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2.
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615210

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people in many ways. However, little is known about weight gain in American adults during the pandemic. Aims and methods The purpose of this study was to conduct a national assessment of weight gain in adult Americans after the first year of the pandemic. An online questionnaire was employed to explore perceptions of adults regarding pandemic weight gain and the relationship between weight gain and sociodemographic characteristics, pre-pandemic weight status, and psychological distress. Multiple methods were used to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaire (i.e., face validity, content validity, and internal consistency reliability testing). Chi-Square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to assess group differences and predictors of weight gain in the study participants. Results A total of 3473 individuals participated in the study with weight changes distributed as: gained weight (48%), remained the same weight (34%), or lost weight (18%). Those who reported being very overweight before the pandemic were most likely to gain weight (65%) versus those who reported being slightly overweight (58%) or normal weight before the pandemic (40%). Weight gain was statistically significantly higher in those with anxiety (53%), depression (52%), or symptoms of both (52%). The final multiple regression model found that the statistically significant predictors of pandemic weight gain were psychological distress, pre-pandemic weight status, having children at home;and time since last bodyweight check. Conclusions Population health promotion strategies in the pandemic should emphasize stress reduction to help individuals manage body weight and avoid chronic diseases in the future.

3.
Psychiatry International ; 2(4):402-409, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1502492

ABSTRACT

Despite the extensive usage of the internet, little is known about internet addiction among Americans during the pandemic. A valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via MTurk to recruit a national sample of adult Americans to understand the nature and extent of internet addiction. A total of 1305 individuals participated in the study where the majority were males (64%), whites (78%), non-Hispanic (70%), married (72%), 18–35 years old (57%), employed full time (86%), and with a Bachelor’s degree or higher (83%). The prevalence of internet addiction was distributed as no addiction (45%), probable addiction or risk of addiction (41%), and definite or severe addiction (14%). More than a fourth of the population had depression (28%) or anxiety (25%). Despite adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, definite/severe internet addiction was strongly predictive of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress in multiple regression analyses. Those who were probably addicted or at risk of addiction were also more likely to have depression or anxiety. Compared to estimates before the pandemic, this study suggests an increase in internet addiction among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Population-based interventions and mental health promotion strategies should focus on a reduction in internet consumption and screen time.

4.
International Journal of Electronic Government Research ; 17(4):1-14, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1444391

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has caused disruption all over the world including in the US. It seems that this pandemic is going to stay for a while. Under current circumstances, what matters most is to mitigate its impact to get back to the daily routine as fast as possible. One answer to this challenge is to turn to technology, especially ICT (information and communication technology). Relying on ICT requires a dependable ICT infrastructure that can handle the fast-growing number of users transitioning to online mode. NRI (Network Readiness Index) is a composite index to measure the multi-faceted impact of ICT on society and development. It is a holistic framework measuring the impact of ICT on four fundamental dimensions of society: technology, people, governance, and impact. In this article, a thorough study of the NRI pillars in 2019 is conducted to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of network readiness in the US. The results of the analysis will provide insight into the trend of digital transformation in the USA.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18126, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406407

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has emerged as global pandemic with largest damage to the public health, economy and human psyche.The genome sequence data obtained during the ongoing pandemic are valuable to understand the virus evolutionary patterns and spread across the globe. Increased availability of genome information of circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains in India will enable the scientific community to understand the emergence of new variants and their impact on human health. The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Chambal region of Madhya Pradesh state in mid of March 2020 followed by multiple introduction events and expansion of cases within next three months. More than 5000 COVID-19 suspected samples referred to Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh were analyzed during the nation -wide lockdown and unlock period. A total of 136 cases were found positive over a span of three months that included virus introduction to the region and its further spread. Whole genome sequences employing Oxford nanopore technology were generated for 26 SARS-CoV-2 circulating in 10 different districts in Madhya Pradesh state of India. This period witnessed index cases with multiple travel histories responsible for introduction of COVID-19 followed by remarkable expansion of virus. The genome wide substitutions including in important viral proteins were identified. The detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulating SARS-CoV-2 clustered in multiple clades including A2a, A4 and B. The cluster-wise segregation was observed, suggesting multiple introduction links and subsequent evolution of virus in the region. This is the first comprehensive whole genome sequence analysis from central India, which revealed the emergence and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 during thenation-wide lockdown and unlock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , India , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403602

