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2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(2)2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319780

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the data of 102 confirmed patients with novel Coronavirus 2 infection (COVID-19) during the early period of nationwide lockdown announced in India after the declaration of pandemic. We analyzed epidemiological, clinical characteristics and outcome of hospitalization in 102 patients with positive results for novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) RNA testing which were traced on the basis of history of travel, contact with a confirmed COVID-19 case, resident of hotspot areas or presence of symptoms, thus providing an accurate estimate of the proportion of asymptomatic cases in the initial population. Of 102 patients enrolled in the study, 83.3% (85/102) were asymptomatic and 16.67% (17/102) were symptomatic. Seventy-seven (75.49%) were males and 24.50% (25/102) were females. Eighteen (17.6%) patients had associated comorbidities, the most prevalent of which were diabetes mellitus 10.8% (11/102), hypertension 7.8% (8/102), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 3.92% (4/102), chronic kidney Disease (CKD) 0.98% (1/102), coronary artery Disease (CAD) 0.98% (1/102) and cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) 0.98% (1/102). The clinical spectrum among symptomatic COVID-19 patients varied from dry cough and fever to respiratory failure and multi-organ failure. Twelve (11.76%) patients were kept in intensive care unit (ICU). Ninety-nine (97.05%) patients recovered while three (2.94%) died during hospital stay. With majority of COVID-19 cases in India being asymptomatic, changes in biochemical and inflammatory profile were small and insignificant in asymptomatic patients when compared to symptomatic patients. Elevated NLR, lymphopenia, age and presence of comorbidities were associated with increased severity and poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 68(July):34-42, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1299998

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study was undertaken to investigate and quantify the severity of COVID-19 infection on high-resolution chest computed tomography (CT) and to determine its relationship with clinical parameters. This study also aimed to see CT changes with clinical recovery or progression of disease. Materials and methods: In an attempt to provide extensive information pertaining to clinical and radiological characteristics of COVID-19. the present study was undertaken in 80 hospitalized patients. The patients were COVID-19 confirmed positive by genomic analysis through RT-PCR at tertiary care center in Jaipur. Initially all patients were evaluated for their clinical parameters and then correlated with HRCT chest after hospitalization. CT findings correlated with duration of disease to assess progress or recovery.

