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1.
BJPsych Open ; 7(5): e146, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352682

ABSTRACT

Background: Acceptance and willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine are unknown. Aims: We compared attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in people suffering from depression or anxiety disorder and people without mental disorders, and their willingness to pay for it. Method: Adults with depression or anxiety disorder (n = 79) and healthy controls (n = 134) living in Chongqing, China, completed a cross-sectional study between 13 and 26 January 2021. We used a validated survey to assess eight aspects related to attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccines. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. Results: Seventy-six people with depression or anxiety disorder (96.2%) and 134 healthy controls (100%) reported willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. A significantly higher proportion of people with depression or anxiety disorder (64.5%) were more willing to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine than healthy controls (38.1%) (P ≤ 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, severity of depression and anxiety was significantly associated with willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccination among psychiatric patients (P = 0.048). Non-healthcare workers (P = 0.039), health insurance (P = 0.003), living with children (P = 0.006) and internalised stigma (P = 0.002) were significant factors associated with willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccine in healthy controls. Conclusions: To conclude, psychiatric patients in Chongqing, China, showed high acceptance and willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine. Factors associated with willingness to pay for the COVID-19 vaccine differed between psychiatric patients and healthy controls.

4.
Brain Sci ; 11(8)2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325603

ABSTRACT

Impaired sense of smell occurs in a fraction of patients with COVID-19 infection, but its effect on cerebral activity is unknown. Thus, this case report investigated the effect of COVID-19 infection on frontotemporal cortex activity during olfactory stimuli. In this preliminary study, patients who recovered from COVID-19 infection (n = 6) and healthy controls who never contracted COVID-19 (n = 6) were recruited. Relative changes in frontotemporal cortex oxy-hemoglobin during olfactory stimuli was acquired using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The area under curve (AUC) of oxy-hemoglobin for the time interval 5 s before and 15 s after olfactory stimuli was derived. In addition, olfactory function was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks 12-identification test (SIT-12). Patients had lower SIT-12 scores than healthy controls (p = 0.026), but there were no differences in oxy-hemoglobin AUC between healthy controls and patients (p > 0.05). This suggests that past COVID-19 infection may not affect frontotemporal cortex function, and these preliminary results need to be verified in larger samples.

5.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1253-1260, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307862