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality among family and friends on vaccination preferences is not well explored. A valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk to recruit a national random sample of adult Americans to understand COVID-19 vaccination preferences and its relationship with COVID-19 infection in social networks. A total of 1602 individuals participated in the study where the majority had taken at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (79%) and almost a tenth were planning to do so (10%) or did not want to take the vaccine (11%). Compared to those who knew family members or friends affected by COVID-19, those who did not know anyone infected with (AOR = 3.20), hospitalized for (AOR = 3.60), or died of COVID-19 (AOR = 2.97) had statistically significantly higher odds of refusing the vaccines. Most strategies for reducing COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy focus on highlighting the benefits of COVID-19 vaccines. We suggest that the dangers of not getting the vaccine should also be emphasized as many people who do not know someone who was affected with COVID-19 are also hesitant towards vaccination. These individuals may not fully appreciate the morbidity and mortality impact of COVID-19 infections and the messaging can be tailored to highlight the risk of not having vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Networking , Vaccination
7.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 12: 100213, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051477
8.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(2): 246-253, 2021 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health impact of the pandemic after the initial lockdowns has not been well studied in the USA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic national assessment of the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the adult US population. METHODS: A multi-item, valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk and social media sites to recruit adult US participants in the general population across the USA. A total of 1978 individuals participated in the study, where the majority were: females (51%), whites (74%), non-Hispanic (81%), married (56%), employed full time (68%) and with a bachelor's degree or higher (78%). RESULTS: The prevalence of depression (39%), anxiety (42%) and psychological distress (39%) were computed from the PHQ-4 scale. In multiple regression analyses, depression, anxiety and psychological distress burden (assessed by PHQ-4 scale) was predicted significantly based on race, ethnicity, age, having children at home, employment as a healthcare worker, annual household income and area of residence. Males were more likely to have depression, and females were more likely to have anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of depression and anxiety, interdisciplinary and multisectoral approaches are recommended in the USA along with population-based interventions on mental health improvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
9.
J Community Health ; 46(2): 270-277, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002126

ABSTRACT

Given the results from early trials, COVID-19 vaccines will be available by 2021. However, little is known about what Americans think of getting immunized with a COVID-19 vaccine. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive and systematic national assessment of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in a community-based sample of the American adult population. A multi-item valid and reliable questionnaire was deployed online via mTurk and social media sites to recruit U.S. adults from the general population. A total of 1878 individuals participated in the study where the majority were: females (52%), Whites (74%), non-Hispanic (81%), married (56%), employed full time (68%), and with a bachelor's degree or higher (77%). The likelihood of getting a COVID-19 immunization in the study population was: very likely (52%), somewhat likely (27%), not likely (15%), definitely not (7%), with individuals who had lower education, income, or perceived threat of getting infected being more likely to report that they were not likely/definitely not going to get COVID-19 vaccine (i.e., vaccine hesitancy). In unadjusted group comparisons, compared to their counterparts, vaccine hesitancy was higher among African-Americans (34%), Hispanics (29%), those who had children at home (25%), rural dwellers (29%), people in the northeastern U.S. (25%), and those who identified as Republicans (29%). In multiple regression analyses, vaccine hesitancy was predicted significantly by sex, education, employment, income, having children at home, political affiliation, and the perceived threat of getting infected with COVID-19 in the next 1 year. Given the high prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, evidence-based communication, mass media strategies, and policy measures will have to be implemented across the U.S. to convert vaccines into vaccinations and mass immunization with special attention to the groups identified in this study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Compliance/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/statistics & numerical data
10.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 14(8), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-725580

ABSTRACT

nCOVID-19 (2019 novel corona virus) is a naive infective virus that brought the whole world to standstill. The clinical features attributing to its infection have a broad spectrum, ranging from minimally symptomatic to respiratory failure and death. The aim of present case series was to assimilate data regarding the clinical characteristics of first 11 cases of COVID-19 infection in the local population of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Various clinical features, biochemical and individual parameters were compiled that may affect the disease evolution and then, subjected to descriptive analysis, Out of 11 patients, six patients had a definitive known source of their infection and four patients had history of close contacts with first six ones. Only one patient had unknown source of the infection. Majority of the patients remained asymptomatic to pauci-symptomatic, Mean duration of symptomatic period was less than seven days (5.6 days). In this series, out of 11 patients, 2 (18%) were females and rest all were males (82%). Four of the patients had fever, four had cough, and four had weakness and fatigue, two had malaise, three had anorexia, one had dyspepsia and one diarrhea, None of the patient landed in ICU. Patients were treated with empirical combination therapy including Azithromycin (500 mg OD) and Oseltamivir (75 mg BD) irrespective of their symptoms. Additionally, Hydroxychloroquine (200 mg BD) was given to symptomatic ones. Conclusively, less dreadful clinical presentation of this infection was faced in this population.

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