5.
Asian J Transfus Sci ; 15(1): 117-118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296020
7.
Trials ; 21(1): 935, 2020 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The GETAFIX trial will test the hypothesis that favipiravir is a more effective treatment for COVID-19 infection in patients who have early stage disease, compared to current standard of care. This study will also provide an important opportunity to investigate the safety and tolerability of favipiravir, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of this drug and mechanisms of resistance in the context of COVID-19 infection, as well as the effect of favipiravir on hospitalisation duration and the post COVID-19 health and psycho-social wellbeing of patients recruited to the study. TRIAL DESIGN: GETAFIX is an open label, parallel group, two arm phase II/III randomised trial with 1:1 treatment allocation ratio. Patients will be randomised to one of two arms and the primary endpoint will assess the superiority of favipiravir plus standard treatment compared to standard treatment alone. PARTICIPANTS: This trial will recruit adult patients with confirmed positive valid COVID-19 test, who are not pregnant or breastfeeding and have no prior major co-morbidities. This is a multi-centre trial, patients will be recruited from in-patients and outpatients from three Glasgow hospitals: Royal Alexandra Hospital; Queen Elizabeth University Hospital; and the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. Patients must meet all of the following criteria: 1. Age 16 or over at time of consent 2. Exhibiting symptoms associated with COVID-19 3. Positive for SARS-CoV-2 on valid COVID-19 test 4. Point 1, 2, 3, or 4 on the WHO COVID-19 ordinal severity scale at time of randomisation. (Asymptomatic with positive valid COVID-19 test, Symptomatic Independent, Symptomatic assistance needed, Hospitalized, with no oxygen therapy) 5. Have >=10% risk of death should they be admitted to hospital as defined by the ISARIC4C risk index: https://isaric4c.net/risk 6. Able to provide written informed consent 7. Negative pregnancy test (women of childbearing potential*) 8. Able to swallow oral medication Patients will be excluded from the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Renal impairment requiring, or likely to require, dialysis or haemofiltration 2. Pregnant or breastfeeding 3. Of child bearing potential (women), or with female partners of child bearing potential (men) who do not agree to use adequate contraceptive measures for the duration of the study and for 3 months after the completion of study treatment 4. History of hereditary xanthinuria 5. Other patients judged unsuitable by the Principal Investigator or sub-Investigator 6. Known hypersensitivity to favipiravir, its metabolites or any excipients 7. Severe co-morbidities including: patients with severe hepatic impairment, defined as: • greater than Child-Pugh grade A • AST or ALT > 5 x ULN • AST or ALT >3 x ULN and Total Bilirubin > 2xULN 8. More than 96 hours since first positive COVID-19 test sample was taken 9. Unable to discontinue contra-indicated concomitant medications This is a multi-centre trial, patients will be recruited from in-patients and outpatients from three Glasgow hospitals: Royal Alexandra Hospital; Queen Elizabeth University Hospital; and the Glasgow Royal Infirmary. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients randomised to the experimental arm of GETAFIX will receive standard treatment for COVID-19 at the discretion of the treating clinician plus favipiravir. These patients will receive a loading dose of favipiravir on day 1 of 3600mg (1800mg 12 hours apart). On days 2-10, patients in the experimental arm will receive a maintenance dose of favipiravir of 800mg 12 hours apart (total of 18 doses). Patients randomised to the control arm of the GETAFIX trial will receive standard treatment for COVID-19 at the discretion of the treating clinician. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome being assessed in the GETAFIX trial is the efficacy of favipiravir in addition to standard treatment in patients with COVID-19 in reducing the severity of disease compared to standard treatment alone. Disease severity will be assessed using WHO COVID 10 point ordinal severity scale at day 15 +/- 48 hours. All randomised participants will be followed up until death or 60 days post-randomisation (whichever is sooner). RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomised 1:1 to the experimental versus control arm using computer generated random sequence allocation. A minimisation algorithm incorporating a random component will be used to allocate patients. The factors used in the minimisation will be: site, age (16-50/51-70/71+), history of hypertension or currently obsess (BMI>30 or obesity clinically evident; yes/no), 7 days duration of symptoms (yes/no/unknown), sex (male/female), WHO COVID-19 ordinal severity score at baseline (1/2or 3/4). BLINDING (MASKING): No blinding will be used in the GETAFIX trial. Both participants and those assessing outcomes will be aware of treatment allocation. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): In total, 302 patients will be randomised to the GETAFIX trial: 151 to the control arm and 151 to the experimental arm. There will be an optional consent form for patients who may want to contribute to more frequent PK and PD sampling. The maximum number of patients who will undergo this testing will be sixteen, eight males and eight females. This option will be offered to all patients who are being treated in hospital at the time of taking informed consent, however only patients in the experimental arm of the trial will be able to undergo this testing. TRIAL STATUS: The current GETAFIX protocol is version 4.0 12th September 2020. GETAFIX opened to recruitment on 26th October 2020 and will recruit patients over a period of approximately six months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: GETAFIX was registered on the European Union Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT) Database on 15th April 2020; Reference number 2020-001904-41 ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001904-41/GB ). GETAFIX was registered on ISRCTN on 7th September 2020; Reference number ISRCTN31062548 ( https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN31062548 ). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (see Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Adult , Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/pharmacokinetics , Amides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics/classification , Pneumonia, Viral/classification , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Scotland/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapeutics ; : 55-70, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-831344

