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1.
Journal of Psychosexual Health ; : 26318318211027482, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1325338

ABSTRACT

Background:The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures have affected the sexuality and emotional bonding among the couple across the world.Objectives:We aimed to assess the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on the married people?s emotional bonding and sexual relationships in 3 south Asian counties (Bangladesh, India, and Nepal).Methods:A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Bangladesh, India, and Nepal residents from April 3 to April 15, 2020. The survey was designed in English. The participants were selected through convenience sampling technique, the link of the online questionnaire was shared with the participants. Only participants older than 18 years and above, married, and living with their spouses were included in the study.Results:A total number of 120 respondents were included finally for analysis from the participating countries (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh). The mean age of the participants was 35.42 (±5.73) years;the majority were males under the age of 40 years and had completed postgraduation as their qualification. Among the study participants, more than half (53.8%) of the women reported being sexually active during the lockdown, whereas 41% of the men reported being sexually active. Among the sexually active participants, most women (57.7%) reported that they perceived positive emotional bonding with their partners. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference observed when compared with men. There are variations in responses. However, no significant association was identified.Conclusion:There are a few insights from the study, that is, there was no significant difference found in almost 3 countries in emotional intimacy. There had been a trend that there is improved emotional bonding with their partners, although no significant difference was observed.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288899

ABSTRACT

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/pathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 897: 173928, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062328

ABSTRACT

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. Therefore, identification of new therapeutic strategies seems essential either based on novel vaccines or drugs or simply repurposing existing drugs. Notably, due to their known safety profile, repurposing of existing drugs is the fastest and highly efficient approach to bring a therapeutic to a clinic for any new indication. One such drug that has been used extensively for decades is chloroquine (CQ, with its derivatives) either for malaria, lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Accumulating body of evidence from experimental pharmacology suggests that CQ and related analogues also activate certain pathways that can potentially be exploited for therapeutic gain. For example, in the airways, this has opened an attractive avenue for developing novel bitter taste ligands as a new class of bronchodilators for asthma. While CQ and its derivatives have been proposed as a therapy in COVID-19, it remains to be seen whether it really work in the clinic? To this end, our perspective aims to provide a timely yet brief insights on the existing literature on CQ and the controversies surrounding its use in COVID-19. Further, we also highlight some of cell-based mechanism(s) that CQ and its derivatives affect in mediating variety of physiological responses in the cell. We believe, data emanating from the clinical studies and continual understanding of the fundamental mechanisms may potentially help in designing effective therapeutic strategies that meets both efficacy and safety criteria for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Taste/drug effects , Drug Repositioning , Humans
5.
Transl Med Commun ; 6(1): 3, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045590

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has profoundly affected the lives of millions of people. To date, there is no approved vaccine or specific drug to prevent or treat COVID-19, while the infection is globally spreading at an alarming rate. Because the development of effective vaccines or novel drugs could take several months (if not years), repurposing existing drugs is considered a more efficient strategy that could save lives now. Statins constitute a class of lipid-lowering drugs with proven safety profiles and various known beneficial pleiotropic effects. Our previous investigations showed that statins have antiviral effects and are involved in the process of wound healing in the lung. This triggered us to evaluate if statin use reduces mortality in COVID-19 patients. Results: After initial recruitment of 459 patients with COVID-19 (Shiraz province, Iran) and careful consideration of the exclusion criteria, a total of 150 patients, of which 75 received statins, were included in our retrospective study. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to estimate the association between statin use and rate of death. After propensity score matching, we found that statin use appeared to be associated with a lower risk of morbidity [HR = 0.85, 95% CI = (0.02, 3.93), P = 0.762] and lower risk of death [(HR = 0.76; 95% CI = (0.16, 3.72), P = 0.735)]; however, these associations did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, statin use reduced the chance of being subjected to mechanical ventilation [OR = 0.96, 95% CI = (0.61-2.99), P = 0.942] and patients on statins showed a more normal computed tomography (CT) scan result [OR = 0.41, 95% CI = (0.07-2.33), P = 0.312]. Conclusions: Although we could not demonstrate a significant association between statin use and a reduction in mortality in patients with COVID19, we do feel that our results are promising and of clinical relevance and warrant the need for prospective randomized controlled trials and extensive retrospective studies to further evaluate and validate the potential beneficial effects of statin treatment on clinical symptoms and mortality rates associated with COVID-19.

