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1.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333839

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. For the prevention and treatment of COVID19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, T cell responses are important in mediating recovery and immune-protection. The identification of immunogenic epitopes that can elicit a meaningful T cell response can be elusive. Traditionally, this has been achieved using sophisticated in silico methods to predict putative epitopes;however, our previous studies find that 'immunodominant' SARS-CoV-2 peptides defined by such in silico methods often fail to elicit T cell responses recognizing SARS-CoV-2. We postulated that immunogenic epitopes for SARS-CoV-2 are best defined by directly analyzing peptides eluted from the peptide-MHC complex and then validating immunogenicity empirically by determining if such peptides can elicit T cells recognizing SARS-CoV-2 antigen-expressing cells. Using a tandem mass spectrometry approach, we identified epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 derived not only from structural but also non-structural genes in regions highly conserved among SARS-CoV-2 strains including recently recognized variants. We report here, for the first time, several novel SARS-CoV-2 epitopes from membrane glycol-protein (MGP) and non-structure protein-13 (NSP13) defined by mass-spectrometric analysis of MHC-eluted peptides, provide empiric evidence for their immunogenicity to induce T cell response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Current state of the art uses putative epitope peptides based on in silico prediction algorithms to evaluate the T cell response among COVID-19 patients. However, none of these peptides have been tested for immunogenicity, i.e. the ability to elicit a T cell response capable of recognizing endogenously presented peptide. In this study, we used MHC immune-precipitation, acid elution and tandem mass spectrometry to define the SARS-CoV-2 immunopeptidome for membrane glycol-protein and the non-structural protein. Furthermore, taking advantage of a highly robust endogenous T cell (ETC) workflow, we verify the immunogenicity of these MS-defined peptides by in vitro generation of MGP and NSP13 peptide-specific T cells and confirm T cell recognition of MGP or NSP13 endogenously expressing cell lines.

2.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-332200

ABSTRACT

Mass surveillance testing can help control outbreaks of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. However, diagnostic test shortages are prevalent globally and continue to occur in the US with the onset of new COVID-19 variants, demonstrating an unprecedented need for improving our current methods for mass surveillance testing. By targeting surveillance testing towards individuals who are most likely to be infected and, thus, increasing testing positivity rate (i.e., percent positive in the surveillance group), fewer tests are needed to capture the same number of positive cases. Here, we developed an Intelligent Testing Allocation (ITA) method by leveraging data from the CovIdentify study (6,765 participants) and the MyPHD study (8,580 participants), including smartwatch data from 1,265 individuals of whom 126 tested positive for COVID-19. Our rigorous model and parameter search uncovered the optimal time periods and aggregate metrics for monitoring continuous digital biomarkers to increase the positivity rate of COVID-19 diagnostic testing. We found that resting heart rate features distinguished between COVID-19 positive and negative cases earlier in the course of the infection than steps features, as early as ten and five days prior to the diagnostic test, respectively. We also found that including steps features increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) by 7-11% when compared with RHR features alone, while including RHR features improved the AUC of the ITA model's precision-recall curve (AUC-PR) by 38-50% when compared with steps features alone. The best AUC-ROC (0.73 ± 0.14 and 0.77 on the cross-validated training set and independent test set, respectively) and AUC-PR (0.55 ± 0.21 and 0.24) were achieved by using data from a single device type (Fitbit) with high-resolution (minute-level) data. Finally, we show that ITA generates up to a 6.5-fold increase in the positivity rate in the cross-validated training set and up to a 3-fold increase in the positivity rate in the independent test set, including both symptomatic and asymptomatic (up to 27%) individuals. Our findings suggest that, if deployed on a large scale and without needing self-reported symptoms, the ITA method could improve allocation of diagnostic testing resources and reduce the burden of test shortages.