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes an immunosuppressed state and increases risk of secondary infections like mucormycosis. We evaluated clinical features, predisposing factors, diagnosis and outcomes for mucormycosis among patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This prospective, observational, multi-centre study included 47 consecutive patients with mucormycosis, diagnosed during their course of COVID-19 illness, between January 3 and March 27, 2021. Data regarding demography, underlying medical conditions, COVID-19 illness and treatment were collected. Clinical presentations of mucormycosis, imaging and biochemical characteristics and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Of the 2567 COVID-19 patients admitted to 3 tertiary centres, 47 (1.8%) were diagnosed with mucormycosis. Mean age was 55 ± 12.8years, and majority suffered from diabetes mellitus (n = 36, 76.6%). Most were not COVID-19 vaccinated (n = 31, 66.0%) and majority (n = 43, 91.5%) had developed moderate-to-severe pneumonia, while 20 (42.6%) required invasive ventilation. All patients had received corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics while most (n = 37, 78.7%) received at least one anti-viral medication. Mean time elapsed from COVID-19 diagnosis to mucormycosis was 12.1 ± 4.6days. Eleven (23.4%) subjects succumbed to their disease, mostly (n = 8, 72.7%) within 7 days of diagnosis. Among the patients who died, 10 (90.9%) had pre-existing diabetes mellitus, only 2 (18.2%) had received just one vaccine dose and all developed moderate-to-severe pneumonia, requiring oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis can occur among COVID-19 patients, especially with poor glycaemic control, widespread and injudicious use of corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, and invasive ventilation. Owing to the high mortality, high index of suspicion is required to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment in high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/microbiology , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/mortality , Prospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical/adverse effects
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 52-60, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the fight against COVID-19, vaccination is vital in achieving herd immunity. Many Asian countries are starting to vaccinate frontline workers; however, expedited vaccine development has led to hesitancy among the general population. We evaluated the willingness of healthcare workers to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: From 12 to 21 December 2020, we recruited 1720 healthcare workers from 6 countries: China, India, Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam and Bhutan. The self-administrated survey collected information on willingness to vaccinate, perception of COVID-19, vaccine concerns, COVID-19 risk profile, stigma, pro-socialness scale, and trust in health authorities. RESULTS: More than 95% of the healthcare workers surveyed were willing to vaccinate. These respondents were more likely to perceive the pandemic as severe, consider the vaccine safe, have less financial concerns, less stigmatization regarding the vaccine, higher pro-socialness mindset and trust in health authorities. A high perceived pandemic risk index, low vaccine harm index and high pro-socialness index were independent predictors in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of healthcare workers in Asia are willing to receive COVID-19 vaccination. Perceived COVID-19 susceptibility, low potential risk of vaccine harm and pro-socialness are the main drivers. These findings may help formulate vaccination strategies in other countries.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Health Personnel/psychology , Perception , Vaccination/psychology , Adult , Asia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Stigma , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(8): 53, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personal protection equipment (PPE)-associated headache is an unusual secondary headache disorder that predominantly occurs in healthcare workers as a consequence of the donning of protective respirators, face masks and/or eyewear. The appreciation of this entity is important given the significant ramifications upon the occupational health of healthcare workers and could additionally have an impact on persons living with pre-existing headache disorder(s). RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a renewed interest and recognition of PPE-associated headaches amongst healthcare professionals, largely brought about by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic which has besieged healthcare systems worldwide. De novo PPE-associated headaches may present with migrainous or tension-type features and can be viewed as a subtype of external compression headache. The prognosis of the disorder is generally favourable, given that most headaches are short-lived without long-term sequalae. Several aetiologies have been postulated to account for the development of these headaches. Notably, these headaches can affect the occupational health and work performance of healthcare workers. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, probable etiopathogenesis, management and prognosis of PPE-associated headaches in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future directions for research and PPE development are proposed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/therapy , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Headache/diagnosis , Health Personnel , Humans
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 354, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic led to wide-spread use of face-masks, respirators and other personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare workers. Various symptoms attributed to the use of PPE are believed to be, at least in part, due to elevated carbon-dioxide (CO2) levels. We evaluated concentrations of CO2 under various PPE. METHODS: In a prospective observational study on healthy volunteers, CO2 levels were measured during regular breathing while donning 1) no mask, 2) JustAir® powered air purifying respirator (PAPR), 3) KN95 respirator, and 4) valved-respirator. Serial CO2 measurements were taken with a nasal canula at a frequency of 1-Hz for 15-min for each PPE configuration to evaluate whether National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) limits were breached. RESULTS: The study included 11 healthy volunteers, median age 32 years (range 16-54) and 6 (55%) men. Percent mean (SD) changes in CO2 values for no mask, JustAir® PAPR, KN95 respirator and valve respirator were 0.26 (0.12), 0.59 (0.097), 2.6 (0.14) and 2.4 (0.59), respectively. Use of face masks (KN95 and valved-respirator) resulted in significant increases in CO2 concentrations, which exceeded the 8-h NIOSH exposure threshold limit value-weighted average (TLV-TWA). However, the increases in CO2 concentrations did not breach short-term (15-min) limits. Importantly, these levels were considerably lower than the long-term (8-h) NIOSH limits during donning JustAir® PAPR. There was a statistically significant difference between all pairs (p < 0.0001, except KN95 and valved-respirator (p = 0.25). However, whether increase in CO2 levels are clinically significant remains debatable. CONCLUSION: Although, significant increase in CO2 concentrations are noted with routinely used face-masks, the levels still remain within the NIOSH limits for short-term use. Therefore, there should not be a concern in their regular day-to-day use for healthcare providers. The clinical implications of elevated CO2 levels with long-term use of face masks needs further studies. Use of PAPR prevents relative hypercapnoea. However, whether PAPR should be advocated for healthcare workers requiring PPE for extended hours needs to evaluated in further studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Masks , Respiratory Protective Devices , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypercapnia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
11.
J Neurol Sci ; 419: 117183, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 induced coagulopathy can lead to thrombotic complications such as stroke. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a less common type of stroke which might be triggered by COVID-19. We present a series of CVST cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In a multinational retrospective study, we collected all cases of CVST in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients admitted to nine tertiary stroke centers from the beginning of the pandemic to June 30th, 2020. We compared the demographics, clinical and radiological characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of these patients with a control group of non-SARS-CoV-2 infected CVST patients in the same seasonal period of the years 2012-2016 from the country where the majority of cases were recruited. RESULTS: A total of 13 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria (62% women, mean age 50.9 ± 11.2 years). Six patients were discharged with good outcomes (mRS ≤ 2) and three patients died in hospital. Compared to the control group, the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were significantly older (50.9 versus 36.7 years, p < 0.001), had a lower rate of identified CVST risk factors (23.1% versus 84.2%, p < 0.001), had more frequent cortical vein involvement (38.5% versus 10.5%, p: 0.025), and a non-significant higher rate of in-hospital mortality (23.1% versus 5.3%, p: 0.073). CONCLUSION: CVST should be considered as potential comorbidity in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients presenting with neurological symptoms. Our data suggest that compared to non-SARS-CoV-2 infected patients, CVST occurs in older patients, with lower rates of known CVST risk factors and might lead to a poorer outcome in the SARS-CoV-2 infected group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Thrombophilia/etiology
12.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 13: 1756286420978004, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972457

