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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 758159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581234

ABSTRACT

Background: The world has been unprecedentedly hit by a global pandemic which broke the record of deadly pandemics that faced humanity ever since its existence. Even kids are well-versed in the terminologies and basics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 now. The vaccination program has been successfully launched in various countries, given that the huge global population of concern is still far behind to be vaccinated. Furthermore, the scarcity of any potential drug against the COVID-19-causing virus forces scientists and clinicians to search for alternative and complementary medicines on a war-footing basis. Aims and Objectives: The present review aims to cover and analyze the etiology and epidemiology of COVID-19, the role of intestinal microbiota and pro-inflammatory markers, and most importantly, the natural products to combat this deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus. Methods: A primary literature search was conducted through PubMed and Google Scholar using relevant keywords. Natural products were searched from January 2020 to November 2020. No timeline limit has been imposed on the search for the biological sources of those phytochemicals. Interactive mapping has been done to analyze the multi-modal and multi-target sources. Results and Discussion: The intestinal microbiota and the pro-inflammatory markers that can serve the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 were discussed. The literature search resulted in yielding 70 phytochemicals and ten polyherbal formulations which were scientifically analyzed against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its targets and found significant. Retrospective analyses led to provide information about 165 biological sources that can also be screened if not done earlier. Conclusion: The interactive analysis mapping of biological sources with phytochemicals and targets as well as that of phytochemical class with phytochemicals and COVID-19 targets yielded insights into the multitarget and multimodal evidence-based complementary medicines.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(11): 1821-1839, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492352

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enters host cells through the cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2. METHODS: Using a variety of normal and malignant models and tissues from the aerodigestive and respiratory tracts, we investigated the expression and regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. RESULTS: We find that ACE2 expression is restricted to a select population of epithelial cells. Notably, infection with SARS-CoV-2 in cancer cell lines, bronchial organoids, and patient nasal epithelium induces metabolic and transcriptional changes consistent with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including up-regulation of ZEB1 and AXL, resulting in an increased EMT score. In addition, a transcriptional loss of genes associated with tight junction function occurs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, is repressed by EMT through the transforming growth factor-ß, ZEB1 overexpression, and onset of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. This suggests a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in which infected cells shift toward an increasingly mesenchymal state, associated with a loss of tight junction components with acute respiratory distress syndrome-protective effects. AXL inhibition and ZEB1 reduction, as with bemcentinib, offer a potential strategy to reverse this effect. CONCLUSIONS: These observations highlight the use of aerodigestive and, especially, lung cancer model systems in exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and offer important insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 in healthy patients and patients with cancer alike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Bronchi , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Epidemiology and Infection ; 149(e10), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1279751

ABSTRACT

This study aims to locate the knots of cumulative coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case number during the first-level response to public health emergency in the provinces of China except Hubei. The provinces were grouped into three regions, namely eastern, central and western provinces, and the trends between adjacent knots were compared among the three regions. COVID-19 case number, migration scale index, Baidu index, demographic, economic and public health resource data were collected from 22 Chinese provinces from 19 January 2020 to 12 March 2020. Spline regression was applied to the data of all included, eastern, central and western provinces. The research period was divided into three stages by two knots. The first stage (from 19 January to around 25 January) was similar among three regions. However, in the second stage, growth of COVID-19 case number was flatter and lasted longer in western provinces (from 25 January to 18 February) than in eastern and central provinces (from 26 February to around 11 February). In the third stage, the growth of COVID-19 case number slowed down in all the three regions. Included covariates were different among the three regions. Overall, spline regression with covariates showed the different change patterns in eastern, central and western provinces, which provided a better insight into regional characteristics of COVID-19 pandemic.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248957, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146198

