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Cattle Practice ; 29(1):12-12, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033861


The aims of this study are to determine if CAM use has potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and support the global efforts against antimicrobial resistance, and to ensure that antimicrobials and other conventional treatment approaches are used where appropriate. 20 farms with a range of management systems, herd sizes and production goals were recruited to this study. Interviews were conducted with 24 farmers through a mixture of face-to-face, telephone and videoconferencing modalities necessitated by movement restrictions during the Covid-19 pandemic. In addition, 16 farms were visited to collect ethnographic participant observational data using ethnographic fieldnotes and photographs. Interviews were conducted using a topic guide and explored participants' experience of CAM, including drivers/barriers to CAM use, experiences of CAM use and how CAM might influence the use of conventional medicine such as antibiotics. Early findings indicate several drivers for UK dairy farmers to use CAM approaches, including their own personal [or friends' and relations'] experiences, the views of influential people and advisors, networks within the farming community and the fact that CAM use allows a greater sense of autonomy in health-based decision making. Farmers often refer to milk buyers and organic guidelines as factors which influence their use of CAM. They further refer to a desire to 'do something' for the animal and to minimise animal welfare related concerns. A range of CAM information sources were also consulted by farmers including, holistic health management organisations/courses, online materials, and pharmacies. Participating farmers associate the use of CAM approaches with other holistic health management practices, human-animal interactions, the actual character and physical characteristics of an animal and animal welfare. This indicates that CAM use is seen by farmers as part of a wider ethos and belief about holistic farming practices and land use. Additionally, data implies that some farmers value their positive personal experiences of CAM use over scientific evidence. In contrast, barriers to CAM use were also identified including: the perception that CAM approaches are reserved specifically for organic systems, little access to CAM and related resources and some existing tensions between farmers and other stakeholders' views. Early findings suggest that farmers are influenced in their use of CAM by a range of individuals within the agriculture community, including veterinary surgeons (some of whom use homeopathic practices), mainstream farming press and pro-CAM organisations and advisors.

Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia ; 77(2-3):657-688, 2021.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1471222


After the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, most states enacted new measures to constrain international mobility. By May 8th, 2020, more than 93% of the world’s population lived in states with special entry bans and more than three billion lived in countries whose borders were almost completely closed to non-citizens. Can such measures be justified? If so, would this undermine the open borders view? This paper examines these questions. It argues, first, that, although short-term entry bans and other similar measures designed to protect public health can be justified, these bans need to be designed with a number of exemptions, in particular, for asylum seekers and refugees. Even in times of pandemic, completely closed borders are indefensible. It argues, second, that although extreme versions of the open borders position may have difficulty accepting this conclusion, other versions of the position can consistently justify special entry restrictions. © 2021 by Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia. All rights reserved.

J Infect ; 81(3): 411-419, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505742


OBJECTIVES: To understand SARS-Co-V-2 infection and transmission in UK nursing homes in order to develop preventive strategies for protecting the frail elderly residents. METHODS: An outbreak investigation involving 394 residents and 70 staff, was carried out in 4 nursing homes affected by COVID-19 outbreaks in central London. Two point-prevalence surveys were performed one week apart where residents underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and had relevant symptoms documented. Asymptomatic staff from three of the four homes were also offered SARS-CoV-2 testing. RESULTS: Overall, 26% (95% CI 22-31) of residents died over the two-month period. All-cause mortality increased by 203% (95% CI 70-336) compared with previous years. Systematic testing identified 40% (95% CI 35-46) of residents as positive for SARS-CoV-2, and of these 43% (95% CI 34-52) were asymptomatic and 18% (95% CI 11-24) had only atypical symptoms; 4% (95% CI -1 to 9) of asymptomatic staff also tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in four UK nursing homes was associated with very high infection and mortality rates. Many residents developed either atypical or had no discernible symptoms. A number of asymptomatic staff members also tested positive, suggesting a role for regular screening of both residents and staff in mitigating future outbreaks.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Nursing Homes , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology