchial appearance was thick whitish mucoid secretions. 2 (4.5%) had endobronchial mass adherent to bronchial wall.BAL fungal culture yielded growth in 18(40.9%). TBLB yielded abnormal histopathology on 8(18.8%) patients. BAL showed mucormycosis in 14 (31.8%), MTB detected by CBNAAT in 8 (18.8%), aspergillosis in 8(18.8%) and candidiasis in 2(4.5%). During antifungal treatment, 12 (27.2%) died. Conclusion: After excluding ROCM, pulmonary mucormycosis followed by aspergillosis were the common fungal lung infections, in patients presenting to Pulmonary Medicine department of a tertiary care centre after recovery from COVID 19.

7.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S20, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857332

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented health crisis. Post COVID-19 lung sequelae comprise respiratory disease occurring after recovery from COVID-19. Objective: (1) To determine the baseline characteristics. (a) Inflammatory marker levels. (b) Spirometric values. (c) 6 minute walk distance. (d) Radiological parameters. (2) To assess the differences in above mentioned parameters, during follow up. Methods: All consecutive recovered patients of moderate to severe COVID-19 attending Post COVID-19 clinic were subjected to history taking of grade of dyspnea and preexisting co morbidities. At baseline visit, inflammatory markers (ESR, CRP, d-Dimer, Ferritin and LDH), Spirometry, 6MWD and HRCT thorax findings were determined. Spirometry and 6MWD were repeated in follow up visits (0, 3, 12, 24 weeks). Results: Of the 468 patients, 196 (41.9%) had moderate and 272 (58.1%) had severe disease. Ever smokers comprised 58 (16.2%) patients. 348 (74.3%) had comorbidities, most common being hypertension (192, 41%). The mean value of ESR, CRP, d-Dimer, LDH and Ferritin levels was higher in severe patient group, compared to moderate patient group (although statistically insignificant). Statistically significant decline was seen in ESR, CRP, ferritin and LDH levels in 1st follow up. Spirometric parameter, absolute FVC was higher in moderate group compared to severe group and statistically significant. Most common radiological finding was ground glass opacity (GGO), and treated with OCS. In OCS treatment arm, statistically significant increment in 6MWD was seen as compared to antifibrotic arm. Conclusion: Long recovery period should be expected in patients of moderate to severe COVID-19.

8.
Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews ; 9(2):132-141, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849492

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic posed unprecedented demands on health care. This study aimed to characterize COVID-19 inpatients and examine trends and risk factors associated with hospitalization duration, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and in-hospital mortality. Methods This retrospective study analyzed patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection hospitalized at an integrated health system between February 2, 2020, and December 12, 2020. Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were obtained from medical records. Backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors of ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate relationships between ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. Results Overall, 9647 patients were analyzed. Mean age was 64.6 +/- 18 years. A linear decrease was observed for hospitalization duration (0.13 days/week, R-2 =0.71;P<0.0001), ICU admissions (0.35%/week, R-2 =0.44;P<0.001), and hospital mortality (0.16%/week, R-2 =0.31;P<0.01). Bacterial co-infections, male sex, history of chronic lung and heart disease, diabetes, and Hispanic ethnicity were identified as independent predictors of ICU admission (P<0.001). ICU admission and age of >= 65 years were the strongest independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality (P<0.001). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.3% (27.4% in ICU patients, 2.6% in non-ICU patients;P<0.001). Conclusions Results indicate that, over the pandemic's first 10 months, COVID-19 carried a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality in older patients (>65 years), males, Hispanics, and those with bacterial co-infections and chronic comorbidities. Although disease severity has steadily declined following administration of COVID-19 vaccines along with improved understanding of effective COVID-19 interventions, these study findings reflect a "natural history" for this novel infectious disease in the U.S. Midwest.