ABSTRACT

The characteristics and evolution of pulmonary fibrosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been adequately studied. AI-assisted chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to investigate the proportion of COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis, the relationship between the degree of fibrosis and the clinical classification of COVID-19, the characteristics of and risk factors for pulmonary fibrosis, and the evolution of pulmonary fibrosis after discharge. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 was significantly higher than that in patients with moderate COVID-19. There were significant differences in the degree of pulmonary inflammation and the extent of the affected area among patients with mild, moderate and severe pulmonary fibrosis. The IL-6 level in the acute stage and albumin level were independent risk factors for pulmonary fibrosis. Ground-glass opacities, linear opacities, interlobular septal thickening, reticulation, honeycombing, bronchiectasis and the extent of the affected area were significantly improved 30, 60 and 90 days after discharge compared with at discharge. The more severe the clinical classification of COVID-19, the more severe the residual pulmonary fibrosis was; however, in most patients, pulmonary fibrosis was improved or even resolved within 90 days after discharge.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/pathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
5.
BioData Min ; 13: 3, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145447

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on population health and wellbeing. Biomedical informatics is central to COVID-19 research efforts and for the delivery of healthcare for COVID-19 patients. Critical to this effort is the participation of informaticians who typically work on other basic science or clinical problems. The goal of this editorial is to highlight some examples of COVID-19 research areas that could benefit from informatics expertise. Each research idea summarizes the COVID-19 application area, followed by an informatics methodology, approach, or technology that could make a contribution. It is our hope that this piece will motivate and make it easy for some informaticians to adopt COVID-19 research projects.

6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 631044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094169

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been raging around the world since January 2020. Pregnancy places the women in a unique immune scenario which may allow severe COVID-19 disease. In this regard, the potential unknown effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on mothers and fetuses have attracted considerable attention. There is no clear consistent evidence of the changes in the immune status of pregnant women after recovery from COVID-19. In this study, we use multiparameter flow cytometry and Luminex assay to determine the immune cell subsets and cytokines, respectively, in the peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood from pregnant women recovering from COVID-19 about 3 months (n=5). Our results showed decreased percentages of Tc2, Tfh17, memory B cells, virus-specific NK cells, and increased percentages of naive B cells in the peripheral blood. Serum levels of IL-1ra and MCP-1 showed a decreased tendency in late recovery stage (LRS) patients. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in immune cell subsets in the umbilical cord blood. The placentas from LRS patients showed increased CD68+ macrophages infiltration and mild hypoxic features. The inflammatory damage of the placenta may be related to the antiviral response. Since the receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, utilized by SARS-CoV-2 are not co-expressed in the placenta, so it is extremely rare for SARS-CoV-2 to cause infection through this route and the impact on the fetus is negligible.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fetal Blood/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Placenta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Autoantigens/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Killer Cells, Natural , Pregnancy , Receptors, Interleukin-1/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e10, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065748

ABSTRACT

This study aims to locate the knots of cumulative coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case number during the first-level response to public health emergency in the provinces of China except Hubei. The provinces were grouped into three regions, namely eastern, central and western provinces, and the trends between adjacent knots were compared among the three regions. COVID-19 case number, migration scale index, Baidu index, demographic, economic and public health resource data were collected from 22 Chinese provinces from 19 January 2020 to 12 March 2020. Spline regression was applied to the data of all included, eastern, central and western provinces. The research period was divided into three stages by two knots. The first stage (from 19 January to around 25 January) was similar among three regions. However, in the second stage, growth of COVID-19 case number was flatter and lasted longer in western provinces (from 25 January to 18 February) than in eastern and central provinces (from 26 February to around 11 February). In the third stage, the growth of COVID-19 case number slowed down in all the three regions. Included covariates were different among the three regions. Overall, spline regression with covariates showed the different change patterns in eastern, central and western provinces, which provided a better insight into regional characteristics of COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health , Regression Analysis
8.
Pers Individ Dif ; 171: 110508, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060585

ABSTRACT

This study examines the relationship between proactive coping, future time orientation, and perceived work productivity during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, based on the work-from-home experience of employees in Taiwan and the United States (U.S.). It draws on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, which posits that proactive coping and future time orientation are crucial personal resources that affect the capacity of an individual to adapt to stressful situations. The results show that in the relationship between proactive coping and perceived work productivity, future time orientation acts as a full mediator in Taiwan and a partial mediator in the U.S. The study extends the application of the COR theory to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and offers important insights that will enable professionals to assess the role of proactive coping and future time orientation in their productivity evaluations of working tasks and to design appropriate training sessions.

