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1.
Circulation ; 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clinical course and short-term outcomes of suspected myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination has important public health implications in the decision to vaccinate youth. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on patients <21 years-old presenting before 7/4/2021 with suspected myocarditis within 30 days of COVID-19 vaccination. Lake Louise criteria were used for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) findings. Myocarditis cases were classified as confirmed or probable based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions. RESULTS: We report on 139 adolescents and young adults with 140 episodes of suspected myocarditis (49 confirmed, 91 probable) at 26 centers. Most patients were male (N=126, 90.6%) and White (N=92, 66.2%); 29 (20.9%) were Hispanic; and median age was 15.8 years (range 12.1-20.3, IQR 14.5-17.0). Suspected myocarditis occurred in 136 patients (97.8%) following mRNA vaccine, with 131 (94.2%) following the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine; 128 (91.4%) occurred after the 2nd dose. Symptoms started a median of 2 days (range 0-22, IQR 1-3) after vaccination. The most common symptom was chest pain (99.3%). Patients were treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (81.3%), intravenous immunoglobulin (21.6%), glucocorticoids (21.6%), colchicine (7.9%) or no anti-inflammatory therapies (8.6%). Twenty-six patients (18.7%) were in the ICU, two were treated with inotropic/vasoactive support, and none required ECMO or died. Median hospital stay was 2 days (range 0-10, IQR 2-3). All patients had elevated troponin I (N=111, 8.12 ng/mL, IQR 3.50-15.90) or T (N=28, 0.61 ng/mL, IQR 0.25-1.30); 69.8% had abnormal electrocardiograms and/or arrythmias (7 with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia); and 18.7% had left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <55% on echocardiogram. Of 97 patients who underwent cMRI at median 5 days (range 0-88, IQR 3-17) from symptom onset, 75 (77.3%) had abnormal findings: 74 (76.3%) had late gadolinium enhancement, 54 (55.7%) had myocardial edema, and 49 (50.5%) met Lake Louise criteria. Among 26 patients with LVEF <55% on echocardiogram, all with follow-up had normalized function (N=25). CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of suspected COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis occurring in persons <21 years have a mild clinical course with rapid resolution of symptoms. Abnormal findings on cMRI were frequent. Future studies should evaluate risk factors, mechanisms, and long-term outcomes.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2033-2041, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of public health interventions on the volume and characteristics of admissions to the PICU. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Six U.S. referral PICUs during February 15, 2020-May 14, 2020, compared with the same months during 2017-2019 (baseline). PATIENTS: PICU admissions excluding admissions for illnesses due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and readmissions during the same hospitalization. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Primary outcome was admission volumes during the period of stay-at-home orders (March 15, 2020-May 14, 2020) compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization characteristics including advanced support (e.g., invasive mechanical ventilation), PICU and hospital lengths of stay, and mortality. We used generalized linear mixed modeling to compare patient and admission characteristics during the stay-at-home orders period to baseline. We evaluated 7,960 admissions including 1,327 during March 15, 2020-May 14, 2020. Daily admissions and patients days were lower during the period of stay-at-home orders compared with baseline: median admissions 21 (interquartile range, 17-25) versus 36 (interquartile range, 30-42) (p < 0.001) and median patient days 93.0 (interquartile range, 55.9-136.7) versus 143.6 (interquartile range, 108.5-189.2) (p < 0.001). Admissions during the period of stay-at-home orders were less common in young children and for respiratory and infectious illnesses and more common for poisonings, endocrinopathies and for children with race/ethnicity categorized as other/unspecified. There were no differences in hospitalization characteristics except fewer patients received noninvasive ventilation during the period of stay-at-home orders. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in PICU admissions suggest that much of pediatric critical illness in younger children and for respiratory and infectious illnesses may be preventable through targeted public health strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay , Male , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
3.
Am Heart J ; 243: 43-53, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Long-terM OUtcomes after the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome In Children (MUSIC) study aims to characterize the frequency and time course of acute and long-term cardiac and non-cardiac sequelae in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C), which are currently poorly understood. METHODS: This multicenter observational cohort study will enroll at least 600 patients <21 years old who meet the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition of MIS-C across multiple North American centers over 2 years. The study will collect detailed hospital and follow-up data for up to 5 years, and optional genetic testing. Cardiac imaging at specific time points includes standardized echocardiographic assessment (all participants) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in those with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <45% during the acute illness. The primary outcomes are the worst LVEF and the highest coronary artery z-score of the left anterior descending or right coronary artery. Other outcomes include occurrence and course of non-cardiac organ dysfunction, inflammation, and major medical events. Independent adjudication of cases will classify participants as definite, possible, or not MIS-C. Analysis of the outcomes will include descriptive statistics and regression analysis with stratification by definite or possible MIS-C. The MUSIC study will provide phenotypic data to support basic and translational research studies. CONCLUSION: The MUSIC study, with the largest cohort of MIS-C patients and the longest follow-up period to date, will make an important contribution to our understanding of the acute cardiac and non-cardiac manifestations of MIS-C and the long-term effects of this public health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adult , Child , Humans , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , United States , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
4.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 48(3)2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395362

