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1.
Clin Immunol ; 251: 109342, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information regarding the heterologous prime-boost COVID vaccination has been fully elucidated. The study aimed to evaluate both humoral, cellular immunity and cross-reactivity against variants after heterologous vaccination. METHODS: We recruited healthcare workers previously primed with Oxford/AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S vaccines and boosted with Moderna mRNA-1273 vaccine boost to evaluate the immunological response. Assay used: anti-spike RBD antibody, surrogate virus neutralizing antibody and interferon-γ release assay. RESULTS: All participants exhibited higher humoral and cellular immune response after the booster regardless of prior antibody level, but those with higher antibody level demonstrated stronger booster response, especially against omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants. The pre-booster IFN-γ release by CD4+ T cells correlates with post-booster neutralizing antibody against BA.1 and BA.2 variant after adjustment with age and gender. CONCLUSIONS: A heterologous mRNA boost is highly immunogenic. The pre-existing neutralizing antibody level and CD4+ T cells response correlates with post-booster neutralization reactivity against the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Humans , T-Lymphocytes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0344522, 2023 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269190

ABSTRACT

The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine is one of the most commonly delivered SARS-CoV-2 vaccines worldwide; however, few clinical studies have investigated its immunogenicity in dialysis patients. We prospectively enrolled 123 patients on maintenance hemodialysis at a medical center in Taiwan. All patients were infection-naive, had received two doses of the AZD1222 vaccine, and were monitored for 7 months. The primary outcomes were anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody concentrations before and after each dose and 5 months after the second dose and neutralization capacity against ancestral SARS-CoV-2, delta, and omicron variants. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibody titers significantly increased with time following vaccination, with a peak at 1 month after the second dose (median titer, 498.8 U/mL; interquartile range, 162.5 to 1,050 U/mL), and a 4.7-fold decrease at 5 months. At 1 month after the second dose, 84.6, 83.7, and 1.6% of the participants had neutralizing antibodies against the ancestral virus, delta variant, and omicron variant, respectively, measured by a commercial surrogate neutralization assay. The geometric mean 50% pseudovirus neutralization titers for the ancestral virus, delta variant, and omicron variant were 639.1, 264.2, and 24.7, respectively. The anti-RBD antibody titers correlated well with neutralization capacity against the ancestral virus and delta variant. Transferrin saturation and C-reactive protein were associated with neutralization against the ancestral virus and delta variant. Although two doses of the AZD1222 vaccine initially elicited high anti-RBD antibody titers and neutralization against the ancestral virus and delta variant in hemodialysis patients, neutralizing antibodies against omicron variant were rarely detected, and the anti-RBD and neutralization antibodies waned over time. Additional/booster vaccinations are warranted in this population. IMPORTANCE Patients with kidney failure have worse immune response following vaccination compared to general population, but few clinical studies have investigated immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination in hemodialysis patients. Here, we showed two doses of AZD1222 vaccines lead to high seroconversion rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies, and more than 80% patients acquired neutralizing antibodies against ancestral virus and delta variant. However, seldom did they obtain neutralizing antibodies against the omicron variant. The geometric mean 50% pseudovirus neutralization titer against the ancestral virus was 25.9-fold higher than that against the omicron variant. Also, there was a substantial decay in anti-RBD titers with time. Our findings provided evidence supporting that more protective measures, including additional/booster vaccinations, is warranted in these patients during the current COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2023 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245138