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations are not uncommon during infection with the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A clear association has been reported between cerebrovascular disease and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether this association is causal or incidental is still unknown. In this narrative review, we sought to present the possible pathophysiological mechanisms linking COVID-19 and cerebrovascular disease, describe the stroke syndromes and their prognosis and discuss several clinical, radiological, and laboratory characteristics that may aid in the prompt recognition of cerebrovascular disease during COVID-19. A systematic literature search was conducted, and relevant information was abstracted. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor dysregulation, uncontrollable immune reaction and inflammation, coagulopathy, COVID-19-associated cardiac injury with subsequent cardio-embolism, complications due to critical illness and prolonged hospitalization can all contribute as potential etiopathogenic mechanisms leading to diverse cerebrovascular clinical manifestations. Acute ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have been described in case reports and cohorts of COVID-19 patients with a prevalence ranging between 0.5% and 5%. SARS-CoV-2-positive stroke patients have higher mortality rates, worse functional outcomes at discharge and longer duration of hospitalization as compared with SARS-CoV-2-negative stroke patients in different cohort studies. Specific demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics may be used as 'red flags' to alarm clinicians in recognizing COVID-19-related stroke.

13.
Ann Neurol ; 89(2): 380-388, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938391

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Emerging data indicate an increased risk of cerebrovascular events with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and highlight the potential impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the management and outcomes of acute stroke. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the aforementioned considerations. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of observational cohort studies reporting on the occurrence and/or outcomes of patients with cerebrovascular events in association with their SARS-CoV-2 infection status. We used a random-effects model. Summary estimates were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We identified 18 cohort studies including 67,845 patients. Among patients with SARS-CoV-2, 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9-1.6%, I2 = 87%) were hospitalized for cerebrovascular events, 1.1% (95% CI = 0.8-1.3%, I2 = 85%) for ischemic stroke, and 0.2% (95% CI = 0.1-0.3%, I2 = 64%) for hemorrhagic stroke. Compared to noninfected contemporary or historical controls, patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased odds of ischemic stroke (OR = 3.58, 95% CI = 1.43-8.92, I2 = 43%) and cryptogenic stroke (OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.62-9.77, I2 = 0%). Diabetes mellitus was found to be more prevalent among SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients compared to noninfected historical controls (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.00-1.94, I2 = 0%). SARS-CoV-2 infection status was not associated with the likelihood of receiving intravenous thrombolysis (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.65-3.10, I2 = 0%) or endovascular thrombectomy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.35-1.74, I2 = 0%) among hospitalized ischemic stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Odds of in-hospital mortality were higher among SARS-CoV-2 stroke patients compared to noninfected contemporary or historical stroke patients (OR = 5.60, 95% CI = 3.19-9.80, I2 = 45%). INTERPRETATION: SARS-CoV-2 appears to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, and potentially cryptogenic stroke in particular. It may also be related to an increased mortality risk. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:380-388.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Humans , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data
14.
BJPsych Open ; 6(6): e116, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers. AIMS: In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes. METHOD: From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country. RESULTS: A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.

