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1.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 23(7): 535-543, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between nationwide school closures and prevalence of common admission diagnoses in the pediatric critical care unit. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: National database evaluation using the Virtual Pediatric Systems LLC database. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to the PICU in 81 contributing hospitals in the United States. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Diagnosis categories were determined for all 110,418 patients admitted during the 20-week study period in each year (2018, 2019, and 2020). Admission data were normalized relative to statewide school closure dates for each patient using geographic data. The "before school closure" epoch was defined as 8 weeks prior to school closure, and the "after school closure" epoch was defined as 12 weeks following school closure. For each diagnosis, admission ratios for each study day were calculated by dividing 2020 admissions by 2018-2019 admissions. The 10 most common diagnosis categories were examined. Significant changes in admission ratios were identified for bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma. These changes occurred at 2, 8, and 35 days following school closure, respectively. PICU admissions decreased by 82% for bronchiolitis, 76% for pneumonia, and 76% for asthma. Nonrespiratory diseases such as diabetic ketoacidosis, status epilepticus, traumatic injury, and poisoning/ingestion did not show significant changes following school closure. CONCLUSIONS: School closures are associated with a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of severe respiratory disease requiring PICU admission. School closure may be an effective tool to mitigate future pandemics but should be balanced with potential academic, economic, mental health, and social consequences.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiolitis , Pneumonia , Child , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , Schools , United States/epidemiology
2.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 12: 100272, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945923

ABSTRACT

Background: To understand critical paediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and evaluate factors associated with mortality in children from high and low-middle income countries. Methods: Prospective, observational study of critically ill children hospitalised for COVID-19 in 18 countries throughout North America, Latin America, and Europe between April 1 and December 31, 2020. Associations with mortality were evaluated using logistic regression. Findings: 557 patients (median age, 8 years; 24% <2 years) were enrolled from 55 sites (63% Latin American). Half had comorbidities. Invasive (41%) or non-invasive (20%) ventilation and vasopressors (56%) were the most common support modalities. Hospital mortality was 10% and higher in children <2 years old (15%; odds ratio 1·94, 95%CI 1·08-3·49). Most who died had pulmonary disease. When adjusted for age, sex, region, and illness severity, mortality-associated factors included cardiac (aOR 2·89; 95%CI 1·2-6·94) or pulmonary comorbidities (aOR 4·43; 95%CI 1·70-11·5), admission hypoxemia (aOR 2·44; 95%CI 1·30-4·57), and lower respiratory symptoms (aOR 2·96; 95%CI 1·57-5·59). MIS-C (aOR 0·25; 95%CI 0·1-0·61) and receiving methylprednisolone (aOR 0·5; 95%CI 0·25-0·99), IVIG (aOR 0·32; 95%CI 0·16-0·62), or anticoagulation (aOR 0·49; 95%CI 0·25-0·95) were associated with lower mortality although these associations might be limited to children >2 years old. Interpretation: We identified factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in critically ill children from both high and low-middle income countries, including higher mortality with younger age and COVID-related pulmonary disease but lower mortality in MIS-C. Further research is needed on optimal treatments for younger children and respiratory failure in paediatric COVID-19. Funding: None.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2979, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931398

ABSTRACT

Neutralization capacity of antibodies against Omicron after a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents is not well studied. Therefore, we evaluated virus-neutralizing capacity against SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron variants by age-stratified analyses (<5, 5-11, 12-21 years) in 177 pediatric patients hospitalized with severe acute COVID-19, acute MIS-C, and in convalescent samples of outpatients with mild COVID-19 during 2020 and early 2021. Across all patients, less than 10% show neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron. Children <5 years of age hospitalized with severe acute COVID-19 have lower neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 variants compared with patients >5 years of age. As expected, convalescent pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C cohorts demonstrate higher neutralization titers than hospitalized acute COVID-19 patients. Overall, children and adolescents show some loss of cross-neutralization against all variants, with the most pronounced loss against Omicron. In contrast to SARS-CoV-2 infection, children vaccinated twice demonstrated higher titers against Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. These findings can influence transmission, re-infection and the clinical disease outcome from emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and supports the need for vaccination in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Viral Envelope Proteins
4.
Pediatrics ; 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for post-discharge sequelae in children and adolescents after hospitalization for acute COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter prospective observational cohort study conducted in 25 US pediatric hospitals. Patients <21-years-old, hospitalized May 2020 to May 2021 for acute COVID-19 or MIS-C with follow-up 2-4 months after admission. We assessed readmissions, caregiver-reported persistent symptoms or activity impairment, and new morbidities identified by the Functional Status Scale. Multivariable regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR). RESULTS: Of 358 eligible patients, 2-4 month survey data were available for 119/155 (76.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 160/203 (78.8%) with MIS-C. Thirteen (11%) patients with acute COVID-19 and 12 (8%) with MIS-C had a readmission. Thirty-two (26.9%) patients with acute COVID-19 had persistent symptoms (22.7%) or activity impairment (14.3%) and 48 (30.0%) patients with MIS-C had persistent symptoms (20.0%) or activity impairment (21.3%). For patients with acute COVID-19, persistent symptoms (aRR, 1.29[95% CI, 1.04-1.59]) and activity impairment (aRR, 1.37[95% CI, 1.06-1.78]) were associated with more organs systems involved. Patients with MIS-C and pre-existing respiratory conditions more frequently had persistent symptoms (aRR, 3.09[95% CI, 1.55-6.14]) and those with obesity more frequently had activity impairment (aRR, 2.52[95% CI, 1.35-4.69]). New morbidities were infrequent (9% COVID-19 and 1% MIS-C). CONCLUSIONS: Over one in four children hospitalized with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C experienced persistent symptoms or activity impairment for at least 2 months. Patients with MIS-C and respiratory conditions or obesity are at higher risk of prolonged recovery.