ABSTRACT

Background: It is well known that the implementation of routine immunizations to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases has a significant impact on the health and well-being of infants, children, and pregnant women. We aimed to evaluate the influence of influenza, tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine on the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among pregnant women, the priority population recommended for vaccination. Methods: We conducted a prospective study among pregnant women without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection in Taiwan. Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples at delivery were analyzed for the percentage of inhibition of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the original strain, Delta, and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the total antibody to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We examined the association between different doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in combination with influenza and Tdap vaccination, and two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination with or without influenza and Tdap vaccines via a two-sample t-test. Results of p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: 98 pregnant women were enrolled in our study, with 32 receiving two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine, 60 receiving three-dose of mRNA-1273, and 6 receiving one-dose of ChAdOx1 and two-dose of mRNA-1273. Twenty-one participants were immunized with SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and Tdap vaccines. Of these 21 individuals, there were no significant NAbs levels in maternal and cord blood samples against the Omicron variant, regardless of doses or type of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. However, antibody responses against the wild-type and Delta variant were significantly lower in all maternal sera in the two-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine group. Among 32 women receiving two-dose mRNA-1273, significantly lower levels of NAbs in maternal sera were observed against the Delta variant and total antibody both in maternal sera and cord blood were observed in individuals receiving SARS-CoV-2 and influenza vaccine. Conclusion: This is the pilot study to demonstrate the effects of influenza and the Tdap vaccine on the immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine among pregnant women. These results suggest that combination vaccination during pregnancy may result in immunogenic interactions.

4.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081892

ABSTRACT

The focus of this study was to investigate the detection of neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) in maternal serum and cord blood as the targeted samples by employing a lateral flow immunoassay combined with a spectrum reader (LFI-SR) and the correlation of Nab protection against different types of SARS-CoV-2. We enrolled 20 pregnant women who were vaccinated with the Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccine during pregnancy and collected 40 samples during delivery. We used an LFI-SR for the level of spike protein receptor binding domain antibody (SRBD IgG) as Nabs and examined the correlation of the SRBD IgG concentration and Nab inhibition rates (NabIR) via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The LFI-SR had high confidence for the SRBD IgG level (p < 0.0001). Better NabIR were found in wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (WT) compared to Delta-type (DT) and Omicron-type (OT). Women with two-dose vaccinations demonstrated greater NabIR than those with a single dose. The cut-off value of the SRBD IgG level by the LFI-SR for NabIR to DT (≥30%; ≥70%) was 60.15 and 150.21 ng/mL for mothers (both p = 0.005), and 156.31 (p = 0.011) and 230.20 ng/mL (p = 0.006) for babies, respectively. An additional vaccine booster may be considered for those mothers with SRBD IgG levels < 60.15 ng/mL, and close protection should be given for those neonates with SRBD IgG levels < 150.21 ng/mL, since there is no available vaccine for them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Pregnant Women , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Antibodies, Neutralizing
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066633

ABSTRACT

In order to solve COVID-19 pandemic, the entire world has invested considerable manpower to develop various new vaccines to temporarily alleviate the disaster caused by the epidemic. In addition to the development of vaccines, we need to also develop effective assessment methods to confirm vaccines' efficacy and maximize the benefits that vaccines can bring. In addition to common evaluation methods, vaccine-specific and temporal expression of microRNAs have been shown to be related to vaccine efficacy or vaccine-associated diseases. In this article, we have introduced a microRNA-array-based approach, which could be potentially used for evaluating COVID-19 vaccine efficacy, specifically for pregnant women. As the mRNA in mRNA vaccines is decomposed by host cells within a few days, it is considered more suitable for pregnant women to utilize the method of vaccination during pregnancy. Moreover, pregnant women belong to a high-risk group for COVID-19, and there is currently no appropriate vaccine to newborns. Therefore, it's important to find improved tools for evaluation of vaccine efficacy in response to the current situation caused by COVID-19.