15.
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117078, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented increased usage of Personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare-workers. PPE usage causes headache in majority of users. We evaluated changes in cerebral hemodynamics among healthcare-workers using PPE. METHODS: Frontline healthcare-workers donning PPE at our tertiary center were included. Demographics, co-morbidities and blood-pressure were recorded. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring of middle cerebral artery was performed with 2-MHz probe. Mean flow velocity (MFV) and pulsatility index (PI) were recorded at baseline, after donning N95 respirator-mask, and after donning powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), when indicated. End-tidal carbon-dioxide (ET-CO2) pressure was recorded for participants donning PAPR in addition to the N95 respirator-mask. RESULTS: A total of 154 healthcare-workers (mean age 29 ± 12 years, 67% women) were included. Migraine was the commonest co-morbidity in 38 (25%) individuals while 123 (80%) developed de-novo headache due to N95 mask. Donning of N95 respirator-mask resulted in significant increase in MFV (4.4 ± 10.4 cm/s, p < 0.001) and decrease in PI (0.13 ± 0.12; p < 0.001) while ET-CO2 increased by 3.1 ± 1.2 mmHg (p < 0.001). TCD monitoring in 24 (16%) participants donning PAPR and N95 respirator mask together showed normalization of PI, accompanied by normalization of ET-CO2 values within 5-min. Combined use of N95 respirator-mask and PAPR was more comfortable as compared to N95 respirator-mask alone. CONCLUSION: Use of N95 respirator-mask results in significant alterations in cerebral hemodynamics. However, these effects are mitigated by the use of additional PAPR. We recommend the use of PAPR together with the N95 mask for healthcare-workers doing longer duties in the hospital wards.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Health Personnel , Masks/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Respiratory Protective Devices , Adult , Blood Flow Velocity , COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/etiology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery/physiopathology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pulsatile Flow , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Young Adult
16.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 596-603, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641018

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly evolving and affecting healthcare systems across the world. Singapore has escalated its alert level to Disease Outbreak Response System Condition (DORSCON) Orange, signifying severe disease with community spread. We aimed to study the overall volume of AIS cases and the delivery of hyperacute stroke services during DORSCON Orange. This was a single-centre, observational cohort study performed at a comprehensive stroke centre responsible for AIS cases in the western region of Singapore, as well as providing care for COVID-19 patients. All AIS patients reviewed as an acute stroke activation in the Emergency Department (ED) from November 2019 to April 2020 were included. System processes timings, treatment and clinical outcome variables were collected. We studied 350 AIS activation patients admitted through the ED, 206 (58.9%) pre- and 144 during DORSCON Orange. Across the study period, number of stroke activations showed significant decline (p = 0.004, 95% CI 6.513 to - 2.287), as the number of COVID-19 cases increased exponentially, whilst proportion of activations receiving acute recanalization therapy remained stable (p = 0.519, 95% CI - 1.605 to 2.702). Amongst AIS patients that received acute recanalization therapy, early neurological outcomes in terms of change in median NIHSS at 24 h (-4 versus -4, p = 0.685) were largely similar between the pre- and during DORSCON orange periods. The number of stroke activations decreased while the proportion receiving acute recanalization therapy remained stable in the current COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore.


