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BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 359, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496153


BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in patients with COVID-19 in a large UK tertiary centre. METHODS: We analysed data of consecutive adults admitted with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 across two sites of a hospital in London, UK, from 1st January to 13th May 2020. RESULTS: Of the 1248 inpatients included, 487 (39%) experienced AKI (51% stage 1, 13% stage 2, and 36% stage 3). The weekly AKI incidence rate gradually increased to peak at week 5 (3.12 cases/100 patient-days), before reducing to its nadir (0.83 cases/100 patient-days) at the end the study period (week 10). Among AKI survivors, 84.0% had recovered renal function to pre-admission levels before discharge and none required on-going renal replacement therapy (RRT). Pre-existing renal impairment [odds ratio (OR) 3.05, 95%CI 2.24-4,18; p <  0.0001], and inpatient diuretic use (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.27-2.53; p <  0.005) were independently associated with a higher risk for AKI. AKI was a strong predictor of 30-day mortality with an increasing risk across AKI stages [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.59 (95%CI 1.19-2.13) for stage 1; p < 0.005, 2.71(95%CI 1.82-4.05); p < 0.001for stage 2 and 2.99 (95%CI 2.17-4.11); p < 0.001for stage 3]. One third of AKI3 survivors (30.7%), had newly established renal impairment at 3 to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: This large UK cohort demonstrated a high AKI incidence and was associated with increased mortality even at stage 1. Inpatient diuretic use was linked to a higher AKI risk. One third of survivors with AKI3 exhibited newly established renal impairment already at 3-6 months.

Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Acuity , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(8): 1237-1246, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256284


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving in-center hemodialysis treatment face unique challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, specifically the need to attend for treatment that prevents self-isolation. Dialysis unit attributes and isolation strategies that might reduce dialysis center COVID-19 infection rates have not been previously examined. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We explored the role of variables, including community disease burden, dialysis unit attributes (size and layout), and infection control strategies, on rates of COVID-19 among patients receiving in-center hemodialysis in London, United Kingdom, between March 2, 2020 and May 31, 2020. The two outcomes were defined as (1) a positive test for infection or admission with suspected COVID-19 and (2) admission to the hospital with suspected infection. Associations were examined using a discrete time multilevel time-to-event analysis. RESULTS: Data on 5755 patients dialyzing in 51 units were analyzed; 990 (17%) tested positive and 465 (8%) were admitted with suspected COVID-19 between March 2 and May 31, 2020. Outcomes were associated with age, diabetes, local community COVID-19 rates, and dialysis unit size. A greater number of available side rooms and the introduction of mask policies for asymptomatic patients were inversely associated with outcomes. No association was seen with sex, ethnicity, or deprivation indices, nor with any of the different isolation strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of COVID-19 in the in-center hemodialysis population relate to individual factors, underlying community transmission, unit size, and layout.

COVID-19/etiology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(2): 265-271, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056576


INTRODUCTION: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020, high rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically unwell patients are being reported, leading to an increased demand for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Providing RRT for this large number of patients is proving challenging, and so alternatives to continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are needed. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be initiated immediately after percutaneous insertion of the catheter, but there are concerns about impact on ventilation and RRT efficacy. We sought to describe our recent experience with percutaneous catheter insertion and peritoneal dialysis in patients in the ICU with COVID-19 infection. METHOD: Patients were selected according to local protocol, and catheters were inserted percutaneously by experienced operators using a Seldinger technique. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and ventilation requirements were recorded at the time of insertion and 24 hours later. Procedural complications, proportion of RRT provided by PD, renal recovery, and RRT parameters (serum potassium and maximum base excess) during PD were assessed. RESULTS: Percutaneous PD catheters were successfully inserted in 37 of 44 patients (84.1%) after a median of 13.5 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 10.0, 20.3 days) in the ICU. No adverse events were reported; SOFA scores and ventilation requirements were comparable before and after insertion; and adequate RRT parameters were achieved. The median proportion of RRT provided by PD following catheter insertion was 94.6% (IQR = 75.0, 100%). CONCLUSION: Peritoneal dialysis provides a safe and effective alternative to CRRT in selected patients with AKI and COVID-19 infection requiring ventilation on intensive care.