6.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The regional respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreak in southern Taiwan in late 2020 followed the surge of RSV cases in the national surveillance data and displayed distinct clinical features. This study investigated RSV epidemiology in the most recent five years and compared the clinical manifestations of this outbreak with non-outbreak period. METHODS: Medical records of RSV-infected children at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital from January 2016 to December 2020 were retrospectively retrieved from hospital-based electronic medical database. Cases of RSV infection were identified by RSV antigen positive and/or RSV isolated from respiratory specimens. The demographic, clinical presentations, and laboratory data were recorded. The RSV isolates in 2020 was sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 442 RSV-infected cases were retrieved and 42.1% (186 cases) clustered in late 2020. The 2020 outbreak started in September, peaked in November, and lasted for 3 months. 2020 RSV-infected children were older (2.3 ± 2.2 years vs. 1.0 ± 1.0 years), more likely to be diagnosed with bronchopneumonia (57.5% vs. 31.6%), but also had a lower hospitalization rate, shorter hospital stay, less oxygen use, and less respiratory distress than those in 2016-2019 (all p value < 0.05). The RSV isolates in 2020 belonged to RSV-A subtype ON1 but were phylogenetically distinct from the ON1 strains prevalent in Taiwan previously. CONCLUSION: The 2020 RSV outbreak was led by the novel RSV-A subtype ON1 variant with clinical manifestations distinct from previous years. Continuous surveillance of new emerging variants of respiratory viruses in the post-pandemic era is warranted.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006255

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain IgG antibody (SRBD IgG) binding ratio (SBR) from Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnant women and neonates. The impact of antenatal influenza (flu) and pertussis (Tdap) vaccines was also studied. We enrolled pregnant women vaccinated with the Moderna (mRNA-1273) vaccine during pregnancy and collected maternal plasma (MP) and neonatal cord blood (CB) during delivery to determine the SBR via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A total of 78 samples were collected from 39 pregnant women. The SBR was higher for Alpha variants compared to Beta/Gamma variants (MP: 63.95% vs. 47.91% vs. 43.48%, p = 0.0001; CB: 72.14% vs. 56.78% vs. 53.66%, p = 0.006). Pregnant women receiving two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine demonstrated a better SBR against SARS-CoV-2 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma variants than women receiving just a single dose. Women who received the Tdap/flu vaccines demonstrated a better SBR when two COVID-19 vaccine doses were < 6 weeks apart. A better SBR was detected among women who had more recently received their second COVID-19 vaccine dose. Two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine provided recipients with a better SBR for Alpha/Beta/Gamma variants. Although Tdap/flu vaccines may affect the efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine, different vaccination timings can improve the SBR.

9.
Bioeng Transl Med ; 5(3): e10177, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898553

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put tremendous strain on healthcare systems worldwide. It is challenging for clinicians to differentiate COVID-19 from other acute respiratory tract infections via clinical symptoms because those who are infected display a wide range of symptoms. An effective, point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tool could mitigate healthcare system strain, protect healthcare professionals, and support quarantine efforts. We believe that a POC tool can be developed that would be rapid, easy to use, and inexpensive. It could be used in the home, in resource-limited areas, and even in clinical settings. In this article, we summarize the current state of COVID-19 diagnostic methods and make a case for an all-in-one, highly sensitive POC assay that integrates antibody detection, protein detection, and serum cytokine detection to diagnose COVID-19 infection. We believe this article will provide insights into the current state of diagnostics for COVID-19, and promote additional research and tool development that could be exceptionally impactful.

10.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884055

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous impact on individuals, societies, and economies worldwide and has resulted in a significant loss of life worldwide [...].

11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786089

ABSTRACT

Although serious adverse events have remained uncommon, cases of myocarditis induced by messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines have been reported. Here, we presented a rare but potentially fatal disorder, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, in a 14-year-old previously healthy adolescent after BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination. The initial evaluation showed splenomegaly, pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. Further examination revealed positive blood EBV DNA, and other infectious pathogen surveys were all negative. Hemophagocytosis was observed in the bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. HLH was confirmed and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and methylprednisolone pulse therapy were given. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) was set up for cardiopulmonary support for 3 days due to profound hypotension. The patient was kept on oral prednisolone treatment for 28 days with the following gradual tapering. The hemogram and inflammatory biomarkers gradually returned to normal, and the patient was discharged. The fulminant presentation of HLH in our case could be the net result of both acute immunostimulation after COVID-19 vaccination and EBV infection. Our case suggests that the immune activation after COVID-19 vaccination is likely to interfere with the adequate immune response to certain infectious pathogens, resulting in a hyperinflammatory syndrome.

