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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3571, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908170

ABSTRACT

The availability of three COVID-19 vaccines in the United States provides an unprecedented opportunity to examine how vaccine platforms and timing of vaccination in pregnancy impact maternal and neonatal immunity. Here, we characterize the antibody profile after Ad26.COV2.S, mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccination in 158 pregnant individuals and evaluate transplacental antibody transfer by profiling maternal and umbilical cord blood in 175 maternal-neonatal dyads. These analyses reveal lower vaccine-induced functions and Fc receptor-binding after Ad26.COV2.S compared to mRNA vaccination and subtle advantages in titer and function with mRNA-1273 versus BN162b2. mRNA vaccines have higher titers and functions against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. First and third trimester vaccination results in enhanced maternal antibody-dependent NK-cell activation, cellular and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement deposition relative to second trimester. Higher transplacental transfer ratios following first and second trimester vaccination may reflect placental compensation for waning maternal titers. These results provide novel insight into the impact of platform and trimester of vaccination on maternal humoral immune response and transplacental antibody transfer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunity , Infant, Newborn , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/methods
2.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104066, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nursing home (NH) residents have borne a disproportionate share of SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. Vaccines have limited hospitalisation and death from earlier variants in this vulnerable population. With the rise of Omicron and future variants, it is vital to sustain and broaden vaccine-induced protection. We examined the effect of boosting with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine on humoral immunity and Omicron-specific neutralising activity among NH residents and healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: We longitudinally enrolled 85 NH residents (median age 77) and 48 HCWs (median age 51), and sampled them after the initial vaccination series; and just before and 2 weeks after booster vaccination. Anti-spike, anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) and neutralisation titres to the original Wuhan strain and neutralisation to the Omicron strain were obtained. FINDINGS: Booster vaccination significantly increased vaccine-specific anti-spike, anti-RBD, and neutralisation levels above the pre-booster levels in NH residents and HCWs, both in those with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Omicron-specific neutralisation activity was low after the initial 2 dose series with only 28% of NH residents' and 28% HCWs' titres above the assay's lower limit of detection. Omicron neutralising activity following the booster lifted 86% of NH residents and 93% of HCWs to the detectable range. INTERPRETATION: With boosting, the vast majority of HCWs and NH residents developed detectable Omicron-specific neutralising activity. These data provide immunologic evidence that strongly supports booster vaccination to broaden neutralising activity and counter waning immunity in the hope it will better protect this vulnerable, high-risk population against the Omicron variant. FUNDING: NIH AI129709-03S1, U01 CA260539-01, CDC 200-2016-91773, and VA BX005507-01.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Middle Aged , Nursing Homes , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822452

ABSTRACT

Emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants and waning humoral immunity in vaccinated individuals have resulted in increased infections and hospitalizations. Children are not spared from infection nor complications of COVID-19, and the recent recommendation for boosters in individuals ages 12 years or older calls for broader understanding of the adolescent immune profile after mRNA vaccination. We tested the durability and cross-reactivity of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serologic responses over a six-month time course in vaccinated adolescents against the SARS-CoV-2 D614G ("wild type") and Omicron antigens. Serum from 77 adolescents showed that anti-Spike antibodies wane significantly over six months. After completion of a two-vaccine series, cross-reactivity against Omicron-specific receptor-binding domain (RBD) was seen. Functional humoral activation against wild type and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 also declines over time in vaccinated adolescent children. Evidence of waning mRNA-induced vaccine immunity underscores vulnerabilities in long-term pediatric protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection, while cross-reactivity highlights the additional benefits of vaccination. Characterization of adolescent immune signatures post-vaccination will inform guidance on vaccine platforms and timelines, and ultimately optimize immunoprotection of children.

4.
Cell ; 185(3): 457-466.e4, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611649

ABSTRACT

Recent surveillance has revealed the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (BA.1/B.1.1.529) harboring up to 36 mutations in spike protein, the target of neutralizing antibodies. Given its potential to escape vaccine-induced humoral immunity, we measured the neutralization potency of sera from 88 mRNA-1273, 111 BNT162b, and 40 Ad26.COV2.S vaccine recipients against wild-type, Delta, and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses. We included individuals that received their primary series recently (<3 months), distantly (6-12 months), or an additional "booster" dose, while accounting for prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Remarkably, neutralization of Omicron was undetectable in most vaccinees. However, individuals boosted with mRNA vaccines exhibited potent neutralization of Omicron, only 4-6-fold lower than wild type, suggesting enhanced cross-reactivity of neutralizing antibody responses. In addition, we find that Omicron pseudovirus infects more efficiently than other variants tested. Overall, this study highlights the importance of additional mRNA doses to broaden neutralizing antibody responses against highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants.

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