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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312673

ABSTRACT

Background: Up to now, there is still no specific drug against COVID-19. However, Ribavirin may bring clinical benefits to COVID-19 patients. Methods: : This study was designed as a real-world retrospective cohort study based on electronic medical record (EMR), and linear regression model was used to evaluate the effect of Ribavirin on recovery time. Results: : 342 patients were enrolled in this study. Both unadjusted and unadjusted models showed that interferon or Lopinavir-Ritonavir combined with Ribavirin could shorten the recovery time of patients, which was evident in all subgroups considered except the severe subgroup and after fine adjustments. Conclusion: This study shows that interferon or Lopinavir-Ritonavir combined with Ribavirin can shorten the recovery time of patients with non-severe COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311594

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has had an enormous impact on various industries around the world. As postgraduate students in clinical medicine have both student and resident identity characteristics, Peking University Third Hospital (PUTH), as a university-affiliated hospital for cultivating future medical talent, has been facing unprecedented challenges in regard to the management of postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the management effect from PDCA cycle management on postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: : The methods of document review, questionnaire surveys and interviews were used to continuously improve the management measures of postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic by using the PDCA cycle. Results: : Investigations were conducted on the management system, back-to-school arrangements, COVID-19 prevention and control training, online teaching, mentoring, laboratory management, dissertation progress, and emotional state of postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that strengthening public health management knowledge training, increasing infectious-disease-related knowledge training, innovating online teaching methods, improving PDCA management model maps, and formulating improvement programmes are conducive to improving the quality of such management. Conclusion: Aiming at the difficult problems involved in the management of postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic, managers need to comprehensively consider and conduct overall planning and use the PDCA management model to improve the management of postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308341

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic posed tremendous threats to the world. Elderly patients were among the high-risk population, and apt to experience worse outcomes. Methods: : Elderly patients (age ≥60 years old) were enrolled from January 28 to February 29, 2020, in Tongji Hospital, one of designated COVID-19 medical centers in Wuhan, China. A retrospective study was performed to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly COVID-19 patients. COX regression was used to analyze predictors for 28-day mortality. Linear regression models were constructed to analyze factors associated with length of hospital stay (LOS). Result: A total of 186 elderly patients (aged 70.4 ± 7.1 years, 95 males (51.6%)) were enrolled, 120 patients (64.5%) were severe or critical type, and mortality rate was 16.1%. Patients in non-survival group had a higher smoking rate, more symptoms of dyspnea, lab results indicative of poorer health. Age (HR 1.128, 95% CI 1.066-1.194), lymphocyte count (HR 0.261, 95% CI 0.073-0.930), LDH (HR 1.003, 95% CI 1.002-1.005), procalcitonin (HR 1.061, 95% CI 1.002-1.125), and qSOFA (HR 3.162, 95% CI 1.646-6.072) were independently associated with 28-day mortality. CURB-65 plus LDH on admission were predictors of mortality by ROC analysis (AUROC=0.891). Among surviving patients, consolidation on CTs, elevated ferritin level and neutrophil count were associated with increased LOS. Conclusion: High incidence of comorbidities and mortality were observed in elderly patients. Decreased lymphocyte, older age, higher qSOFA score, procalcitonin and LDH levels were independent factors associated with mortality, CURB-65 plus LDH could be a predictive model of fatal outcome. Consolidation on CTs, elevated ferritin and neutrophil level correlated with increased LOS. Further prospective studies should be performed to test our findings and explore potential treatments.

4.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 42, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postgraduate entrance examination (the Unified National Graduate Entrance Examination) is the major way for Chinese medical undergraduate student to apply for postgraduate studies. It consists of two stages: the preliminary basic written test and the re-examination in form of both written tests and interviews. With the spread of COVID-19, the traditional on-site re-examination of postgraduates must be changed to online re-examination. By comparing the re-examination process and admission results of online and on-site re-examination, we studied the feasibility of online re-examination for postgraduates and measures to improve it. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using data from the Unified National Graduate Entrance Examination. Our sample population was the applicants to Peking University Third Hospital (PUTH) who completed re-examinations. In total, 281 records were successively selected from March 2017 to May 2020. By comparing the re-examination process and admission results of the 2020 online re-examination with those of the 2017-2019 on-site re-examinations, we analyzed the process, difficulties and improvement of online re-examination. RESULTS: A total of 281 subjects were included, of whom 77.9% completed an on-site re-examination in 2017-2019 and 22.1% completed the 2020 online re-examination. In the on-site re-examinations, 70.8% of the students were admitted, and in the online re-examination, 74.2% of the students were admitted. There were no significant differences between the students who completed on-site and online re-examinations in terms of gender, recent graduation, cultivation type, graduate from a key university, and admission (P>0.05). The on-site and online re-examination results were very similar among the admitted students. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that online re-examination had no effect on student admissions. Students seeking professional degree were less likely to be admitted than those seeking academic degree, and those with a better standardized rank in medicine and a better standardized rank of re-examination score were more likely to be admitted. CONCLUSIONS: The online re-examination implemented in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic achieved the same selective effect as on-site re-examination. Effective time management, a standardized test question template, well-trained staff and effective technology are the keys to success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Ment Health ; : 1-10, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has seen a global surge in anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and stress. AIMS: This study aimed to describe the perspectives of patients with COVID-19, their family, health professionals, and the general public on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health. METHODS: A secondary thematic analysis was conducted using data from the COVID-19 COS project. We extracted data on the perceived causes and impact of COVID-19 on mental health from an international survey and seven online consensus workshops. RESULTS: We identified four themes (with subthemes in parenthesis): anxiety amidst uncertainty (always on high alert, ebb and flow of recovery); anguish of a threatened future (intense frustration of a changed normality, facing loss of livelihood, trauma of ventilation, a troubling prognosis, confronting death); bearing responsibility for transmission (fear of spreading COVID-19 in public; overwhelming guilt of infecting a loved one); and suffering in isolation (severe solitude of quarantine, sick and alone, separation exacerbating grief). CONCLUSION: We found that the unpredictability of COVID-19, the fear of long-term health consequences, burden of guilt, and suffering in isolation profoundly impacted mental health. Clinical and public health interventions are needed to manage the psychological consequences arising from this pandemic.

6.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(6): 708-713, 2021 Jun.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323329

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) on the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accompanied with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology when authors worked as medical team members for treating COVID-19. COVID-19 patients with pulse oxygen saturation/fraction of inspiration oxygen (SpO2/FiO2, S/F) ratio < 235, managed by medical teams [using S/F ratio instead of oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) to diagnose ARDS] from February to April 2020 were included. The patients were divided into NIPPV group and HFNC group according to their oxygen therapy modes. Clinical data of patients were collected, including general characteristics, respiratory rate (RR), fraction of FiO2, SpO2, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), S/F ratio in the first 72 hours, lymphocyte count (LYM), percentage of lymphocyte (LYM%) and white blood cell count (WBC) at admission and discharge or death, the duration of dyspnea before NIPPV and HFNC, and the length from onset to admission. The differences of intubation rate, all-cause mortality, S/F ratio and RR were analyzed, and single factor analysis and generalized estimation equation (GEE) were used to analyze the risk factors affecting S/F ratio. RESULTS: Among the 41 patients, the proportion of males was high (68.3%, 28 cases), the median age was 68 (58-74) years old, 28 cases had complications (68.3%), and 34 cases had multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS, 82.9%). Compared with HFNC group, the proportion of complications in NIPPV group was higher [87.5% (21/24) vs. 41.2% (7/17), P < 0.05], and the value of LYM% was lower [5.3% (3.4%-7.8%) vs. 10.0% (3.9%-19.7%), P < 0.05], the need of blood purification was also significantly lower [0% (0/24) vs. 29.4% (5/17), P < 0.05]. The S/F ratio of NIPPV group gradually increased after 2 hours treatment and RR gradually decreased with over time, S/F ratio decreased and RR increased in HFNC group compared with baseline, but there was no significant difference in S/F ratio between the two groups at each time point. RR in NIPPV group was significantly higher than that in HFNC group after 2 hours treatment [time/min: 30 (27-33) vs. 24 (21-27), P < 0.05]. There was no significant difference in rate need intubation and hospital mortality between NIPPV group and HFNC group [66.7% (16/24) vs. 70.6% (12/17), 58.3% (14/24) vs. 52.9% (9/17), both P > 0.05]. Analysis of the factors affecting the S/Fratio in the course of oxygen therapy showed that the oxygen therapy mode and the course of illness at admission were the factors affecting the S/F ratio of patients [ßvalues were -15.827, 1.202, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were -29.102 to -2.552 and 0.247-2.156, P values were 0.019 and 0.014, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with HFNC, NIPPV doesn't significantly reduce the intubation rate and mortality of patients with COVID-19 accompanied with ARDS, but it significantly increases the S/F ratio of those patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Cannula , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 308, 2021 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has exerted an enormous impact on various industries worldwide. During this pandemic, clinical teaching hospitals have faced unprecedented challenges regarding the management of postgraduate medical students since postgraduate students in clinical medicine have both student and resident identity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore the management effectiveness of Peking University Third Hospital (PUTH) based on PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle management and to further develop the medical student management system during the pandemic. METHODS: The methods of document review, questionnaire surveys and interviews were used to continuously improve the management measures for postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic by using the PDCA cycle. RESULTS: Investigations were conducted on the management system, back-to-school arrangements, laboratory management, COVID-19 prevention and control training, online teaching, mentoring, dissertation progress, and emotional state of postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that strengthening public health management knowledge training, increasing infectious-disease-related knowledge training, innovating online teaching methods, improving PDCA management model maps, and formulating improvement programmes are conducive to improving the quality of such management. CONCLUSION: Given the difficulties involved in the management of postgraduate medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic, managers need to comprehensively consider and conduct overall planning and use the PDCA management model to improve the management of postgraduate medical students during this period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 604392, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170090