ABSTRACT

Symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically affects the respiratory system but can involve the cardiovascular system. Cardiac complications of COVID-19 can result directly from myocarditis or indirectly from numerous other mechanisms. Differentiating between primary and secondary cardiovascular involvement-our focus in this review-may help to identify the long-term effects of COVID-19 on the heart in adults and children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Myocarditis , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Child , Heart , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
ASAIO J ; 67(5): 485-495, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203774

ABSTRACT

DISCLAIMER: This is an updated guideline from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) for the role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for patients with severe cardiopulmonary failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The great majority of COVID-19 patients (>90%) requiring ECMO have been supported using venovenous (V-V) ECMO for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). While COVID-19 ECMO run duration may be longer than in non-COVID-19 ECMO patients, published mortality appears to be similar between the two groups. However, data collection is ongoing, and there is a signal that overall mortality may be increasing. Conventional selection criteria for COVID-19-related ECMO should be used; however, when resources become more constrained during a pandemic, more stringent contraindications should be implemented. Formation of regional ECMO referral networks may facilitate communication, resource sharing, expedited patient referral, and mobile ECMO retrieval. There are no data to suggest deviation from conventional ECMO device or patient management when applying ECMO for COVID-19 patients. Rarely, children may require ECMO support for COVID-19-related ARDS, myocarditis, or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); conventional selection criteria and management practices should be the standard. We strongly encourage participation in data submission to investigate the optimal use of ECMO for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 174(9): 868-873, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232744

ABSTRACT

Importance: The recent and ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken an unprecedented toll on adults critically ill with COVID-19 infection. While there is evidence that the burden of COVID-19 infection in hospitalized children is lesser than in their adult counterparts, to date, there are only limited reports describing COVID-19 in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Objective: To provide an early description and characterization of COVID-19 infection in North American PICUs, focusing on mode of presentation, presence of comorbidities, severity of disease, therapeutic interventions, clinical trajectory, and early outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included children positive for COVID-19 admitted to 46 North American PICUs between March 14 and April 3, 2020. with follow-up to April 10, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prehospital characteristics, clinical trajectory, and hospital outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Results: Of the 48 children with COVID-19 admitted to participating PICUs, 25 (52%) were male, and the median (range) age was 13 (4.2-16.6) years. Forty patients (83%) had significant preexisting comorbidities; 35 (73%) presented with respiratory symptoms and 18 (38%) required invasive ventilation. Eleven patients (23%) had failure of 2 or more organ systems. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required for 1 patient (2%). Targeted therapies were used in 28 patients (61%), with hydroxychloroquine being the most commonly used agent either alone (11 patients) or in combination (10 patients). At the completion of the follow-up period, 2 patients (4%) had died and 15 (31%) were still hospitalized, with 3 still requiring ventilatory support and 1 receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The median (range) PICU and hospital lengths of stay for those who had been discharged were 5 (3-9) days and 7 (4-13) days, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: This early report describes the burden of COVID-19 infection in North American PICUs and confirms that severe illness in children is significant but far less frequent than in adults. Prehospital comorbidities appear to be an important factor in children. These preliminary observations provide an important platform for larger and more extensive studies of children with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Canada , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , United States
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