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has become a rapidly growing pandemic involving several nations. It is of serious concern and extreme challenge not only to the health personnel but also to the countries for containment. The causative organism is SARS-CoV-2, RNA virus of subgenus Sarbecovirus, similar to the SARS virus, and seventh member of the human coronavirus family responsible for this zoonotic infection. It binds to the human angiotensin converting enzyme (hACE-2) receptor and causes constitutional and respiratory symptoms. The major mode of transmission is human to human and the median incubation period is 4 days. The most common symptom as studied from various cohorts of COVID-19 patients are fever (83–98%) followed by fatigue (70%) and dry cough (59%);gastrointestinal symptoms are relatively uncommon differentiating it from SARS and MERS. Most of the SAR-CoV-2 infection are mild (80%) with a usual recovery period of 2 weeks. COVID-19 commonly affects males in the middle age and elderly age group, with highest case fatality (8–15%) among those aged 80 years. The disease begins with fever, dry cough, fatigue and myalgia progressing to dyspnoea and ARDS over 6 and 8 days post exposure, respectively. Underlying co-morbidities increase mortality in COVID-19. Poor prognostic factors are elderly, co-morbidities, severe lymphopaenia, high CRP and D-dimer 1 μg/L. The overall mortality rate ranges from 1.5 to 3.6%. COVID-19 has to be differentiated from other viral and bacterial pneumonias as they are more common among healthy adults. Despite constant and vigorous efforts by researchers and health agencies, we are far from containment, cure or prevention by vaccine;hence right information and stringent prevention and control measures are the only weapon in the armoury to combat the ongoing infection.

9.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Therapeutics ; : 1-8, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-831064

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. It has been declared a pandemic and has infected at least 1,844,683 individuals and caused 117,021 deaths as of 14th April 2020. Transmission among humans occurs via close contact with an infected individual that produces respiratory droplets. Patients have been shown to undergo acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is defined as cytokine storm. The diagnosis relies on detection of nucleic acid, IgG/IgM antibodies, and a chest radiograph of the suspected individuals. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 is similar to other coronaviruses that comprise of ten open reading frames (ORFs). SARS-CoV-2 spike protein exhibits higher affinity to ACE2 receptor as compared with SARS-CoV. Repurposing drugs like favipiravir, remdesivir, chloroquine, and TMPRSS2 protease inhibitors have been shown to be effective for the treatment of COVID-19. Personal protective measures should be followed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, a clinical trial of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, mRNA-1273, has been started. This chapter provides a glimpse of advancements made in the area of SARS-CoV-2 infection by proving recent clinical and research trials in the field.

11.
Ann Thorac Med ; 15(3): 146-150, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679543

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The outbreak and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has led to a global exigency of colossal and monstrous proportions in terms of public health and economic crisis. Till date, no pharmaceutical agent is known to manage in terms of prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by a novel virus. AIMS: The aim of the present work was to understand the underlying disease profile and dynamics that could provide relevant inputs and insight into pathophysiology and prevent further spread and evolve management strategies of COVID-19 patients from data-driven techniques. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective observational descriptive study was conducted on 29 COVID-19 patients admitted at a premier medical institution of North India in the months of February and March 2020. METHODS: The patients were diagnosed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. RESULTS: The mean age of population was 38.8 years with male preponderance, of which two patients were residents of Italy, and others hailed from semi-arid and Western sandy arid regions of Rajasthan (urban population). The major presenting symptom complex of said COVID-19 sample population included fever (48%), cough (31%), and shortness of breath (17%). Most of the patients (83%) had no comorbidity. No clinical correlation (r) could be appreciated between the duration of test positivity and age of afflicted COVID-19 patients (r = -0.0976). CONCLUSIONS: The present evaluation of various facets of the ongoing global pandemic of COVID-19 is an attempt to portray early clinical and epidemiological parameters of the menace of COVID-19 patients admitted at SMS Medical College and Attached Hospitals, Jaipur.