4.
Journal of Integrated Disaster Risk Management ; 11(1):64-82, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1742888

ABSTRACT

Time and again, disasters bring forth various challenges concerning risk communication, disaster-resilient infrastructure, last-mile delivery, disaster reporting, etc. These challenges often highlight the existing gap between research and academicians, and the policymakers and practitioners. Secondly, it brings forth the lack of adequate collaboration among experts and practitioners of different fields. Most of these challenges require innovative and low-cost solutions catering to local and contextualized problems, and calls for a multi- and transdisciplinary approach and collaboration. With this vision, amidst the current pandemic of COVID-19, Resilience Innovation Knowledge Academy (RIKA) India, Indo-Japan Laboratory (Keio University, Japan) and four partnering universities have launched the Social Innovation Online Hackathon (SIOH) 2020. SIOH aims to provide a unique virtual platform to student innovators and mission-driven entrepreneurs from different fields like architecture, engineering, disaster management, etc., to collaborate and develop innovative solutions for tackling the pandemic and future disasters. The paper aims to introduce SIOH and its four-step process as a tool of multi-disciplinary collaboration to promote innovation for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). Besides the critical outcomes of the SIOH, the paper seeks to flag some indirect positive impacts of such an exercise. Among others, these include, firstly, the introduction of the field of DRR to academicians and practitioners of other sectors, thereby paving the way for its mainstreaming in other sectors. Secondly, such an exercise involving young students envisages to invoke a spirit of inquiry and innovation, which is crucial for bringing social change. Thirdly, it highlights the critical role of proper sectoral mentorship in handholding the young innovators in their journey of building resilient societies. © 2021 IDRiM Society.

5.
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1713860

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Foreign residents in Japan are classified as one vulnerable group at risk of disasters. Therefore, various measures are in place to engage, educate and offer first-hand experiences of disaster countermeasures required to overcome systematic disaster preparedness problems. However, the need for Japan to prevent the spread and infection of COVID-19 has necessitated measures that prohibit public gatherings and other social activities. This study aims to look at how these arrangements have impacted public engagement approaches to disaster preparedness for foreign residents within the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Design/methodology/approach: This study identifies local organizations and examines their methods of engagement that enhance the disaster preparedness of foreign residents in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. The activities are examined in the context of when there was no COVID-19 pandemic and the current state of the pandemic. A change in activities attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic is then extracted and explained through field surveys and interviews with the relevant organization. Findings: This study reveals that most disaster preparedness activities were best accomplished through in-person engagements. Nevertheless, online engagements have become the alternative option because of COVID-19 infection prevention. This change has widen the coverage of some activities but major setbacks include events cancelations and technical and technological challenges attributed to using online platforms. Research limitations/implications: This study did not examine the effectiveness of pre-COVID-19 pandemic engagement approaches and current changes attributed to the pandemic;many public engagement literatures acknowledge success to include the number of participants, the abilities of organizations to find ways to effectively and positively engage their stakeholders for meaningful partnerships, the number of clicks, access to a website and comments made online. Therefore, as organizations in this study have shown a glimpse of the above characteristics, there are indications of some level of effectiveness in their engagement approaches even amid a pandemic. Practical implications: To avoid such situations in the future, there is the need for the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, local governments and associated organizations to develop public engagement approaches that are flexible to resist or cope with in-person, remote encounters, or sudden circumstances that could potentially derail planned activities. Social implications: The most effects attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic are the cancelation of many disaster drill exercises, community disaster walks, training of volunteers for foreign residents’ assistance and many hours of “Yasashii Nihongo” lesson. The cancelation of activities is a setback to the efforts of self-help and mutual aid campaigns by authorities to reduce the impacts of disasters. Originality/value: The spirit of inclusion has been an embodiment of disaster management approaches in Japan for years for which policy recognitions have been tagged along the dimensions of public aid, self-help and mutual aid. These are aimed at engaging the populace, especially foreign residents in disaster training and exercises, language study and other communal activities for disaster preparedness. However, to prevent the spread of COVID-19, there have been a series of restrictions on gathering and inter-personal public engagement activities in Japan. As foreigners are classified as the most vulnerable to disaster in Japan, it is important to understand how these restrictions will/are affecting the efforts of integration and disaster preparedness, which are a crucial part of the Government’s effort to reduce casualties and damage in the anticipated Nankai megathrust earthquake. Besides the results being useful for government interventions, it also adds to the knowledge of the repercussion of COVID-19 and how to plan for emergencies. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

