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1.
Gastro Hep Advances ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004085

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are present in 20% of patients with COVID-19. We studied the association of GI symptoms (in COVID-19 patients) with adverse outcomes and factors associated with poor outcomes in these patients. Methods The study cohort included 100,902 patients from the Cerner Real World Data (CRWD) COVID-19 Database of hospital encounters and emergency department (ER) visits with COVID-19 infection from December 1, 2019, to November 30, 2020. Multivariate analysis was used to study the effect of GI symptoms on adverse outcomes, and the factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, and ventilator requirement or oxygen dependence in COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms. Results Patients with COVID-19 and GI symptoms were significantly more likely to have ARDS (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.11, 1.29), sepsis (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.14, 1.24), acute kidney injury (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.24, 1.36), venous thromboembolism (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.22, 1.52) or GI bleed (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.47, 1.79);and less likely to experience cardiomyopathy (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77, 0.99) or death (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.67, 0.75). Among those with GI symptoms, older age, higher Charlson comorbidity index scores, and use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI)/ H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) were associated with higher mortality, ARDS, sepsis, and ventilator or oxygen requirement. Conclusion Patients with COVID-19 who have GI symptoms have overall worse in-hospital complications, but less cardiomyopathy and mortality. Older age, higher comorbidity scores, and the use of PPI and H2RA are associated with poor outcomes in these patients.

2.
BMC Infectious Diseases ; 22(1):1-10, 2022.
Article in English | BioMed Central | ID: covidwho-1958424

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all people across the globe. Regional and community differences in timing and severity of surges throughout the pandemic can provide insight into risk factors for worse outcomes in those hospitalized with COVID-19. The study cohort was derived from the Cerner Real World Data (CRWD) COVID-19 Database made up of hospitalized patients with proven infection from December 1, 2019 through November 30, 2020. Baseline demographic information, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics were obtained. We performed multivariate analysis to determine if age, race, comorbidity and regionality were predictors for mortality, ARDS, mechanical ventilation or sepsis hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Of 100,902 hospitalized COVID-19 patients included in the analysis (median age 52 years, IQR 36–67;50.7% female), COVID-19 case fatality rate was 8.5% with majority of deaths in those ≥ 65 years (70.8%). In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 65 years, male gender and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were independent risk factors for mortality and ARDS. Those identifying as non-Black or non-White race have a marginally higher risk for mortality (OR 1.101, CI 1.032–1.174) and greater risk of ARDS (OR 1.44, CI 1.334–1.554) when compared to those who identify as White. The risk of mortality or ARDS was similar for Blacks as Whites. Multivariate analysis found higher mortality risk in the Northeast (OR 1.299, CI 1.22–1.29) and West (OR 1.26, CI 1.18–1.34). Larger hospitals also had an increased risk of mortality, greatest in hospitals with 500–999 beds (OR 1.67, CI 1.43–1.95). Advanced age, male sex and a higher CCI predicted worse outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. In multivariate analysis, worse outcomes were identified in small minority populations, however there was no difference in study outcomes between those who identify as Black or White.

3.
International Journal of Healthcare Management ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1927237
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 151: 113089, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821149

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is a condition that affects a large percentage of the population and it is the leading cause of a wide range of costly complications. Diabetes is linked to a multi-fold increase in mortality and when compared to non-diabetics, the intensity and prevalence of COVID-19 ailment among diabetic individuals are more. Since its discovery in Wuhan, COVID-19 has grown rapidly and shown a wide range of severity. Temperature, lymphopenia, non-productive cough, dyspnoea, and tiredness are recognized as the characteristic of individuals infected with COVID-19 disease. In COVID-19 patients, diabetes and other related comorbidities are substantial predictors of disease and mortality. According to a recent study, SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for covid-19 disease) may also lead to direct pancreatic harm, which could aggravate hyperglycemia and potentially cause the establishment of diabetes in formerly non-diabetic individuals. This bidirectional association of COVID-19 and diabetes load the burden on health care professionals throughout the world. It is recommended that gliptin medications be taken moderately, blood glucose levels must be kept under control, ACE inhibitors should be used in moderation, decrease the number of avoidable hospitalizations, nutritional considerations, and some other prevention measures, such as immunization, are highly recommended. SARS-CoV-2 may cause pleiotropic changes in glucose homeostasis, which could exacerbate the pathophysiology of pre-existing diabetes or result in new disease processes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 569070, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376691