9.
6th International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication, ICCMC 2022 ; : 445-451, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840250

ABSTRACT

With the increasing threat of Covid-19 and now omicron infection across the world among people, there has been a significant surge in the demand for a fully-automated, self-controlled or mechanized ventilator which can provide sufficient air-pressure to weak human lungs continuously. It is our humble endeavor to mitigate the effects caused due to handful of trained-physicians over countless untreated patients and lack of enough health-infrastructure facilities to support in the time of dire need. We all dread losing another precious life on earth due to any one of the above mentioned reason. We have tried simulating the observations obtained from a lab-developed mechanical ventilator system under different lung settings. After preprocessing this dataset using NLP, training data is analysed to study the correlation between observations from numerous attributes. A couple of Machine Learning (LR, RF, SVM, LGBM) and Deep Learning (MLP, LSTM, Bi-LSTM) algorithms have been deployed to train our model individually, out of which Bi-LSTM performed exceptionally well above others. However, only after exhaustive clinical trials and recommendations a large of number of patients on life-support can get a new life through the large practical application of this device, in the near future. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
Journal of Experimental Zoology, India ; 25(1):575-580, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1837795

ABSTRACT

Present world! If we utter these words in the present scenario, they will reflect with their truest meaning even in the mind of a lay man of a country. Yes, this is the impact of the Corona Virus Pandemic 2019 which has made the whole world stand in the same line today. We are feeling globally, watching globally and learning globally. COVID -19 Pandemic causes deadly effects on human populations all over the world. Millions of deaths have occurred and more than billions are suffering from this deadly disease. Present study is based on the effects of Pandemic Covid -19 on environment and Human society. On environment issues we focus on the hydrological study of river Ganga near Bijnor District and on wild life. Social aspect specially focuses on the behavioral changes in human beings during lockdown period. Study indicates that all living beings, except human feel happy during lock down. This chapter includes analysis of water quality of lotic system and ethological changes of the animals. Results indicate that significant changes occur in aquatic life and the noticeable changes were found in the behavior of human beings.

11.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(3):2673-2681, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820578

ABSTRACT

Background- For successful management of Covid-19 pregnancy, adequate information and understanding of its clinical presentation and impact of the disease on pregnant mothers and their newborns is required. Aim- To describe the clinical manifestations of COVID -19 infection in pregnant women during peripartum period and to study the clinical outcomes of neonates born to these mothers. Methods- This prospective study was conducted at a COVID-19 Hospital of North India, from May 2021 to July 2021.All Covid-19 positive pregnant women who presented at the time of labor (symptomatic or asymptomatic) were included in the study. Follow up of these women and their newborns was done till discharge and neonates were further followed up till 28 days of life. Results-Total 70 patients were included in the study (24.2% symptomatic and 75.7% asymptomatic). Eighteen (25.7%) were NVD and 52(74.2%) were LSCS. LSCS was done more in symptomatic subjects (p<0.05). Frequency of AFD is higher in symptomatic subjects(p value< 0.05).Co morbidities noted were PIH, GDM, hypothyroidism and anemia in 15(21.4%), 2(2.8%), 11(15.7%) and 22(31.4%) respectively. All study women were successfully discharged. There were 69 live births(53(76.8%) term and 16(23.1%) preterms)and 1 IUD. Two (2.8%) babies were tested positive for COVID19. Both remained asymptomatic and discharged. Total 11 neonates required NICU admission due to non covid reasons. Number of deaths among neonates were 2 (2.8%). During followup visits 5(9.09%) neonates required readmission in NICU. Inadequate weight gain was seen in 3(5.4%) babies. None developed COVID related symptoms. Conclusion- COVID 19 infection during pregnancy is not associated with severe clinical presentation, high mortality and morbidity. There may be an association between symptomatic COVID19 pregnant women and AFD. There is high incidence of prematurity and LBW in neonates born to COVID positive mothers.

12.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 can manifest in rapid decompensation and respiratory failure with elevated inflammatory markers. This presentation is consistent with cytokine release syndrome in chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy, for which IL-6 blockade is approved treatment. METHODS: We assessed effectiveness and safety of IL-6 blockade with tocilizumab in a single-center cohort of patients with COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation. The primary endpoint was survival probability post-intubation;secondary analyses included an ordinal illness severity scale integrating superinfections. Outcomes in patients who received tocilizumab compared to tocilizumab-untreated controls were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression with propensity score inverse probability weighting (IPTW). FINDINGS: 154 patients were included, of whom 78 received tocilizumab and 76 did not. Median follow-up was 47 days (range 28-67). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, although tocilizumab-treated patients were younger (mean 55 vs. 60 years), less likely to have chronic pulmonary disease (10% vs. 28%), and had lower D-dimer values at time of intubation (median 2.4 vs. 6.5 mg/dL). In IPTW-adjusted models, tocilizumab was associated with a 45% reduction in hazard of death [hazard ratio 0.55 (95% CI 0.33, 0.90)] and improved status on the ordinal outcome scale [odds ratio per 1-level increase: 0.59 (0.36, 0.95)]. Though tocilizumab was associated with an increased proportion of patients with superinfections (54% vs. 26%;p<0.001), there was no difference in 28-day case fatality rate among tocilizumab-treated patients with versus without superinfection [22% vs. 15%;p=0.42]. INTERPRETATION: In this cohort of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients, tocilizumab was associated with a decreased likelihood of death despite higher superinfection occurrence. Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to confirm these findings.