6.
Blood ; 138:476, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582425

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic that has taken millions of lives around the globe. Treatment of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 disease has included dexamethasone, tocilizumab, Remdesivir, convalescent plasma, and targeted antibodies, however, currently, there are no FDA approved targeted cellular therapies in the treatment of mild or moderate SARS-CoV-2 disease. Virus-specific cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes (vCTLs) have shown therapeutic efficacy in immunocompromised patients with viral infections. We developed a multicenter and multidisciplinary Viral Cytotoxic T-Cell Consortium (VIRCTLC) to investigate the use of vCTLs manufactured by direct enrichment using the Cytokine Capture System (CCS) on the CliniMACS® Prodigy device. SARS-CoV-2 specific PepTivator Peptides consist of overlapping peptides that span the entire sequence of the protein (Protein N and M), or the length of its immunodominant domain (Protein S). The peptides can bind to either MHC class I or MHC class II molecules and are therefore able to target both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Objective: To screen, manufacture, and characterize SARS-CoV-2 vCTLs generated from convalescent COVID-19 donors using the CliniMACS® Cytokine Capture System on the CliniMACS® Prodigy device. Methods: Donor screening was done utilizing PBMNCs from 15 convalescent COVID-19 donors after informed consent. PBMNCs were stimulated with a mix of PepTivator peptides (Miltenyi Biotech®) contained in the S, M and N proteins. IFN-γ levels were examined in CD3, CD4, and CD8 T cells by flow cytometry analysis. After informed consent, PBMNCs from three convalescent COVID-19 donors who screened positively to the PepTivator® peptide pools of SARS-CoV-2 Proteins M, N and S were collected by apheresis using the SPECTRA Optia® apheresis instrument. PBMNCs were incubated with the PepTivator® peptide pools for 4 hours. After incubation, the SARS-CoV-2 vCTLs were enriched using the CliniMACS Cytokine Capture System as we have previously described (Flower/Cairo, et al, ASTCT, 2020). Samples were taken from the enriched vCTLs and tested in gram stains, sterility cultures, cell counts, viability and IFN-γ cytokine staining (CD3/CD4/CD8/IFN-γ marker panel) by flow cytometry. Amplification and sequencing of TCRβ CDR3 regions of pre-stimulated PBMNC, stimulated PBMNCs samples taken from the QC bag (QC samples) and the enriched SARS-CoV-2 vCTLs were performed on the ImmunoSEQ platform using ImmunoSEQ® TCRB Assay kit (Adaptive Biotechnologies, Seattle, WA, USA). Characterization of immune subsets was done by mass cytometry analysis with 41 Immunophenotypic markers. Transcriptome of the immune landscape of QC samples, and enriched vCTLs was compared with the pre samples using the human nCounter PanCancer Immune Profiling Panel on the nCounter system. Results: We demonstrate that 93.3% of convalescent donor blood samples passed the screening criteria for clinical manufacture. Three validation runs resulted in enriched T cells that consisted of 79% + 21% (mean + SEM) IFNγ + T cells (Fig.1). TCRβ sequencing showed that convalescent COVID-19 donors have a highly diverse TCR repertoire and we identified TCRβ CDR3 clones that are known to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 T cell responses. Immunophenotyping analysis demonstrated more CD4 T cells than CD8 T cells in the SARS CoV-2 vCTLs, an increase in memory CD8 and CD4 cells, especially CD8 T EM, CD4 T cm and CD4 T EMRA cells (Fig.2) and an increase DC cells in the SARS CoV-2 vCTL products as compared to pre-stimulated PBMNCs. Expression of the exhaustion markers was not enhanced in the SARS CoV-2 vCTLs as compared to pre-stimulated PBMNCs. Transcriptome analysis showed increased gene expression in T-cell function, interleukin, pathogen defense, and TNF superfamily pathway genes in the SARS CoV-2 vCTLs as compared to pre-stimulated PBMNCs. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that highly functional SARS-CoV-2 vCTLs can be rapidly generat d by direct cytokine enrichment from convalescent donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data serve as pre-clinical validation for an ongoing clinical trial utilizing related HLA-matched and haplo-identical SARS CoV-2 vCTLs for the treatment of patients with mild and moderate SARS-CoV-2 disease (IND #27260, NCT# 04896606). [Formula presented] Disclosures: Lee: Kiadis Pharma: Divested equity in a private or publicly-traded company in the past 24 months, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Patents & Royalties, Research Funding;Courier Therapeutics: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company. Johnson: Miltenyi Biotec: Research Funding. Cairo: Jazz Pharmaceutical: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Amgen: Speakers Bureau;Sanofi: Speakers Bureau;Servier: Speakers Bureau;Sobi: Speakers Bureau;Omeros: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Nektar: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.