6.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 812265, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775737

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of pediatric diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) increased early in the COVID-19 pandemic, but the relative contribution of behavioral changes and viral-related pathophysiology are unknown. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between school closure date and onset of increased DKA to help clarify the etiology of the increased incidence. Design: A multi-center, quality-controlled Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) database was used to identify the number of admissions to a participating PICU with DKA on each calendar day from 60 days before local school closure to 90 days after, and compared to baseline data from the same periods in 2018-2019. Interrupted time series and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify admission rates that differed significantly between 2020 and baseline. Setting: Eighty-one PICUs in the United StatesParticipants: Children ages 29 days to 17 years admitted to a PICU with DKAExposures: Statewide school closureMain outcome/measure: Rate of admission to the PICU for DKA. Results: There were 1936 admissions for children with DKA in 2020 and 1795 admissions/year to those same PICUs in 2018-2019. Demographics and clinical outcomes did not differ before school closure, but pandemic-era patients were less often white and had longer hospital length of stay in the post-school closure period. The difference between 2020 admissions and 2018-2019 admissions was not different than zero before school closure, and significantly higher than zero after school closure, but was significantly increased in 2020 at >30 days after school closure (p = 0.039). Conclusions/Relevance: An increase in pediatric DKA admissions began one month after school closures. Given that behavioral changes started near school closure dates and viral activity peaked weeks after, this suggests that behavioral factors may not be the primary etiology and it is possible that SARS-CoV-2 infection may have direct effects on pediatric DKA.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247414, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Facemasks are recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but concern about inadequate gas exchange is an often cited reason for non-compliance. RESEARCH QUESTION: Among adult volunteers, do either cloth masks or surgical masks impair oxygenation or ventilation either at rest or during physical activity? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: With IRB approval and informed consent, we measured heart rate (HR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO2) tension and oxygen levels (SpO2) at the conclusion of six 10-minute phases: sitting quietly and walking briskly without a mask, sitting quietly and walking briskly while wearing a cloth mask, and sitting quietly and walking briskly while wearing a surgical mask. Brisk walking required at least a 10bpm increase in heart rate. Occurrences of hypoxemia (decrease in SpO2 of ≥3% from baseline to a value of ≤94%) and hypercarbia (increase in CO2 tension of ≥5 mmHg from baseline to a value of ≥46 mmHg) in individual subjects were collected. Wilcoxon signed-rank was used for pairwise comparisons among values for the whole cohort (e.g. walking without a mask versus walking with a cloth mask). RESULTS: Among 50 adult volunteers (median age 33 years; 32% with a co-morbidity), there were no episodes of hypoxemia or hypercarbia (0%; 95% confidence interval 0-1.9%). In paired comparisons, there were no statistically significant differences in either CO2 or SpO2 between baseline measurements without a mask and those while wearing either kind of mask mask, both at rest and after walking briskly for ten minutes. INTERPRETATION: The risk of pathologic gas exchange impairment with cloth masks and surgical masks is near-zero in the general adult population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Oxygen/metabolism , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Carbon Dioxide/metabolism , Exercise/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/metabolism , Male , Masks/adverse effects , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Rest/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Walking/physiology
9.
Chest ; 160(2): 529-537, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children have been less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, but its repercussions on pediatric illnesses may have been significant. This study examines the indirect impact of the pandemic on a population of critically ill children in the United States. RESEARCH QUESTION: Were there significantly fewer critically ill children admitted to PICUs during the second quarter of 2020, and were there significant changes in the types of diseases admitted? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study used the Virtual Pediatric Systems database. Participants were 160,295 children admitted to the PICU at 77 sites in the United States during quarters 1 (Q1) and 2 (Q2) of 2017 to 2019 (pre-COVID-19) and 2020 (COVID-19). RESULTS: The average number of admissions was similar between pre-COVID-19 Q1 and COVID-19 Q1 but decreased by 32% from pre-COVID-19 Q2 to COVID-19 Q2 (20,157 to 13,627 admissions per quarter). The largest decreases were in respiratory conditions, including asthma (1,327 subjects in pre-COVID-19 Q2 (6.6% of patients) vs 241 subjects in COVID-19 Q2 (1.8%; P < .001) and bronchiolitis (1,299 [6.5%] vs 121 [0.9%]; P < .001). The percentage of trauma admissions increased, although the raw number of trauma admissions decreased. Admissions for diabetes mellitus and poisoning/ingestion also increased. In the multivariable model, illness severity-adjusted odds of ICU mortality for PICU patients during COVID-19 Q2 increased compared with pre-COVID-19 Q2 (OR, 1.165; 95% CI, 1.00-1.357; P = .049). INTERPRETATION: Pediatric critical illness admissions decreased substantially during the second quarter of 2020, with significant changes in the types of diseases seen in PICUs in the United States. There was an increase in mortality in children admitted to the PICU during this period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , United States
10.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(3): e0374, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158030