6.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 319(4): L585-L595, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991951

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the United States experienced the emergence of the vaping-associated lung injury (VALI) epidemic. Vaping is now known to result in the development and progression of severe lung disease in the young and healthy. Lack of regulation on electronic cigarettes in the United States has resulted in over 2,000 patients and 68 deaths. We examine the clinical representation of VALI and the delve into the scientific evidence of how deadly exposure to electronic cigarettes can be. E-cigarette vapor is shown to affect numerous cellular processes, cellular metabolism, and cause DNA damage (which has implications for cancer). E-cigarette use is associated with a higher risk of developing crippling lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which would develop several years from now, increasing the already existent smoking-related burden. The role of vaping and virus susceptibility is yet to be determined; however, vaping can increase the virulence and inflammatory potential of several lung pathogens and is also linked to an increased risk of pneumonia. As it has emerged for cigarette smoking, great caution should also be given to vaping in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the COVID-19 pandemic. Sadly, e-cigarettes are continually promoted and perceived as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking. E-cigarettes and their modifiable nature are harmful, as the lungs are not designed for the chronic inhalation of e-cigarette vapor. It is of interest that e-cigarettes have been shown to be of no help with smoking cessation. A true danger lies in vaping, which, if ignored, will lead to disastrous future costs.


Subject(s)
E-Cigarette Vapor/toxicity , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Injury/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Vaping/adverse effects , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Susceptibility/chemically induced , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/chemically induced , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking Cessation/methods , United States/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology , Vaping/mortality
7.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(230): 744-750, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914990

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected all aspects of society, including mental and physical health. Often missed is the fact that the pandemic is occurring against the backdrop of a very high prevalence of mental health issues. Protecting the mental health of people and healthcare workers is important for long-term positive health outcomes and proper control of the outbreak. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, online survey by convenience sampling. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review committee of Nepal Health Research Council (reference no. 2467). Open access, pre-validated questionnaires were used. Participants with significantly poor Mental wellbeing were identified using the WHO well-being index threshold score. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out. RESULTS: Five hundred and fifty-six participants were included in the analysis. Forty percent of the participants reported a WHO well-being index score of below 13, indicative of poor mental wellbeing and a need for further assessment for depression. Poor Mental wellbeing was more prevalent among participants less than 30 years of age, female gender, never married, diagnosed mental disorder, living alone and those using informal sources for COVID-19 related information. More participants with lower sleep quality score and higher perceived stress score reported poor Mental wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: Combating this challenge requires integration across disciplines. One potential part of the solution is psychological intervention teams. An emerging positive connotation to the pandemic is that it needs to be harnessed as a tool for improving health facilities, community participation, and fighting misinformation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(229): 690-695, 2020 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903344

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is caused by a new strain of SARS CoV-2 virus, which transmits directly from person-to-person and has become a pandemic. To counteract this, actions related to mass quarantines or stay-at-home orders have been used termed as lockdown. This study aims to study lifestyle, behaviour, perception and practice of people regarding during the lockdown. METHODS: An online survey was conducted with structured questionnaire in Google forms after ethical approval from Nepal Health Research Council (Ref-2631). The attributes of knowledge, attitude and practices were explored using multiple-choice questions and results were statistically analysed using Microsoft excel. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-five respondents completed the survey with 280 (50.5%) males and 275 (49.5%) female. The knowledge regarding viral pandemic was increased in 496 (89.3%) respondents. 424 (76.4%) people developed stress due to pandemic. Three hundred fifty three (63.6%) were adversely affected by professional works or suffered economic loss in business. More than 42% participants are using their time for study in personal development, online classes etc. Conclusions: The knowledge of viral pandemic as well as personal hygiene habits have improved in majority of people but many also developed stress. They were convinced that lockdown lowered transmission of infection which in turn affected lifestyle behaviour and practices. Practicing social distancing becomes too difficult for the poor in the absence of proper social security system and government support. E-Learning has become more acceptable due to lockdown. Further studies with in-person interviews are warranted.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Economic Status , Education, Distance , Employment , Female , Gloves, Protective , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers , Humans , Hygiene , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Nepal , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
9.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(230): 751-757, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-886405

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The government issued a country-wide lockdown in Nepal as a measure to curb the spread of COVID-19 pandemic. This has resulted in various difficult experiences which includes financial loss, separation from loved ones, grief, uncertainty over disease status and loss of freedom. During these stressful situations, interpersonal violence is likely to be aggravated. To avoid the occurrence of adverse events such as impulsive acts, homicide, or suicide, it is important to identify high-risk individuals. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, online survey by convenience sampling. The prevalence of different types of interpersonal violence with socio-demographic factors, substance use, and overall mental wellbeing was assessed by using descriptive statistical tests. RESULTS: Out of total 556 participants included in the analysis, 50.9% (283) were male and 48.7% (271) were female. There were 100 (18.0%) participants who reported being a victim of interpersonal violence and 101 (18.2%) participants who reported being a perpetrator during the lockdown. The victims of violence were more likely to be living with their spouse alone. The victims and perpetrators were also more likely to have increased alcohol and tobacco use. More number of victims and perpetrators had lower mental wellbeing scores on the WHO wellbeing index. CONCLUSIONS: There was prevalence of interpersonal violence during the COVID-19 lockdown. In addition to the fear regarding pandemic, victims have to face domestic violence placing them at a double injustice. Identification of vulnerable groups and proper management of survivors must be prioritized given the unanimous consensus on the rise of interpersonal violence during periods of heightened stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Domestic Violence , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Indian J Psychiatry ; 62(Suppl 3): S431-S437, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-881434