7.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 60(3): 343-349, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544830

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in sudden changes to the established practice of using the high dependency unit (HDU) for the first night of postoperative care following microvascular free tissue transfer. Patients were managed instead on the head and neck ward. This retrospective case-note review aimed to report outcomes in consecutive patients treated before and during the pandemic, and to reflect on the implications of ward-based rather than HDU care. A total of 235 patients had free tissue transfer between 3 January 2019 and 25 February 2021: 125 before (lockdown 23 March 2020), and 110 during the pandemic (52 ward-managed and 58 HDU-managed). There were subtle case-mix differences during the pandemic, with 92% of ward-treated patients having oral cancers compared with 64% of HDU patients, and 73% of ward patients having a tracheostomy compared with 40% of HDU patients. Ward patients were less likely to receive electrolyte replacement (45% HDU vs 0% ward) and inotropes (12% HDU vs 2% ward). There were fewer returns to theatre for evacuation of a haematoma or re-anastomosis during the pandemic than there were before it. Other than fewer haematoma complications during the pandemic, the nature of complications was similar. In conclusion, the dramatic changes imposed by the pandemic have shown that the ward is a safe place for patients to be cared for immediately postoperatively, and it alleviates the bed pressures experienced in HDU. Careful case selection and clear criteria are required to identify patients who need the HDU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Hematoma , Humans , Postoperative Care/methods , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
8.
Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis ; 5(SUPPL 2), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1509113

ABSTRACT

Background : COVID-19 has highlighted lethal consequences of cross-talk between coagulation, inflammation and innate immune processes. Hospitalised COVID-19 patients have evidence of immune cell death, which would result in the release of nuclear material, such as histones. Extracellular histones are associated with adverse clinical outcomes and our work has shown they are procoagulant, pro-inflammatory and can cause pulmonary thrombosis. We hypothesize that circulating histones play a central role in poor outcomes in COVID-19. Aims : We aim to determine the pathological role of circulating histones in disease severity, coagulation activation, inflammation and organ injury in COVID-19. Methods : One hundred and three COVID-19 patients were recruited at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital, in accordance with ISARIC/WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol for Severe Emerging Infections in the UK. Inclusion criteria: (1) swab positive/ high likelihood of infection OR (2) fever ≥38°C, cough, dyspnoea/ tachypnoea. Circulating histones were quantified in patient plasma and patients were categorised into three groups based on severity of infection: mild (minimal symptoms/incidental finding), severe (dyspnoea/ hypoxia) and critical (respiratory failure/multi-organ failure). Results : Admission histone levels were significantly ( P < 0.001) elevated in patients with increasing severity of COVID-19 infection (Mild;2.00 μg/ml [0.68-6.62], Severe;9.75 μg/ml [3.61-21.88], Critical;23.37 μg/ml [11.35-30.02]). Histones were associated with a pro-coagulant (histones vs d-dimer;R = 0.596, P < 0.001) and proinflammatory phenotype (histones vs CRP;R = 0.730, P < 0.001, histones vs fibrinogen;R = 0.677, P < 0.001). Increased circulating histones were associated with organ dysfunction including hypoxia (oxygen saturations ≤93%;P = 0.008), raised bilirubin ( R = 0.568, P = 0.002) and elevated serum creatinine ( R = 0.508, P = 0.009). Patients with elevated histones required critical care admission ( P < 0.001), increased duration of mechanical ventilation ( R = 0.778, P = 0.022) and overall length of hospital stay ( R = 0.618, P < 0.001). Conclusions : Admission histone levels are associated with disease severity, coagulation activation, inflammation and organ dysfunction in COVID-19. This study indicates that elevated circulating histones might play a key role in the immuno-thrombotic pathogenesis of COVID-19.