12.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 796996, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731753

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a globally devastating impact. This highly contagious virus has significantly overburdened and undermined medical systems. While most infected patients experience only mild symptoms, those who are severely affect require urgent medical interventions and some develop acute respiratory failure and require mechanical ventilation. The broad and potentially deadly impact of infection underscores the critical need for early recognition, especially for those at risk for respiratory failure. Those who are severely impacted and at high risk for respiratory failure have been found to present high levels of serum cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Timely diagnosis and management of those at risk for respiratory failure is crucial. Measurement of IL-6 may provide a means for distinguishing such patients. Currently, most serum IL-6 detection relies on the use of laboratory-based conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although some rapid assays have been developed recently, they need to be conducted by specific technicians in central laboratory settings with advanced and expensive equipment. In this study, we propose an IL-6 test strip combined with a spectrum-based optical reader for early recognition of COVID-19-infected patients at imminent risk of acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilator support. For our analyses, clinical demographic data and sera samples were obtained from three medical centers, and test strip specificity and detection performance were analyzed. This would help healthcare personnel stratify the risk of respiratory failure and provide prompt, and suitable management.

13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707948

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 19) pandemic spreads worldwide, the massive numbers of COVID-19 patients have created a considerable healthcare burden for every country. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection is broad, ranging from asymptomatic to mild, moderate, severe, and critical. Most COVID-19 patients present with no or mild symptoms, but nearly one-fifth of all patients develop severe or life-threatening complications. In addition to localized respiratory manifestations, severe COVID-19 cases also show extra-pulmonary complications or induce multiorgan failure. Identifying, triaging, and treating patients at risk early is essential and urgent. This article reviews the potential prognostic value of various biomarkers at different clinical spectrum stages of COVID-19 infection and includes information on fundamental prognostic mechanisms as well as potential clinical implications. Biomarkers are measurable biochemical substances used to recognize and indicate disease severity or response to therapeutic interventions. The information they provide is objective and suitable for delivering healthcare providers with a means of stratifying disease state in COVID-19 patients. This, in turn, can be used to help select and guide intervention efforts as well as gauge the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. Here, we review a number of potential biomarkers that may be used to guide treatment, monitor treatment efficacy, and form individualized therapeutic guidance based on patient response. Implementation of the COVID-19 biomarkers discussed here may lead to significantly improved quality of care and patient outcomes for those infected with SARS-CoV-2 worldwide.

14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705620

ABSTRACT

As of August 2021, there have been over 200 million confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and more than 4 million COVID-19-related deaths globally. Although real-time polymerase chain reaction is considered to be the primary method of detection for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the use of serological assays for detecting COVID-19 antibodies has been shown to be effective in aiding with diagnosis, particularly in patients who have recovered from the disease and those in later stages of infection. Since it has a high detection rate and few limitations compared to conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocols, we used a lateral flow immunoassay as our diagnostic tool of choice. Since lateral flow immunoassay results interpreted by the naked eye may lead to erroneous diagnoses, we developed an innovative, portable device with the capacity to capture a high-resolution reflectance spectrum as a means of promoting diagnostic accuracy. We combined this spectrum-based device with commercial lateral flow immunoassays to detect the neutralizing antibody in serum samples collected from 30 COVID-19-infected patients (26 mild cases and four severe cases). The results of our approach, lateral flow immunoassays coupled with a spectrum-based reader, demonstrated a 0.989 area under the ROC curve, 100% sensitivity, 95.7% positive predictive value, 87.5% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value. As a result, our approach exhibited great value for neutralizing antibody detection. In addition to the above tests, we also tested plasma samples from 16 AstraZeneca-vaccinated (ChAdOx1nCoV-19) patients and compared our approach and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results to see whether our approach could be applied to vaccinated patients. The results showed a high correlation between these two approaches, indicating that the lateral flow immunoassay coupled with a spectrum-based reader is a feasible approach for diagnosing the presence of a neutralizing antibody in both COVID-19-infected and vaccinated patients.