9.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 7(1): 57-64, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044859

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not only attacking physical health, but it is also increasing psychological suffering. This study aimed to observe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health outcomes among patients with mild to moderate illness in Fangcang shelter hospitals. Methods: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study of 129 patients with mild to moderate illness from Jiangxia Fangcang shelter hospitals in Wuhan, China. The participants were assessed by quantifying their symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and stressful life events and analyzing potential risk factors associated with these symptoms. Using correlation analysis, we examined associations between exposure to COVID-19 and subsequent psychological distress in response to the outbreak. Results: In total, 49.6% of participants had depressive or anxiety symptoms. The depressive and anxiety symptoms were highly related to sleep disturbances and hypochondriasis (all r > 0.50, P < 0.01). The impact of the event was positively related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances, hypochondriasis and life events (all r > 0.35, P < 0.01) but was negatively related to psychological resilience (r = -0.41, P < 0.01). The presence of the COVID-19 infection in this setting was associated with increased anxiety, depression and stress levels, and decreased sleep quality, and seriously affected patients' quality of life as well as adversely affecting the course and prognosis of physical diseases. Conclusion: The sleep quality, anxiety, and depression of COVID-19 patients in Fangcang shelter hospitals were significantly related to the impact of the epidemic.

10.
Vaccine ; 39(8): 1241-1247, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039581

ABSTRACT

Without approved vaccines and specific treatments, COVID-19 is spreading around the world with above 26 million cases and approximately 864 thousand deaths until now. An efficacious and affordable vaccine is urgently needed. The Val308 - Gly548 of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 linked with Gln830 - Glu843 of Tetanus toxoid (TT peptide) (designated as S1-4) and without TT peptide (designated as S1-5) were expressed and renatured. The antigenicity and immunogenicity of S1-4 were evaluated by Western Blotting (WB) in vitro and immune responses in mice, respectively. The protective efficiency was measured preliminarily by microneutralization assay (MN50). The soluble S1-4 and S1-5 protein was prepared to high homogeneity and purity. Adjuvanted with Alum, S1-4 protein stimulated a strong antibody response in immunized mice and caused a major Th2-type cellular immunity supplemented with Th1-type immunity. Furthermore, the immunized sera could protect the Vero E6 cells from SARS-CoV-2 infection with neutralizing antibody titer 256. Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD with a built in T helper epitope could stimulate both strong humoral immunity supplemented with cellular immunity in mice, demonstrating that it could be a promising subunit vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 21): 563, 2020 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992442

ABSTRACT

The International Association for Intelligent Biology and Medicine (IAIBM) is a nonprofit organization that promotes intelligent biology and medical science. It hosts an annual International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM), which was initially established in 2012. Due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the ICIBM 2020 was held for the first time as a virtual online conference on August 9 to 10. The virtual conference had ~ 300 registered participants and featured 41 online real-time presentations. ICIBM 2020 received a total of 75 manuscript submissions, and 12 were selected to be published in this special issue of BMC Bioinformatics. These 12 manuscripts cover a wide range of bioinformatics topics including network analysis, imaging analysis, machine learning, gene expression analysis, and sequence analysis.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Congresses as Topic , Internationality , Medicine , Research , COVID-19 , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Machine Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis
12.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 7(2): 120-130, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808156