9.
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control ; 10(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1448382

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A better understanding of the relative importance of different transmission pathways of SARS-CoV-2 in hospital settings has the potential to help improve targeting of control measures aimed at reducing nosocomial spread. Objectives: To quantify the associations between risks of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection and exposure on the same ward to infected healthcare workers (HCWs), to patients likely to have been infected nosocomially, and to patients with community onset COVID-19. Methods: Ward-level data were collected from four teaching hospitals in Oxfordshire, UK, over an 8 month period in 2020. SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified using both PCR results from symptomatic and asymptomatic testing and serological data coupled with symptom recall. A series of statistical models were used to quantify associations between exposures and probable hospital transmission events. Results: Risk to patients of probable nosocomial acquisition was most strongly associated with exposure to other patients with hospitalacquired SARS-CoV-2 (aOR, 1.76, 95%CI 1.51, 2.04), followed by the presence of an infected HCW on the same ward (aOR 1.45, 95%CI 1.22,1.71). The association with patients with community onset COVID- 19 was weaker (aOR 1.12, 95%CI 0.96,1.26). Transmission to HCWs was associated with exposure to other infectious HCWs and patients with hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 (aOR 1.66, 95%CI 1.55,1.78 and aOR 1.45, 95%CI 1.32,1.58 respectively). The introduction of more stringent infection prevention and control measures which included testing all patients for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR on admission and at weekly intervals was associated with substantial reduction in transmission risk to both patients (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 0.25, 95%CI 0.14, 0.42) and HCWs (aOR 0.43, 95%CI 0.34, 0.53). Conclusion: Patients who acquired SARS-CoV-2 in the hospital and, to a lesser degree, infectious HCWs likely working prior to the onset of symptoms, were the most strongly associated with increased risk of SARSCoV- 2 transmission. In contrast, exposure to patients who had acquired SARS-CoV-2 in the community was associated with, at most, modest increases in the daily risk of infection for both healthcare staff and the other patients.

10.
International Conference on Advanced Computing and Intelligent Technologies, ICACIT 2021 ; 218:219-244, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1391801

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is one among many chronic diseases. It is the most common disease and lots of peoples are affected by this. There are many things that are liable for diabetes, mainly age, obesity, weakness, sudden weight loss, and many more. Diabetes patients have high risk of diseases like cardiopathy, renal disorder, stroke, nerve damage, eye damage, etc. Detection of the disease isn’t very easy and prediction is additionally costlier. In today’s situation, hospitals are extremely busy due to COVID-19 pandemic, and it might be revolutionary if one could know if they’re at risk of being diabetic without visiting a doctor. But the rise in Artificial Intelligence techniques can be used for disease prognosis. The objective of this study is to develop a model with significant accuracy to diagnose diabetes in patients. Moreover, this paper also presents an effective diabetes prediction model for better classification of diabetes and to enhance the accuracy in diabetes prediction using several machine learning algorithms. Different machine learning algorithms are utilized for early stage diabetes prediction, namely, Logistic Regression, Random Forest Classifier, Support Vector Machine, Decision Trees, K-Nearest Neighbors, Gaussian Process Classifier, AdaBoost Classifier, and Gaussian Naïve Bayes. The performances of these models are measured on respective criteria like Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, and Error. For this research work, latest available dataset dated 22nd July, 2020, is being utilized. Latest updated dataset will show comparatively better result. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