15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 807454, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686483

ABSTRACT

Background: Innate immunity, armed with pattern recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLR), is critical for immune cell activation and the connection to anti-microbial adaptive immunity. However, information regarding the impact of age on the innate immunity in response to SARS-CoV2 adenovirus vector vaccines and its association with specific immune responses remains scarce. Methods: Fifteen subjects between 25-35 years (the young group) and five subjects between 60-70 years (the older adult group) were enrolled before ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccination. We determined activation markers and cytokine production of monocyte, natural killer (NK) cells and B cells ex vivo stimulated with TLR agonist (poly (I:C) for TLR3; LPS for TLR4; imiquimod for TLR7; CpG for TLR9) before vaccination and 3-5 days after each jab with flow cytometry. Anti-SARS-CoV2 neutralization antibody titers (surrogate virus neutralization tests, sVNTs) were measured using serum collected 2 months after the first jab and one month after full vaccination. Results: The older adult vaccinees had weaker vaccine-induced sVNTs than young vaccinees after 1st jab (47.2±19.3% vs. 21.2±22.2%, p value<0.05), but this difference became insignificant after the 2nd jab. Imiquimod, LPS and CpG strongly induced CD86 expression in IgD+CD27- naïve and IgD-CD27+ memory B cells in the young group. In contrast, only the IgD+ CD27- naïve B cells responded to these TLR agonists in the older adult group. Imiquimode strongly induced the CD86 expression in CD14+ monocytes in the young group but not in the older adult group. After vaccination, the young group had significantly higher IFN-γ expression in CD3- CD56dim NK cells after the 1st jab, whilst the older adult group had significantly higher IFN-γ and granzyme B expression in CD56bright NK cells after the 2nd jab (all p value <0.05). The IFN-γ expression in CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells after the first vaccination and CD86 expression in CD14+ monocyte and IgD-CD27-double-negative B cells after LPS and imiquimod stimulation correlated with vaccine-induced antibody responses. Conclusions: The innate immune responses after the first vaccination correlated with the neutralizing antibody production. Older people may have defective innate immune responses by TLR stimulation and weak or delayed innate immune activation profile after vaccination compared with young people.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Imiquimod/pharmacology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunosenescence/immunology , Interferon-gamma/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Poly I-C/administration & dosage , Poly I-C/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Vaccination
16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-905812

ABSTRACT

With the current worldwide outbreak of COVID-19, developing rapid, effective, and convenient detection tools has become imperative [...].

17.
Adv Biosyst ; 4(11): e2000150, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-812800

ABSTRACT

Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using specimens collected from nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swabs is the standard screening approach for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While PCR is rapid and highly accurate, it requires costly laboratory equipment and healthcare professionals that limit its use for large-scale screening of mild or asymptomatic patients. Self-collection kits for use in the home could remedy this and have consequently received great attention. In April, 2020, a self-collection kit from LapCorp was the first such kit to be approved by the FDA. In the following month, May 2020, another kit developed by Everlywell received FDA approval, and more kits are evidently on their way to the market in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Because these home-based, self-collection kits are easy to use and may be more acceptable for patients, they provide a superior screening option for mild or asymptomatic patients under self-quarantine. These kits conserve personal protective equipment and healthcare manpower already in short supply. The primary issues affecting the efficacy of this approach are the potential for inappropriate sampling and insufficient clinical examination. A detailed review of the commercially available kits currently available is provided and their prospective impact is noted during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Self Care , Specimen Handling/methods , Adult , Home Care Services , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(4)2020 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101842

ABSTRACT

The current standard testing method for screening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is through reverse real-time PCR assay (rRT-PCR), a common molecular-based assay that requires an average of four to six hours to provide results [...].

19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(3)2020 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9474

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a fast-spreading respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was reported in Wuhan, China and has now affected over 123 countries globally [...].

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