12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(7): 34-42, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to investigate and quantify the severity of COVID-19 infection on high-resolution chest computed tomography (CT) and to determine its relationship with clinical parameters. This study also aimed to see CT changes with clinical recovery or progression of disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an attempt to provide extensive information pertaining to clinical and radiological characteristics of COVID-19, the present study was undertaken in 80 hospitalized patients. The patients were COVID-19 confirmed positive by genomic analysis through RT-PCR at tertiary care center in Jaipur. Initially all patients were evaluated for their clinical parameters and then correlated with HRCT chest after hospitalization. CT findings correlated with duration of disease to assess progress or recovery. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 test by RT-PCR at SMS Hospitals, Jaipur were assessed. Among the confirmed cases, most of patients were young adults in the fifth and sixth decade of age group with mean age of 50.40 years. There was a male preponderance (59% male and 41% female). Out of total analyzed patients, 39 patients (48.75%) were symptomatic, among them fever (79.47%), cough (74.35%), shortness of breath (36%) and sore throat (17.94%) were the most common presenting clinical manifestations. A few patients (12.82%) also had other symptoms like headache, chest pain, pain abdomen, altered sensorium etc. 54% patients had some underlying co morbid disease in sample population. The most prevalent comorbidities were Diabetes mellitus (56%), Hypertension (48.83%), COPD/K-chest (12%), CAD (9.32%) and others (11.62%) like hypothyroidism, anemia, CVA etc. The lung pathological changes were evaluated by HRCT imaging and by assigning CT severity score. We found Typical COVID findings in 50% patients, Indeterminate in 11%, Atypical in 11% and 28% patients had Negative CT chest for COVID. The clinical status of patients correlated with the CT severity score, with mild cases showing score <15/25 in 45.83% patients and severe cases showing CT severity score >15/25 in 87.50% patients. The CT features varied with duration and course of disease. Proportional GGO was higher (59.37%) in early phase and it was lower (12.5%) in later stage of disease. CONCLUSION: The varied spectra of COVID-19 presentation included fever, cough, shortness of breath, sore throat etc. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, COPD/K-Chest and CAD were found as major comorbid conditions. Symptomatic presentation of COVID-19 was observed to be higher in patients with co morbid disease, especially if multiple. HRCT chest in COVID-19 patients had a major diagnostic and prognostic importance as positive CT findings were more prominent in symptomatic patients and co-morbid patients. Clinical symptoms of patients directly correlated with CT severity index. CT imaging was found to be useful in predicting clinical recovery of patients or progression of disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
13.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(5): 13-17, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (Covid-19) continues to wreck havoc across China, European countries, USA and now seems to gain a strong foothold in India. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical profiles of these Covid-19 infected patients admitted in Sawai Mansingh Hospital(S.M.S), Jaipur ranging from their age, sex, travel history, clinical symptoms, laboratory evaluation, radiological characteristics, treatment provided along with common side effects and the final outcome. The described cases are one of the earliest cases of Covid-19 in the Indian subcontinent. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and outcomes data were obtained with data collection forms from electronic medical records and history given by 21 Covid-19 infected patients admitted in S.M.S., Jaipur. Patients were tested for Covid-19 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of 2019-nCoVRNA. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the course of this study 21 Covid-19 positive patients were admitted in S.M.S Hospital, Jaipur. Male patients constituted 66.66% of total patients and majority of the patients (80.90%) were below 60 years of age. Most of the patients (71.40%) were either foreigners or had a history of foreign travel suggesting that these cases were not community acquired except for 4 cases from textile producing district Bhilwara (known as Manchester of India), an epicenter of North India. Approximately 33.33% patients were completely asymptomatic and of those who were symptomatic cough was the most common symptom (85.71%) followed by fever (78.57%), myalgia (64.28%), headache (28.57%) and dyspnea (28.57%). Three patients (14.28 %) had underlying co morbidity in the form of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease or coronary artery disease. 11 patients (52.38%) had lymphopenia in their hemogram during the course of admission. 3 patients (14.28%) had leucocytosis and 4 patients (19.04%) presented with thrombocytopenia. All 4 patients in the severe category had raised FDP, D-Dimer levels and they needed oxygen support. These patients had deranged liver functions and had elevated pro-calcitonin levels, serum ferritin levels and LDH levels. 1 out of the these 4 cases went into ARDS during the course of treatment. 10 patients yielded negative results for Covid-19. The mean duration from admission to getting 1st Covid-19 sample negative was 8.3 days. 18 patients (85.71%) are still under treatment. CONCLUSION: Clinical investigations in initial Covid-19 patients in the Indian subcontinent reveal lymphopenia as predominant finding in hemogram. Patients with older age and associated comorbid conditions (COPD and diabetes) seem to have greater risk for lung injury thereby requiring oxygen support during the course of disease and these patients also had greater derangement in their biochemical profile.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(6): 13-19, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622385