11.
International Conference on Advanced Computing and Intelligent Technologies, ICACIT 2021 ; 218:207-218, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1391800

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 or Novel coronavirus is an infectious disease that was first noticed in December, 2019 and it eventually emerged as a pandemic as it is highly contagious in nature. It affected the economic and social structure worldwide and caused a huge loss of human life. Due to the scarcity of medical infrastructure, it has become nearly impossible to cure every case of COVID-19 and hence the loss of lives is exceedingly increasing. So, if the cases can be forecasted beforehand, proper precautions can be taken on time and thousands of human lives can be saved. In this paper, predictions of the number of coronavirus confirmed cases for the five topmost affected countries across the world have been made. Along with it, a comparative study of ANN (Artificial Neural Network) and RNN (Recurrent Neural Network) based LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) Model has been carried out. The countries taken into consideration for this paper are USA, India, Brazil, Russia, and France. The models have been used to train the dataset and validate the prediction results against the original data based on the predefined metric of MSE or Mean Squared Error. The prediction results have been visualized graphically and it was inferred that the LSTM model outperformed the ANN model. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

12.
Arts Education Policy Review ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1290431

ABSTRACT

To start off this special issue on COVID-19 and K-12 arts education, this article places the impact of COVID-19 on public education into context, and drills down to how the pandemic affected the delivery of arts education. The article begins with an overview of the inequities revealed in our public education system by COVID-19. While many of these have been revealed and studied before, the pandemic brought them to the routine attention of the public in a way that earlier advocacy and research efforts have not. The article then addresses how these inequities have influenced the availability and quality of arts education offered during the pandemic, showcasing the continued “second class” status of arts education in public education planning and delivery. Finally, the article ends with some positive outcomes one year into the pandemic for arts education, suggesting possibilities for the future post pandemic, as well as implications and potential warning signs for the next 24 months to come. © 2021 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

13.
Studies in Computational Intelligence ; 960:35-46, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1279398

ABSTRACT

Robotic technology is acquiring more attention now. COVID-19 pandemic brought a large change within short span of time making social distancing among everyone. High safety considerations have to be established everywhere, and in case of hospitals, it is necessary. In order to control a robot, we have to go deep into its control strategies. Control strategy is the major section of robot that makes a robot self-stabilized and helps to control its position and thereby reducing the error. In this chapter, the control strategy and machine learning approach in robot are discussed. Control strategy discussed here helps to ensure the trajectory tracking by back stepping technique and by using sliding mode control (SMC). It helps to achieve the velocity convergence and balancing the robots. In SMC, there is presence of chattering, and other intelligent technique is also discussed to reduce this chattering phenomenon. Those intelligent techniques are adaptive neuro fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) and neuro-sliding mode control scheme. Also, machine learning (ML) which is a part of artificial intelligence (AI) is also discussed here. This chapter mainly focusing on the idea of two-wheeled balancing robot with SMC and back stepping controller along with information about machine learning technology © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2021.