ABSTRACT

Microbes are the most prevalent form of life yet also the least well-understood in terms of their diversity. Due to a greater appreciation of their role in modulating host physiology, microbes have come to the forefront of biological investigation of human health and disease. Despite this, capturing the heterogeneity of microbes, and that of the host responses they induce, has been challenging due to the bulk methods of nucleic acid and cellular analysis. One of the greatest recent advancements in our understanding of complex organisms has happened in the field of single-cell analysis through genomics, transcriptomics, and spatial resolution. While significantly advancing our understanding of host biology, these techniques have only recently been applied to microbial systems to shed light on their diversity as well as interactions with host cells in both commensal and pathogenic contexts. In this review, we highlight emerging technologies that are poised to provide key insights into understanding how microbe heterogeneity can be studied. We then take a detailed look into how host single-cell analysis has uncovered the impact of microbes on host heterogeneity and the effect of host biology on microorganisms. Most of these insights would have been challenging, and in some cases impossible, without the advent of single-cell analysis, suggesting the importance of the single-cell paradigm for progressing the microbiology field forward through a host-microbiome perspective and applying these insights to better understand and treat human disease.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Computational Biology , Genomics , Humans , Symbiosis
10.
MDE Manage Decis Econ ; 42(6): 1477-1491, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342896

ABSTRACT

We infer market expectations regarding the relationship between firm internationalization and the long-term impact of the Covid-19 pandemic by using a novel approach to decompose global stock prices into their short- and long-term value components. In general, firms with a greater proportion of foreign assets show greater losses in the long-term value component, suggesting investor expectations of higher supply-chain restructuring costs for such firms. Also, investors appear to have priced in the likely permanent benefits of such restructuring for firms from emerging Asian economies, as these economies may be well-placed as alternative sourcing bases to China.

11.
Gastroenterol Nurs ; 44(4): 240-251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276288

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 was declared a pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization. To minimize exposure and because of limited personal protective equipment resources, most gastroenterology practices were curtailed/modified during the surge, with slow reopening to a normal/semi-normal schedule. Gastroenterology healthcare workers have been impacted greatly by COVID-19, resulting in job and wage insecurity. The aim of our study was to understand the impact of COVID-19 on gastroenterology healthcare workers across the United States. A web-based survey, consisting of 40 questions, was disseminated among gastroenterology practices across the United States via en masse e-mails and direct contact by authors. In total, 223 gastroenterology healthcare workers completed the survey; 56.1% were from academic settings. COVID-19 impacted the work schedule of 85.2% of participants, with reduced weekly work hours (38.1%), duty reassignment (22.4%), and furlough (13.9%). Uncertainty about job and/or future wages/benefits after reopening was noted in 41%, which was significantly associated with the presence of physical (p = .021) and mental/emotional symptoms (p = .045). Worsening of pre-existing physical and/or mental/emotional conditions was observed in 53%. Inadequate personal protective equipment availability, lack of temporary housing and/or childcare facilities, as well as job insecurity appear to be the important factors leading to worsening physical/mental/emotional conditions among gastroenterology healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastroenterology , Health Personnel , Mental Health , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Workload
12.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 9(7): 787-796, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused almost 2 million deaths worldwide. Both Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have recently approved the first COVID-19 vaccines, and a few more are going to be approved soon. METHODS: Several different approaches have been used to stimulate the immune system in mounting a humoral response. As more traditional approaches are under investigation (inactivated virus vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, recombinant virus vaccines), more recent and innovative strategies have been tried (non-replicating viral vector vaccines, RNA based vaccines, DNA based vaccines). RESULTS: Since vaccinations campaigns started in December 2020 in both the US and Europe, gastroenterologists will be one of the main sources of information regarding SARS-CoV 2 vaccination for patients in their practice, including vulnerable patients such as those with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), patients with chronic liver disease, and GI cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we must ourselves be well educated and updated in order to provide unambiguous counseling to these categories of vulnerable patients. In this commentary, we aim to provide a comprehensive review of both approved COVID-19 vaccines and the ones still under development, and explore potential risks, benefits and prioritization of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/therapeutic use , Gastroenterology , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/therapy , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Liver Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Indian J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147356
15.
Gut ; 69(11): 1915-1924, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724057