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to investigate epidemiological distribution, clinical manifestation, co morbid status, treatment strategy and case fatality index of emerging COVID-19 infection at SMS Medical College Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. It also evaluated efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treatment of patients and risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 in relation to their co morbid status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an attempt to provide extensive information pertaining to epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, the present study was undertaken on 522 patients. The patients were COVID-19 confirmed positive by genomic analysis through Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) at SMS Medical College and Attached Hospitals, Jaipur. The indoor admitted patient's information inclusive of demographic profile (age, sex, nationality, residence), date of confirmation for positive COVID-19 case, travel/ exposure history, date of recovery/ death, clinical features, co morbidities and treatment plan was recorded. A serial follow-up of recovered patients to evaluate infective period of the disease was also part of the study. RESULTS: A total of 522 patients of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 test by RT-PCR at SMS Hospitals, Jaipur were assessed. Among the confirmed cases, most of patients were young adult in the age group with mean age of 35.42 years. 22.41% patients were below 20 years of age, majority of patients (58.80%) were in the age range of 21 to 50 years and only 18.79% patient population was in the age range of above 50 years. Females (39.08%) were affected less than males (60.91%) with an average sex ratio of female: male being 0.64. Out of the total analyzed patients, only 24.32% patients were symptomatic, among them fever (55.90%), cough (52.75%), sore throat (49.60%) and shortness of breath (46.45%) were the most common presenting clinical manifestations while a few patients also had symptoms of headache (26.77%), chest pain (6.29%) and other symptoms (7.87%) like pain abdomen, fatigue, joints pain, altered sensorium etc. Most of symptomatic patients belonging to older age group. An average of 40.40% patient population of above 50 years of age, were symptomatic while none of the patients below 10 years of age were symptomatic. 13.98% patients had some or the other underlying co morbid disease. The most prevalent co morbidity was hypertension (42.46%) followed by Diabetes mellitus (39.72%), Old k-chest (20.54%), COPD/ Bronchial Asthma (16.43%), Coronary artery disease (13.69%), Chronic kidney disease (13.69%) and Valvular heart disease (6.84%) distributed in co morbid patients of COVID-19. 60.27% of patient population with underlying co morbid conditions were more prone to develop symptomatology complex as compared to that observed in patients with no co morbidity (18.42%). 116 patients had recovered with effective treatment till the date of data analysis. Time of recovery was counted from the date of positive report to 1st negative report of oropharyngeal sample by RT-PCR for COVID-19 with an average recovery time of 8.15 days. 23.27% patients recovered within 5 days, while 52.58% patients took about 6-10 days, 23.27% patients took 11-15 days and remaining 0.86% took more than 16 days to recover. In the present study 15 patients had died till analysis of data, among the deceased, 73.33% were above 50 year of age with a male preponderance (66.6%). Interestingly, all deceased (100%) had presented with clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and all had underlying multiple co morbid conditions. Majority of patients had early mortality after admission to hospital with two third death account in initial three days. Asymptomatic patients (cases) treated with HCQ recovered early (average recovery time =5.4 days) compared to asymptomatic patients who did not receive any treatment (control group) and had longer recovery time (average recovery time =7.6 days). CONCLUSION: The varied spectra of COVID-19 mostly affects young adult age group (third to fifth decades of life). Interestingly, early age group was also affected in significant proportion when compared with similar data from other countries. It was observed that male population seemed to be was more prone to getting infected. Majority of COVID-19 positive patients (nearly three-fourth) were asymptomatic (mostly in young age range) at the time of diagnosis, which poses a major challenge for health care workers. Fever, cough, sore throat and shortness of breath were major symptoms that could be detected in such COVID-19 patients. Symptomatic clinical manifestations were more common in old age population. Infectivity was higher in patients that had underlying co morbid disease, especially in patients with multiple co morbid conditions. Symptomatic presentation of COVID-19 was observed to be higher in patients with co morbid disease. Average recovery time from COVID-19 was 8 days with effective treatment. Mortality in COVID-19 was higher in old age population, male gender, symptomatic and co morbid patients as compared to other similarly matched group. Most of mortality was noted within first few days of admission, suggestive of early mortality due to the primary disease process. Treatment with HCQ had early recovery without effectively influencing the overall mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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