14.
Water ; 13(10):15, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1266769

ABSTRACT

Water scarcity, together with the projected impacts of water stress worldwide, has led to a rapid increase in research on measuring water security. However, water security has been conceptualized under different perspectives, including various aspects and dimensions. Since public health is also an integral part of water security, it is necessary to understand how health has been incorporated as a dimension in the existing water security frameworks. While supply-demand and governance narratives dominated several popular water security frameworks, studies that are specifically designed for public health purposes are generally lacking. This research aims to address this gap, firstly by assessing the multiple thematic dimensions of water security frameworks in scientific disclosure;and secondly by looking into the public health dimensions and evaluating their importance and integration in the existing water security frameworks. For this, a systematic review of the Scopus database was undertaken using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A detailed review analysis of 77 relevant papers was performed. The result shows that 11 distinct dimensions have been used to design the existing water security framework. Although public health aspects were mentioned in 51% of the papers, direct health impacts were considered only by 18%, and indirect health impacts or mediators were considered by 33% of the papers. Among direct health impacts, diarrhea is the most prevalent one considered for developing a water security framework. Among different indirect or mediating factors, poor accessibility and availability of water resources in terms of time and distance is a big determinant for causing mental illnesses, such as stress or anxiety, which are being considered when framing water security framework, particularly in developing nations. Water quantity is more of a common issue for both developed and developing countries, water quality and mismanagement of water supply-related infrastructure is the main concern for developing nations, which proved to be the biggest hurdle for achieving water security. It is also necessary to consider how people treat and consume the water available to them. The result of this study sheds light on existing gaps for different water security frameworks and provides policy-relevant guidelines for its betterment. Also, it stressed that a more wide and holistic approach must be considered when framing a water security framework to result in sustainable water management and human well-being.

15.
Lancet ; 397(10289):2048-2048, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1250703
16.
8th European-Mediterranean Conference, EuroMed 2020 ; 12642 LNCS:427-437, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1245553

ABSTRACT

The change and restrictions in how we react with cultural heritage because of the COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgency in advancing remote and digital access to objects and sites. This paper outlines the process for developing Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) using digital recording and modelling of architectural heritage and archaeology. Virtual Reality (VR) software, game engine platforms and WEB platforms are outlined which can be applied to represent heritage sites in addition to emerging screen based technological learning systems. The application Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM) and Game Engine Platforms for creating Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) is also examined. The design-theory based on Virtual Learning Objects for cultural heritage is explored. Two case studies are explored for their potential to create Virtual Heritage Learning Environments. Finally, a design framework is proposed for developing Virtual Heritage Learning Environments. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

17.
British Journal of Haematology ; 193:211-211, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1227584
18.
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1189556

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The concept of multi-purpose cyclone shelters has been found effective in saving various lives during past cyclones. The recent cyclone Amphan, which hit the Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal in the middle of pandemic COVID-19 has posed severe issues related to cyclone shelter management in the rural areas. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the case of Odisha in a pandemic and draw some key lessons of cyclone shelter management, which can be useful for future cascading risks in other parts of the country and the region. Design/methodology/approach: Cyclone shelters are critical infrastructures in the management of cyclones, associated hazards and saving crucial lives. The effective management of shelters during emergencies is dependent on the existing institutional mechanism, local stakeholders and their understanding of the key functions of the emergency shelters. This paper reviews the key challenges through literature, reports and direct interviews of field professionals and practitioners. Findings: In normal times, cyclone shelters are used as schools and their management lies with the local communities and/or elected bodies. Some of the key emerging issues include: the convincing population at risk for evacuation with proper care, existing emergency shelters being repurposed as COVID-19 facilities, need for hygiene and safety material, special arrangement and segregation of population at higher risk of COVID-19 and large destruction of social infrastructures. Originality/value: During cascading disasters, adaptive governance becomes important. With the study of cyclones during the pandemic period, the paper draws key decision-making and governance points of cyclone shelter management. This case analysis can be useful to other similar situations during the prolonged pandemic time. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

19.
J. Phys. Conf. Ser. ; 1797, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1139915

ABSTRACT

Multidimensional data sources require identification of proper pattern to get knowledge. Knowledge mining helps to design an information system in the process of decision making. It helps to extract, structure, and organize knowledge from a database. In this paper, an attempt is made in the direction of knowledge mining to analyse and visualize spreading pattern of COVID-19 and its impact on India economy. The economy trend before and after COVID-19 is analyzed and forecasting is done for near future of Indian economy. © 2021 Institute of Physics Publishing. All rights reserved.

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