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, hundreds of thousands of patients have been treated in ICUs across the globe. The severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 virus enters cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor and activates several distinct inflammatory pathways, resulting in hematologic abnormalities and dysfunction in respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal renal, endocrine, dermatologic, and neurologic systems. This review summarizes the current state of research in coronavirus disease 2019 pathophysiology within the context of potential organ-based disease mechanisms and opportunities for translational research. DATA SOURCES: Investigators from the Research Section of the Society of Critical Care Medicine were selected based on expertise in specific organ systems and research focus. Data were obtained from searches conducted in Medline via the PubMed portal, Directory of Open Access Journals, Excerpta Medica database, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, and Web of Science from an initial search from December 2019 to October 15, 2020, with a revised search to February 3, 2021. The medRxiv, Research Square, and clinical trial registries preprint servers also were searched to limit publication bias. STUDY SELECTION: Content experts selected studies that included mechanism-based relevance to the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 virus or coronavirus disease 2019 disease. DATA EXTRACTION: Not applicable. DATA SYNTHESIS: Not applicable. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to improve the care of critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients should be centered on understanding how severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 2 infection affects organ function. This review articulates specific targets for further research.

11.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(5): 536-547, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118065

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects the nervous system in adult patients. The spectrum of neurologic involvement in children and adolescents is unclear. Objective: To understand the range and severity of neurologic involvement among children and adolescents associated with COVID-19. Setting, Design, and Participants: Case series of patients (age <21 years) hospitalized between March 15, 2020, and December 15, 2020, with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 test result (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and/or antibody) at 61 US hospitals in the Overcoming COVID-19 public health registry, including 616 (36%) meeting criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Patients with neurologic involvement had acute neurologic signs, symptoms, or diseases on presentation or during hospitalization. Life-threatening involvement was adjudicated by experts based on clinical and/or neuroradiologic features. Exposures: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type and severity of neurologic involvement, laboratory and imaging data, and outcomes (death or survival with new neurologic deficits) at hospital discharge. Results: Of 1695 patients (909 [54%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 9.1 [2.4-15.3] years), 365 (22%) from 52 sites had documented neurologic involvement. Patients with neurologic involvement were more likely to have underlying neurologic disorders (81 of 365 [22%]) compared with those without (113 of 1330 [8%]), but a similar number were previously healthy (195 [53%] vs 723 [54%]) and met criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (126 [35%] vs 490 [37%]). Among those with neurologic involvement, 322 (88%) had transient symptoms and survived, and 43 (12%) developed life-threatening conditions clinically adjudicated to be associated with COVID-19, including severe encephalopathy (n = 15; 5 with splenial lesions), stroke (n = 12), central nervous system infection/demyelination (n = 8), Guillain-Barré syndrome/variants (n = 4), and acute fulminant cerebral edema (n = 4). Compared with those without life-threatening conditions (n = 322), those with life-threatening neurologic conditions had higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (median, 12.2 vs 4.4) and higher reported frequency of D-dimer greater than 3 µg/mL fibrinogen equivalent units (21 [49%] vs 72 [22%]). Of 43 patients who developed COVID-19-related life-threatening neurologic involvement, 17 survivors (40%) had new neurologic deficits at hospital discharge, and 11 patients (26%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, many children and adolescents hospitalized for COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children had neurologic involvement, mostly transient symptoms. A range of life-threatening and fatal neurologic conditions associated with COVID-19 infrequently occurred. Effects on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes are unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
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