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients is high, with poor prognosis. Early identification of COVID-19 patients who are at risk for AKI and may develop critical illness and death is of great importance. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a prognostic model of AKI and in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19, incorporating the new tubular injury biomarker urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (u-NGAL) and artificial intelligence (AI)-based chest computed tomography (CT) analysis. Methods: A single-center cohort of patients with COVID-19 from Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital were included in this study. Demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and AI-assisted chest CT imaging variables identified on hospital admission were screened using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and logistic regression to develop a model for predicting the AKI risk. The accuracy of the AKI prediction model was measured using the concordance index (C-index), and the internal validity of the model was assessed by bootstrap resampling. A multivariate Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were analyzed for survival analysis in COVID-19 patients. Results: One hundred seventy-four patients were included. The median (±SD) age of the patients was 63.59 ± 13.79 years, and 83 (47.7%) were men.u-NGAL, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, and CT ground-glass opacity (GGO) volume were independent predictors of AKI, and all were selected in the nomogram. The prediction model was validated by internal bootstrapping resampling, showing results similar to those obtained from the original samples (i.e., 0.958; 95% CI 0.9097-0.9864). The C-index for predicting AKI was 0.955 (95% CI 0.916-0.995). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression confirmed that a high u-NGAL level, an increased GGO volume, and lymphopenia are strong predictors of a poor prognosis and a high risk of in-hospital death. Conclusions: This model provides a useful individualized risk estimate of AKI in patients with COVID-19. Measurement of u-NGAL and AI-based chest CT quantification are worthy of application and may help clinicians to identify patients with a poor prognosis in COVID-19 at an early stage.

14.
Vaccine ; 38(32): 5071-5075, 2020 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592568

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 that has been characterized as a pandemic by the WHO. Since the first report of COVID-19 on December 31, 2019, 179,111 cases were confirmed in 160 countries/regions with 7426 deaths as of March 17, 2020. However, there have been no vaccines approved in the world to date. In this study, we analyzed the biological characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, Pro330-Leu650 (SARS-CoV-2-SPL), using biostatistical methods. SARS-CoV-2-SPL possesses a receptor-binding region (RBD) and important B (Ser438-Gln506, Thr553-Glu583, Gly404-Aps427, Thr345-Ala352, and Lys529-Lys535) and T (9 CD4 and 11 CD8 T cell antigenic determinants) cell epitopes. High homology in this region between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV amounted to 87.7%, after taking the biological similarity of the amino acids into account and eliminating the receptor-binding motif (RBM). The overall topology indicated that the complete structure of SARS-CoV-2-SPL was with RBM as the head, and RBD as the trunk and the tail region. SARS-CoV-2-SPL was found to have the potential to elicit effective B and T cell responses. Our findings may provide meaningful guidance for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Drug Design , Models, Immunological , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
15.
J Infect Dis ; 222(11): 1784-1788, 2020 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505538

ABSTRACT

The current discharge criteria for COVID-19 require that patients have 2 consecutive negative results for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection. Here, we observed that recurrent positive RT-PCR test results in patients with 3 consecutive negative results (5.4%) were significantly decreased compared with those in patients with 2 consecutive negative results (20.6%); such patients reported positive RT-PCR test results within 1 to 12 days after meeting the discharge criteria. These results confirmed that many recovered patients could show a positive RT-PCR test result, and most of these patients could be identified by an additional RT-PCR test prior to discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Patient Discharge , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serologic Tests , Young Adult
16.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(2): 147-151, 2020 Feb 29.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-250195

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic starting in Wuhan in December, 2019 has spread rapidly throughout the nation. The control measures to contain the epidemic also produced influences on the transport and treatment process of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and adjustments in the management of the patients need to be made at this particular time. AMI is characterized by an acute onset with potentially fatal consequence, a short optimal treatment window, and frequent complications including respiratory infections and respiratory and circulatory failure, for which active on-site treatment is essential. To standardize the management and facilitate the diagnosis and treatment, we formulated the guidelines for the procedures and strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of AMI, which highlight 5 Key Principles, namely Nearby treatment, Safety protection, Priority of thrombolysis, Transport to designated hospitals, and Remote consultation. For AMI patients, different treatment strategies are selected based on the screening results of SARS-CoV-2, the time window of STEMI onset, and the vital signs of the patients. During this special period, the cardiologists, including the interventional physicians, should be fully aware of the indications and contraindications of thrombolysis. In the transport and treatment of AMI patients, the physicians should strictly observe the indications for patient transport with appropriate protective measurements of the medical staff.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Myocardial Infarction , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Remote Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy , Transportation of Patients
17.
BioData Mining 2020 13:1 ; 13(1):Jan-16, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-245243