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 outbreak year 2020, a consensus was reached on the fact that SARS-CoV-2 spreads through aerosols. However, finding an efficient method to detect viruses in aerosols to monitor the risk of similar infections and enact effective control remains a great challenge. Our study aimed to build a swirling aerosol collection (SAC) device to collect viral particles in exhaled breath and subsequently detect SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Laboratory tests of the SAC device using aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus indicated that the SAC device can produce a positive result in only 10 s, with a collection distance to the source of 10 cm in a biosafety chamber, when the release rate of the pseudovirus source was 1,000,000 copies/h. Subsequent clinical trials of the device showed three positives and 14 negatives out of 27 patients in agreement with pharyngeal swabs, and 10 patients obtained opposite results, while no positive results were found in a healthy control group (n = 12). Based on standard curve calibration, several thousand viruses per minute were observed in the tested exhalations. Furthermore, referring to the average tidal volume data of adults, it was estimated that an exhaled SARS-CoV-2 concentration of approximately one copy/mL is detectable for COVID-19 patients. This study validates the original concept of breath detection of SARS-CoV-2 using SAC combined with RT-PCR.

9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(9): 835-853, 2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liver injury is common and also can be fatal, particularly in severe or critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM: To conduct an in-depth investigation into the risk factors for liver injury and into the effective measures to prevent subsequent mortality risk. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on 440 consecutive patients with relatively severe COVID-19 between January 28 and March 9, 2020 at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China. Data on clinical features, laboratory parameters, medications, and prognosis were collected. RESULTS: COVID-19-associated liver injury more frequently occurred in patients aged ≥ 65 years, female patients, or those with other comorbidities, decreased lymphocyte count, or elevated D-dimer or serum ferritin (P < 0.05). The disease severity of COVID-19 was an independent risk factor for liver injury (severe patients: Odds ratio [OR] = 2.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-4.59; critical patients: OR = 13.44, 95%CI: 7.21-25.97). The elevated levels of on-admission aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin indicated an increased mortality risk (P < 0.001). Using intravenous nutrition or antibiotics increased the risk of COVID-19-associated liver injury. Hepatoprotective drugs tended to be of assistance to treat the liver injury and improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19-associated liver injury. CONCLUSION: More intensive monitoring of aspartate aminotransferase or total bilirubin is recommended for COVID-19 patients, especially patients aged ≥ 65 years, female patients, or those with other comorbidities. Drug hepatotoxicity of antibiotics and intravenous nutrition should be alert for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/mortality , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
10.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 585021, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110321

ABSTRACT

In Feb 2020, we developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and integrated in vitro anti-viral effect to support dosing design of HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients in China. This, along with emerging research and clinical findings, supported broader uptake of HCQ as a potential treatment for COVID-19 globally at the beginning of the pandemics. Therefore, many COVID-19 patients have been or will be exposed to HCQ, including specific populations with underlying intrinsic and/or extrinsic characteristics that may affect the disposition and drug actions of HCQ. It is critical to update our PBPK model of HCQ with adequate drug absorption and disposition mechanisms to support optimal dosing of HCQ in these specific populations. We conducted relevant in vitro and in vivo experiments to support HCQ PBPK model update. Different aspects of this model are validated using PK study from 11 published references. With parameterization informed by results from monkeys, a permeability-limited lung model is employed to describe HCQ distribution in the lung tissues. The updated model is applied to optimize HCQ dosing regimens for specific populations, including those taking concomitant medications. In order to meet predefined HCQ exposure target, HCQ dose may need to be reduced in young children, elderly subjects with organ impairment and/or coadministration with a strong CYP2C8/CYP2D6/CYP3A4 inhibitor, and be increased in pregnant women. The updated HCQ PBPK model informed by new metabolism and distribution data can be used to effectively support dosing recommendations for clinical trials in specific COVID-19 patients and treatment of patients with malaria or autoimmune diseases.

11.
J Clin Transl Hepatol ; 9(1): 133-135, 2021 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090159

ABSTRACT

Currently, infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during pregnancy is a problem worthy of attention, especially in patients with underlying diseases. In this case report, we present a case of chronic active hepatitis B with COVID-19 in pregnancy. A 31-year-old woman at 29 weeks of gestation who had a history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection discontinued antiviral treatment, was admitted to the hospital with chronic active hepatitis B, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this case, we applied liver protective and antiviral agents, and low-dose dexamethasone therapy to successfully treat the critically ill pregnant woman suffering from chronic active hepatitis B combined with COVID-19.

14.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(1): 47-60, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed that sustained ingestion of angiotensin converting enzymes inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) had no harmful effects on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients complicated with hypertension. AIM: To investigate the impact on COVID-19 patients complicated with hypertension who discontinued using ACEIs/ARBs. METHODS: All COVID-19 patients complicated with hypertension admitted to our isolated unit were consecutively recruited in this study. Some patients switched from ACEIs/ARBs to calcium channel blocker (CCBs) after admission, while others continued using non-ACEIs/ARBs. We compared characteristics and clinical outcomes between these two groups of patients. RESULTS: A total of 53 patients were enrolled, 27 patients switched from ACEIs/ARBs to CCBs while 26 patients continued with non-ACEIs/ARBs. After controlling potential confounding factors using the Cox proportional hazards model, hospital stay was longer in patients who discontinued ACEIs/ARBs, with a hazard ratio of 0.424 (95% confidence interval: 0.187-0.962; P = 0.040), upon discharge than patients using other anti-hypertensive drugs. A sub-group analysis showed that the effect of discontinuing use of ACEIs/ARBs was stronger in moderate cases [hazard ratio = 0.224 (95% confidence interval: 0.005-0.998; P = 0.0497)]. CONCLUSION: Patients in the discontinued ACEIs/ARBs group had longer hospital stays. Our findings suggest that COVID-19 patients complicated with hypertension should continue to use ACEIs/ARBs.

15.
Crit Care Med ; 49(3): 503-516, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010657

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, shortness of breath, recovery, and mortality have been identified as critically important core outcomes by more than 9300 patients, health professionals, and the public from 111 countries in the global coronavirus disease 2019 core outcome set initiative. The aim of this project was to establish the core outcome measures for these domains for trials in coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Three online consensus workshops were convened to establish outcome measures for the four core domains of respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, shortness of breath, and recovery. SETTING: International. PATIENTS: About 130 participants (patients, public, and health professionals) from 17 countries attended the three workshops. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Respiratory failure, assessed by the need for respiratory support based on the World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale, was considered pragmatic, objective, and with broad applicability to various clinical scenarios. The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment was recommended for multiple organ failure, because it was routinely used in trials and clinical care, well validated, and feasible. The Modified Medical Research Council measure for shortness of breath, with minor adaptations (recall period of 24 hr to capture daily fluctuations and inclusion of activities to ensure relevance and to capture the extreme severity of shortness of breath in people with coronavirus disease 2019), was regarded as fit for purpose for this indication. The recovery measure was developed de novo and defined as the absence of symptoms, resumption of usual daily activities, and return to the previous state of health prior to the illness, using a 5-point Likert scale, and was endorsed. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 core outcome set recommended core outcome measures have content validity and are considered the most feasible and acceptable among existing measures. Implementation of the core outcome measures in trials in coronavirus disease 2019 will ensure consistency and relevance of the evidence to inform decision-making and care of patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Trials as Topic , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Research Design , Dyspnea , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure , Recovery of Function , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Insufficiency
17.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(1): 99-100, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960609
18.
Respir Med ; 176: 106271, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT) findings of COVID-19 patients were demonstrated by cases series and descriptive studies, but quantitative analysis performed by clinical doctors and studies on its predictive value were rarely seen. The aim of the study is to analyze CT score in COVID-19 patients and explore its predictive value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study among confirmed COVID -19 patients with available CT images between February 8, 2020 and March 7, 2020. The lung was divided into six zones by the level of tracheal carina and the level of inferior pulmonary vein bilaterally on CT. Ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, crazy-paving pattern and overall lung involvement were rated by Likert scale of 0-4 or binary as 0 or 1. Global severity score for each targeted pattern was calculated as total score of six zones. RESULTS: There were 53 patients and 137 CT scans included in the study. There were 18(34%) of the patients classified as moderate cases while 35(66%) patients were severe/critical cases. Severe/critical patients had higher CT scores in several types of abnormalities than moderate patients from the second week to the fourth week post symptom onset. Overall lung involvement score in the second week demonstrated predictive value for severity with a sensitivity of 81.0% and specificity of 69.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Our modified semi-quantitative CT scoring system for COVID-19 patients demonstrated feasibility. Overall lung involvement score on the second week had predictive value for clinical severity and could be indicator for further treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
19.
CMAJ ; 192(47): E1585-E1596, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941709