13.
Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University ; 16(3):470-474, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789541

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID pandemic period, our home-restricted life led to many undesirable physical, physiological, and mental alterations. Yoga a traditional system of medicines by virtue of its holistic approach toward health and disease and also due to reasonable cost, the technique has an edge in dealing with health problems and with primary prevention of disease. Aim: The current study has been designed to assess the effect of short-term (for 3 months for 5 days in a week or 40 days) yoga practice on lipid profile, and blood glucose level, C-reactive protein (CRP), and other physical and physiological parameters among healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Students went for yoga practice for 3 months (90 days) for 5 days in a week under the supervision of trained yoga instructor. Yoga activity was conducted via Google Meet app through broadband connectivity. The procedure began with Surya Namaskar (Sun Saluation) with a session of 12 asanas (fixed postures) for 20 min, followed by 15 min Pranayam (breathing exercise including anulome-vilome, surya bandana, sheetali, and bhramari). The session ended with 10 min meditation. Yoga program was started on September 27, 2020, and ended on December 27, 2020, after the completion of 3 months. Biochemical investigation (lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, CRP) and physiological parameters (blood pressure [BP], pulse), and other anthropometric parameters including weight, height body mass index reports were collected before September 27 and after December 27 in 5 days after the completion of 3 months tenure. Results: Results of the study clearly indicate fasting sugar, systolic BP, and low-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased (with value <0.02, 0.007, and 0.001, respectively) in the postyoga phase as compared to preyoga baseline investigation. Conclusion: The The present study substantiates some good results of the yoga training. Although all the tested parameters could not show desired changes and they were statistically insignificant. © 2022 Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences University ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

14.
Cancer Research ; 82(4 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779478

ABSTRACT

Background: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 has led to a global pandemic and has significantly impacted the care of cancer patients. Breast cancer patients receiving active systemic therapy need protection against COVID19 but the efficacy of vaccines in this population is unknown. Although specific biomarkers associated with protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection have yet to be identified, measurement of serum antibody activity is generally accepted as a surrogate of in vivo humoral response to vaccine. This study evaluates the efficiency and durability of binding antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in response to COVID19 vaccine in breast cancer patients receiving systemic treatment. Methods: Breast cancer patients, who were unvaccinated, partially or fully vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 (PF), Moderna mRNA-1273 (Mod) or Johnson & Johnson AD26.COV2.S (J&J) were enrolled in this prospective longitudinal study. Eligible patients were on systemic treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy, chemotherapy plus a checkpoint inhibitor (CPI), CPI alone or a CDK 4/6 inhibitor. Longitudinal blood samples are being collected at baseline, prior to vaccination in unvaccinated patients (T0), 2 weeks after the first vaccine dose and before Sthe second dose for the mRNA vaccines (T1), 1 month (T2), 3 months (T3), 6 months (T4) and 12 month post vaccination. For J&J, there was no T1 timepoint. Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody immunoassay was used to measure antibody titers (range 0.4 to 250 U/mL). Cut points of <0.8 U/mL = negative, ≥0.8 U/mL = seropositive, were based on validated product specifications. Results: Of the 84 breast cancer patients enrolled, 9 had documented COVID infection at baseline and were excluded from analysis. Mean age was 58 years;99% were female, 85% were Caucasian, 49% had early stage disease and 51% had metastatic breast cancer. 67% were receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, 20% a CKD 4/6 inhibitor, 13% a CPI with or without chemotherapy. 61.2% were vaccinated with PF, 34.3% with Mod and 4.5% with J&J vaccines. Seropositivity rate for the entire group was 10% at T0, 78% at T1, 98% at T2 and 100% at T3. Seropositivity rates of all cohorts at different timepoints are shown in the table. Mean titers for all patients were 12.6 U/mL at T0, 102.3 U/mL at T1, 204.4 U/mL at T2 and 214.6 U/mL at T3 timepoints. Similar incremental increase in antibody levels was observed in all cohorts (Table). Conclusions: 78% of the patients with breast cancer on active systemic treatment were seropositive after the first dose of COVID19 vaccine and 98% after the second dose. The antibody response was maintained at 3 months, with 100% seropositivity rate. 6-month antibody response will be available at the time of presentation. Durability of antibody response at 6 and 12 months will help determine the timing of additional vaccine booster doses in this population. Importantly, this study has found that active treatment with chemotherapy, immunotherapy or CDK4/6 inhibitor therapy does not impact antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with breast cancer. Table: Seropositivity rate and mean Anti-S protein antibody levels by cohort at each time point. T0= baseline, T1=after first vaccine dose (mRNA vaccines), T2= 4 weeks after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine or after single dose of J&J vaccine, T3=3 months after the first dose of vaccine.