Subject(s)
Comprehensive Health Care/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Recovery of Function , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Singapore/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome , Workflow
17.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 587-595, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640827

ABSTRACT

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a life-threatening complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Increasing reports suggest an association between COVID-19 and AIS, although the underlying mechanism remains uncertain. We performed a systematic review to characterize the clinical characteristics, neuroimaging findings, and outcomes of AIS in COVID-19 patients. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase using a suitable keyword search strategy from 1st December 2019 to 29th May 2020. All studies reporting AIS occurrence in COVID-19 patients were included. A total of 39 studies comprising 135 patients were studied. The pooled incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients from observational studies was 1.2% (54/4466) with a mean age of 63.4 ± 13.1 years. The mean duration of AIS from COVID-19 symptoms onset was 10 ± 8 days, and the mean NIHSS score was 19 ± 8. Laboratory investigations revealed an elevated mean D-dimer (9.2 ± 14.8 mg/L) and fibrinogen (5.8 ± 2.0 g/L). Antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in a significant number of cases. The majority of AIS neuroimaging patterns observed was large vessel thrombosis, embolism or stenosis (62.1%, 64/103), followed by multiple vascular territory (26.2%, 27/103). A high mortality rate was reported (38.0%, 49/129). We report the pooled incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients to be 1.2%, with a high mortality rate. Elevated D-dimer, fibrinogen and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies appear to be prominent in COVID-19 patients with concomitant AIS, but further mechanistic studies are required to elucidate their role in pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/virology , Time Factors
18.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 13: 1756286420932036, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610846

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China and rapidly spread worldwide, with a vast majority of confirmed cases presenting with respiratory symptoms. Potential neurological manifestations and their pathophysiological mechanisms have not been thoroughly established. In this narrative review, we sought to present the neurological manifestations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Case reports, case series, editorials, reviews, case-control and cohort studies were evaluated, and relevant information was abstracted. Various reports of neurological manifestations of previous coronavirus epidemics provide a roadmap regarding potential neurological complications of COVID-19, due to many shared characteristics between these viruses and SARS-CoV-2. Studies from the current pandemic are accumulating and report COVID-19 patients presenting with dizziness, headache, myalgias, hypogeusia and hyposmia, but also with more serious manifestations including polyneuropathy, myositis, cerebrovascular diseases, encephalitis and encephalopathy. However, discrimination between causal relationship and incidental comorbidity is often difficult. Severe COVID-19 shares common risk factors with cerebrovascular diseases, and it is currently unclear whether the infection per se represents an independent stroke risk factor. Regardless of any direct or indirect neurological manifestations, the COVID-19 pandemic has a huge impact on the management of neurological patients, whether infected or not. In particular, the majority of stroke services worldwide have been negatively influenced in terms of care delivery and fear to access healthcare services. The effect on healthcare quality in the field of other neurological diseases is additionally evaluated.

20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 1-5, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596407

ABSTRACT

'The Mask' has become a byword and a precious possession universally. Except for its use by the medical fraternity, answers to the common questions-whether it provides enough protection, which type is optimal for the general public and who really needs to don it, remain poorly understood. For a frontline healthcare worker, wearing mask is a necessity as an important person protection equipment, it is perhaps the most-powerful psychological symbol for the general public. Surprisingly, it even undermines all other recommended practices of infection control and breaking the transmission chain of Covid-19, like hand washing, personal hygiene and social distancing. 'The mask' has evolved with time and yet there is a need to further improve the design for safety, tolerability and comfort. In this review we present the journey of face mask, originating from the first masks aimed at stopping the bad smell to its industrial use to its all-important place in the medical field. Various types of face masks, their filtration efficiency, reusability and current recommendations for their use are presented.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices , Symbolism , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Equipment Reuse , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Textiles
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