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on provision of endoscopy services globally as staff and real estate were repurposed. As we begin to recover from the pandemic, a cohesive international approach is needed, and guidance on how to resume endoscopy services safely to avoid unintended harm from diagnostic delays. The aim of these guidelines is to provide consensus recommendations that clinicians can use to facilitate the swift and safe resumption of endoscopy services. An evidence-based literature review was carried out on the various strategies used globally to manage endoscopy during the COVID-19 pandemic and control infection. A modified Delphi process involving international endoscopy experts was used to agree on the consensus statements. A threshold of 80% agreement was used to establish consensus for each statement. 27 of 30 statements achieved consensus after two rounds of voting by 34 experts. The statements were categorised as pre-endoscopy, during endoscopy and postendoscopy addressing relevant areas of practice, such as screening, personal protective equipment, appropriate environments for endoscopy and infection control precautions, particularly in areas of high disease prevalence. Recommendations for testing of patients and for healthcare workers, appropriate locations of donning and doffing areas and social distancing measures before endoscopy are unique and not dealt with by any other guidelines. This international consensus using a modified Delphi method to produce a series of best practice recommendations to aid the safe resumption of endoscopy services globally in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Endoscopy, Digestive System/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delphi Technique , Endoscopy, Digestive System/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Time Factors , United States
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2011335, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595662

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and can involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including symptoms like diarrhea and shedding of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in feces. Objective: To provide a pooled estimate of GI symptoms, liver enzyme levels outside reference ranges, and fecal tests positive for SARS-CoV-2 among patients with COVID-19. Data Sources: An electronic literature search was performed for published (using MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase) and preprint (using bioRxiv and medRxiv) studies of interest conducted from November 1, 2019, to March 30, 2020. Search terms included "COVID-19," "SARS-Cov-2," and/or "novel coronavirus." Study Selection: Eligible studies were those including patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who reported GI symptoms. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Data on patients with GI symptoms (ie, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting), liver enzyme level changes, and fecal shedding of virus were extracted. Quality of studies was examined using methodological index for nonrandomized studies. Pooled estimates (%) were reported with 95% CIs with level of heterogeneity (I2). Main Outcomes and Measures: Study and patient characteristics with pooled detection rates for diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, liver enzyme levels outside reference ranges, and SARS-CoV-2 positivity in feces tests were analyzed. Results: Of 1484 records reviewed, 23 published and 6 preprint studies were included in the analysis, with a total of 4805 patients (mean [SD] age, 52.2 [14.8] years; 1598 [33.2%] women) with COVID-19. The pooled rates were 7.4% (95% CI, 4.3%-12.2%) of patients reporting diarrhea and 4.6% (95% CI, 2.6%-8.0%) of patients reporting nausea or vomiting. The pooled rate for aspartate aminotransferase levels outside reference ranges was 20% (95% CI, 15.3%-25.6%) of patients, and the pooled rate for alanine aminotransferase levels outside reference ranges was 14.6% (95% CI, 12.8%-16.6%) of patients. Fecal tests that were positive for SARS-CoV-2 were reported in 8 studies, and viral RNA shedding was detected in feces in 40.5% (95% CI, 27.4%-55.1%) of patients. There was high level of heterogeneity (I2 = 94%), but no statistically significant publication bias noted. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that that 12% of patients with COVID-19 will manifest GI symptoms; however, SAR-CoV-2 shedding was observed in 40.5% of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. This highlights the need to better understand what measures are needed to prevent further spread of this highly contagious pathogen.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Dis. Esophagus ; 5(33): 1-4, 20200501.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-133655

ABSTRACT

This is an official guidance statement of The International Society of the Diseases of the Esophagus (ISDE) to address all the operators involved in management of patients affected by upper gastrointestinal diseases during COVID-19 pandemic. This guidance is based on the best available evidence to date and will be updated as new evidence becomes available.

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