15.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry ; 36(SUPPL 1):S160, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1767697

ABSTRACT

Objective : Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) was observed to be decreased in sepsis and inflammatory conditions. The severity of inflammation was found to be associated with a low DHEAS/cortisol ratio. In the present study, we compared DHEAS, cortisol, and DHEAS/cortisol ratio to assess which is a better marker for inflammation in patients with COVID-19. Methodology: This was an analytical cross-sectional pilot study conducted from April 2020 to Dec 2020. The study recruited 76 RT-PCR positive COVID-19 positive patients. The blood samples were collected were analyzed for cortisol and DHEAS. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were estimated to assess the inflammation. Results: We classified the cases into two groups based on the median levels of DHEAS, cortisol, and DHEAS/cortisol ratio. We observed hs-CRP to be elevated in the groups which have the levels of DHEAS, cortisol, and DHEAS/cortisol ratio lower than the respective medians. However, a significant difference in hs-CRP levels was observed only between DHEAS/cortisol ratio (p value= 0.0204) and not between DHEAS and cortisol groups. Conclusion: The present study is the first of its kind comparing the DHEAS levels and DHEAS/ cortisol ratio in COVID-19. The study concludes DHEAS/cortisol ratio to be a better marker than individual DHEAS or cortisol in the assessment of inflammation in COVID-19 patients.

16.
5th International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Networks, ISCON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1759091

ABSTRACT

Meter reading and billing are time-consuming activities for power, water and gas providing boards. The existing billing system relies on a manual method of taking meter readings, updating the reading in the server and finally generating the bill amount. In this project, the user simply needs to use an Android application to capture and upload the picture of the meter after performing OCR operation. The processing on the image is performed on the server side using Google Colab and Python. The meter reading obtained from OCR processing is sent to the firebase, which is further pushed to the Android application. And finally the Android application displays the meter reading and the bill amount generated. Our project ensures the safety (from communicable diseases like COVID-19) of both the board staff and the customer as they don't come in contact with each other. This project also helps in cutting down on their expenditure by reducing manpower and travel costs. © 2021 IEEE.

17.
Journal of Biochemical Technology ; 12(4):104-109, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1754336

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 storm has taken the world and is now posing a massive burden on the healthcare services of the world. Another long-standing global epidemic is diabetes mellitus and diabetics who get infected with COVID-19 have been seen to have worse outcomes and a high non-survival rate. The global focus is to control the pandemic for which diabetes has been proved to be a vulnerable group. The aim of the present review was to assemble the information about diabetes mellitus and COVID-19 mainly focusing on the interrelation of pandemics of the past and diabetes mellitus, possible pathophysiological mechanisms governing COVID-19 in diabetics, the effect of COVID-19 infection on underlying diabetes mellitus, morbidity, and mortality in diabetic COVID-19 patients, and finally the management of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in the current pandemic. It was concluded that this COVID-19 pandemic is still lurking and it is of great importance to highlight the fact that a high percentage of the population of the world is affected by various comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, COPD, obesity, etc., which makes a subset of the population more vulnerable. This vulnerable population is at increased risk for a poor outcome if affected by COVID-19. Hence, we as a society should prioritize this population at risk to avoid adding additional burden to the already overburdened health care system in the present COVID-19 scenario.