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a significant impact on population health and wellbeing. Biomedical informatics is central to COVID-19 research efforts and for the delivery of healthcare for COVID-19 patients. Critical to this effort is the participation of informaticians who typically work on other basic science or clinical problems. The goal of this editorial is to highlight some examples of COVID-19 research areas that could benefit from informatics expertise. Each research idea summarizes the COVID-19 application area, followed by an informatics methodology, approach, or technology that could make a contribution. It is our hope that this piece will motivate and make it easy for some informaticians to adopt COVID-19 research projects.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7635, 2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-196615

ABSTRACT

Proteolytic cleavage of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin by host proteases is crucial for virus infectivity and spread. The transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2 was previously identified as the essential protease that can cleave hemagglutinin of many subtypes of influenza virus and spike protein of coronavirus. Herein, we found that a guanine rich tract, capable of forming intramolecular G-quadruplex in the presence of potassium ions, in the promoter region of human TMPRSS2 gene was quite important for gene transcriptional activity, hence affecting its function. Furthermore, 7 new synthesized benzoselenoxanthene analogues were found to enable stabilizing such G-quadruplex. More importantly, compounds can down-regulate TMPRSS2 gene expression, especially endogenous TMPRSS2 protein levels, and consequently suppress influenza A virus propagation in vitro. Our results provide a new strategy for anti-influenza A virus infection by small molecules targeting the TMPRSS2 gene G-quadruplex and thus inhibiting TMPRSS2 expression, which is valuable for developing small molecule drugs against influenza A virus and also may be a potential candidate as anti- SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoV 2) lead molecules.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/growth & development , Organoselenium Compounds , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cell Line , DNA Footprinting , Drug Discovery , G-Quadruplexes , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Influenza A virus/physiology , Organoselenium Compounds/chemistry , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Transcription, Genetic
19.
J Med Virol ; 92(7): 797-806, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-11561

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus in China (SARS-CoV-2) that began in December 2019 presents a significant and urgent threat to global health. This study was conducted to provide the international community with a deeper understanding of this new infectious disease. Epidemiological, clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological characteristics, treatment, and clinical outcomes of 135 patients in northeast Chongqing were collected and analyzed in this study. A total of 135 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. The median age was 47 years (interquartile range, 36-55), and there was no significant gender difference (53.3% men). The majority of patients had contact with people from the Wuhan area. Forty-three (31.9%) patients had underlying disease, primarily hypertension (13 [9.6%]), diabetes (12 [8.9%]), cardiovascular disease (7 [5.2%]), and malignancy (4 [3.0%]). Common symptoms included fever (120 [88.9%]), cough (102 [76.5%]), and fatigue (44 [32.5%]). Chest computed tomography scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all the patients. All patients received antiviral therapy (135 [100%]) (Kaletra and interferon were both used), antibacterial therapy (59 [43.7%]), and corticosteroids (36 [26.7%]). In addition, many patients received traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) (124 [91.8%]). It is suggested that patients should receive Kaletra early and should be treated by a combination of Western and Chinese medicines. Compared to the mild cases, the severe ones had lower lymphocyte counts and higher plasma levels of Pt, APTT, d-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, PCT, ALB, C-reactive protein, and aspartate aminotransferase. This study demonstrates the clinic features and therapies of 135 COVID-19 patients. Kaletra and TCM played an important role in the treatment of the viral pneumonia. Further studies are required to explore the role of Kaletra and TCM in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Cough/virology , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Fever/virology , Humans , Interferons/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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