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: On donne de façon empirique des agents antiviraux à certains patients atteints de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Dans le but d'appuyer la rédaction de lignes directrices sur la prise en charge de la COVID-19, nous avons réalisé une revue systématique des bénéfices et des préjudices associés à 7 traitements antiviraux contre cette infection. MÉTHODES: Nous avons effectué des recherches dans MEDLINE, Embase, le Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed et 3 bases de données chinoises (CNKI, Wanfang Data et SinoMed) jusqu'au 19 avril 2020, dans medRxiv et ChinaXiv jusqu'au 27 avril 2020, ainsi que dans Chongqing VIP jusqu'au 30 avril 2020. Nous avons sélectionné des études sur la ribavirine, la chloroquine, l'hydroxychloroquine, l'umifénovir (Arbidol), le favipiravir, l'interféron et le lopinavir/ritonavir. Lorsqu'il n'y avait pas de données directes d'études sur la COVID-19, nous avons retenu des données indirectes d'études sur le syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS) et le syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (SRMO) pour l'analyse de l'efficacité, et d'études sur d'autres infections respiratoires virales aiguës pour l'analyse de l'innocuité. RÉSULTATS: Le taux de décès chez les patients atteints d'une forme sans signe clinique de gravité de COVID-19 était extrêmement bas, ce qui ne permet pas de conclure à un effet important sur la mortalité. Nous n'avons obtenu que des données de très faible qualité indiquant que la plupart des traitements avaient peu ou pas de bénéfices sur les paramètres à l'étude, quelle que soit la gravité de la COVID-19. Seule exception : le traitement au lopinavir/ritonavir, pour lequel nous avons obtenu des données de faible qualité faisant état d'une réduction de la durée du séjour en unité de soins intensifs (différence des risques [DR] 5 jours de moins, intervalle de confiance [IC] de 95 % 0 à 9 jours) et de la durée d'hospitalisation (DR 1 jour de moins, IC de 95 % 0 à 2 jours). En ce qui concerne l'innocuité, les données étaient de faible ou de très faible qualité, sauf pour le traitement au lopinavir/ritonavir, où des données de qualité moyenne laissaient supposer une augmentation probable de la diarrhée, des nausées et des vomissements. INTERPRÉTATION: À l'heure actuelle, rien ne prouve de façon convaincante que les traitements antiviraux apportent des bénéfices importants dans la lutte contre la COVID-19, bien que les données propres à chaque traitement n'excluent pas cette possibilité. D'autres essais randomisés et contrôlés menés auprès de patients atteints de la COVID-19 sont nécessaires avant de pouvoir recourir à ces traitements en toute confiance.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Int Med Res ; 48(10): 300060520964009, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The causative virus of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause severe fatal pneumonia. The clinical presentation includes asymptomatic infection, severe pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure. Data pertaining to acute renal injury due to COVID-19 in patients who have undergone renal transplantation are scarce. We herein report two cases of COVID-19 along with acute kidney injury following kidney transplantation.Case presentation: Two patients with COVID-19 underwent renal transplantation and were subsequently diagnosed with acute kidney injury. The first patient presented with progressive respiratory symptoms and acute renal injury. He was treated with diuretics and suspension of immunosuppressive therapy; however, the patient died. The second patient presented with respiratory tract symptoms, hypoxemia, and progressive deterioration of renal function followed by improvement. Her mycophenolate mofetil was stopped after admission, and tacrolimus was discontinued 10 days later. Moxifloxacin and methylprednisolone were continued in combination with albumin and gamma globulin infusion. A diuretic was administered, and prednisone was gradually reduced along with tacrolimus. The patient exhibited a satisfactory clinical recovery. CONCLUSION: Patients who develop COVID-19 after kidney transplantation are at risk of acute kidney injury, and their prednisone, immunosuppressant, and gamma globulin treatment must be adjusted according to their condition.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , gamma-Globulins/administration & dosage , gamma-Globulins/therapeutic use
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