18.
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy ; 15(6):52-57, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1744732

ABSTRACT

Synthetic dyes have high fastness property and are stable under diverse conditions but over time it is seen that they are toxic to the environment and some are carcinogenic. Dyes derived from natural sources like tartrazine, cochineal red and sunset yellow may cause allergies when used alone or in a combination. Some of the colourants that had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in various industries like food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics are found to promote cancer. The purpose of the present study is to extract natural dyes from peel of fruits and vegetables, flowers and study the effect of different mordanting techniques (pre-mordanting, simultaneous mordanting, post-mordanting) on dyeing, The extracts were applied as direct dyes in the presence of mordants. Dyeing of cotton cloth was performed using extracts of Pomegranate peel (Punica granatum), Orange peel (Citrus sinensis), Marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta), Kidney bean seed coat (Phaseolus vulgaris). Colour strength, shade and fastness properties of the dyes have been tested. In pre and post mordanting, colour change was observed in Marigold and Pomegranate. In simultaneous mordanting, colour change was seen in Marigold, Pomegranate, Orange peel and Kidney bean. The obtained results have shown the dyeing potential of organic wastes as a source for cotton dyeing. Using waste as a source of natural dyes will help in reducing the environmental pollution. Our studies on market research for demand led us to the conclusion that there is demand for comfortable environmental friendly mask having increased functional properties.

19.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science ; 21(2):444-454, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736748

ABSTRACT

Objective: Lockdown and other measures, including the closure of universities, introduced by Governments across countries in response to the COVID-19 pandemic have appreciably impacted on the education of dental and medical students across countries. Key challenges included the need to rapidly move to e-learning as well as instigate new approaches to practicals for health science students. This involves lecturers and students necessarily needing to rapidly adapt to e-learning and other approaches. There have also been affordability issues among students to regularly access the Internet, and purchase the necessary equipment, particularly among those from low-and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh. Consequently, there is an urgent need to assess current challenges among senior level physicians and educators in Bangladesh regarding the education of dental and medical students arising from the current pandemic, and how these are being addressed, to provide future direction. This is particularly important in Bangladesh with high rates of both infectious and non-infectious diseases. Materials and Methods: Pragmatic investigation involving a purposely developed questionnaire based on previous studies and the experience of the co-authors. The questionnaire was distributed to 15 senior-level educators with the findings analysed by themes. Results: Key issues included little experience with e-learning at the start of the pandemic among both staff and students, poor internet access and cost of internet bundles. In addition, fear and anxieties among both students and staff. The colleges responded by instigating teaching classes for educators on e-learning and providing adequate personal protective equipment for staff and students during teaching and practical sessions. These formed the basis of future recommendations. Other recommendations included increased flexibility among staff and students. Conclusion: The pandemic posed appreciable challenges to both staff and students attending dental and medical colleges in Bangladesh. Some of the key issues are starting to be addressed.

20.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 60-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726286

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study impact of COVID-19 pandemic on frequency, clinical/electrophysiological profile and treatment outcomes in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Background: GBS is the most frequent cause of pediatric acute flaccid paralysis. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric GBS is unclear in the literature. Methods: We conducted an ambispective, multicentric, cohort study involving 12 of 27 centres in GBS Consortium, during two periods: pre-COVID-19 (March-August 2019) and during COVID-19 (March-August 2020). Children ≤12 years who satisfied National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke criteria for GBS/variants were enrolled. Details pertaining to clinical/laboratory parameters, treatment and outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge, GBS Disability score at discharge and 3 months) were analysed. Results: We enrolled 33 children in 2019 and 10 in 2020. Children in 2020 were older (median 10.4 [interquartile range 6.75-11.25] years versus 5 (2.5-8.4) years; P = 0.022) and had more sensory symptoms (50% versus 18.2%; P = 0.043). The 2020 group had relatively favourable mRS at discharge (median 1 (1-3.5) versus 3 (2-4); P = 0.042) and GBS disability score at 3 months (median 0 (0-0.75) versus 2 (0-3); P = 0.009) compared to 2019. Multivariate analysis revealed bowel involvement (P = 0.000) and ventilatory support (P = 0.001) as independent predictors of disability. No child in 2020 had preceding/concurrent SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked decline in pediatric GBS presenting to hospitals. Antecedent illnesses, clinical and electrophysiological profile of GBS remained largely unchanged from the pre-pandemic era.

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