ABSTRACT

Background: Lockdown is an emergency measure or condition in which people are temporarily prevented from entering or leaving a restricted area or building during a threat or danger. Since the start of COVID-19 till date, almost one-third of the world's population is under some degree of restriction and lockdown, and the mental health effect of which is something that is being discussed widely. Aim: The study aimed to assess the effect of lockdown on mental health among individuals (patients or accompanying person) seeking services at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: Kathmandu Medical College is a tertiary care center and a medical college in Kathmandu, Nepal. In this study, we enrolled every 4th individual coming to the hospital's outpatient department registration counter to seek service and giving consent, for the duration of 1 month during the ongoing lockdown period. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed and approved by the department and was used to collect sociodemographic details and to rate the stress level. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) Nepali version was used to assess psychological well-being of the participants and a score of ≥3 by binary method was taken as positive case. Results: The total number of cases enrolled in the study was 204, out of them 62.2% were male and 32.8% were female and the mean age was 32.03 years. Twenty-three percent (23.5%) had preexisting health conditions. Out of the 204 participants, 67.6% said they were stressed following the lockdown and the mean rated stress was 2.90 in a scale ranging from 1 to 7. The frequently identified stressors were fear of contamination, restricted movement, and for inadequate supplies. Twenty-seven percent said they had some psychological symptoms and the most common symptoms were palpitation and sleep disturbance. Seventy-three individuals (36.5%) were found to have psychiatric problem according to their scores in GHQ-12. Rated stress and GHQ-12 scores were found to be strongly correlated (P = 0.000). Similarly, those who stated "Yes" in psychological symptoms significantly scored higher on GHQ-12 and stress (both P = 0.000). Conclusion: The lockdown has caused stress in majority of cases, and a significant number of individuals have diagnosable mental health conditions. Mental health impact of the lockdown is something that needs to be addressed seriously.

11.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-861633

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To control the spread of COVID-19, India imposed a nationwide lockdown in phases including lockdown 1.0 (25 March-14 April) and 2.0 (15 April-3 May). Among other restrictions, it involved a complete ban of alcohol sales. We aimed to examine and interpret the changes in online search interest for keywords representing different alcohol-related themes during the lockdown period in India. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were extracted using the framework described for using Google Trends in health-related research. The list of alcohol-related search queries was prepared for four broad themes: types of alcoholic beverages consumed; means of accessing alcohol; problems experienced due to break in alcohol supply; and help-seeking for alcohol use disorders. The mean relative search volumes across three time periods (pre-lockdown; lockdown 1.0; lockdown 2.0) were compared using spss version 23.0. RESULTS: A significant increase in online search interest for keywords related to the procurement of alcohol was observed in lockdown 1.0 but not during lockdown 2.0, compared with pre-lockdown. A significant increase in online search interest for alcohol withdrawal was observed during lockdown 1.0 compared to the pre-lockdown period. A significant increase in online search interest for keywords representing benzodiazepines was observed in lockdown 2.0. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Indian internet users exhibited significantly increased online interest for alcohol-related searches during lockdown. It seems that the challenges associated with offering interventions for alcohol use-related problems are likely to continue once the lockdown is lifted and people have the option to access alcohol and treatment services freely.

13.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapeutics ; : 199-213, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-826894

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 is a global challenge which resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has also adversely affected the economy and social integrity. There is rising concern about the mental health challenges of the general population, COVID-19-infected patients, close contacts, elderly, children and health professionals. This chapter focusses on various mental health challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic.

14.
Neurol Psychiatry Brain Res ; 37: 100-103, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653479

ABSTRACT

Background: Panic buying is an emerging phenomenon observed during, but not restricted to, pandemic. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the nature, extent, and impact of panic buying as reported in the media. Methods: This study was conducted by collecting the information from the English media reports published till 22nd May 2020. A structured format was developed to collect data. Searching was done by using the keyword "panic buying". We have excluded the social media posts discussing the panic buying. Results: The majority of media reporting was from the USA (40.7 %), and about 46 % of reports highlighted the scarce item. Approximately 82 % of the reports presented the causes of panic buying whereas almost 80 % report covered the impact of it. About 25.7 % of reports highlighted the rumor about panic buying and only 9.3 % of reports blamed the government. Only 27.1 % reports described the remedial measures, 30.8 % reports conferred the news on the psychology behind panic buying and 67.3 % news displayed the images of empty shelves. Conclusion: A high proportion of reports on panic buying have been found from the developed countries discussing the causes & impact of panic buying on the basis of expert opinion.

16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(7): 1055-1056, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694650
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