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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 843928, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952326

ABSTRACT

The persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), characterized by severe respiratory syndrome, is caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and it poses a major threat to public health all over the world. Currently, optimal COVID-19 management involves effective vaccination. Vaccination is known to greatly enhance immune response against viral infections and reduce public transmission of COVID-19. However, although current vaccines offer some benefits, viral variations and other factors demand the continuous development of vaccines to eliminate this virus from host. Hence, vaccine research and development is crucial and urgent to the elimination of this pandemic. Herein, we summarized the structural and replicatory features of SARS-CoV-2, and focused on vaccine-mediated disease prevention strategies like vaccine antigen selection, vaccine research, and vaccine application. We also evaluated the latest literature on COVID-19 and extensively reviewed action mechanisms, clinical trial (CT) progresses, advantages, as well as disadvantages of various vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2. Lastly, we discussed the current viral treatment, prevention trends, and future prospects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 740-755, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the time to recovery of command-following and associations between hypoxemia with time to recovery of command-following. METHODS: In this multicenter, retrospective, cohort study during the initial surge of the United States' pandemic (March-July 2020) we estimate the time from intubation to recovery of command-following, using Kaplan Meier cumulative-incidence curves and Cox proportional hazard models. Patients were included if they were admitted to 1 of 3 hospitals because of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), required endotracheal intubation for at least 7 days, and experienced impairment of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale motor score <6). RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-one patients of the 795 patients recovered command-following. The median time to recovery of command-following was 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27-32 days). Median time to recovery of command-following increased by 16 days for patients with at least one episode of an arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) value ≤55 mmHg (p < 0.001), and 25% recovered ≥10 days after cessation of mechanical ventilation. The time to recovery of command-following  was associated with hypoxemia (PaO2 ≤55 mmHg hazard ratio [HR] = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.46-0.68; PaO2 ≤70 HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85-0.91), and each additional day of hypoxemia decreased the likelihood of recovery, accounting for confounders including sedation. These findings were confirmed among patients without any imagining evidence of structural brain injury (n = 199), and in a non-overlapping second surge cohort (N = 427, October 2020 to April 2021). INTERPRETATION: Survivors of severe COVID-19 commonly recover consciousness weeks after cessation of mechanical ventilation. Long recovery periods are associated with more severe hypoxemia. This relationship is not explained by sedation or brain injury identified on clinical imaging and should inform decisions about life-sustaining therapies. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:740-755.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Brain Injuries/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , Hypoxia , Retrospective Studies , Unconsciousness/complications
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308285

ABSTRACT

Background: :Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HF-WBI) can achieve the same treatment effect as conventional fractionated whole breast irradiation (CF-WBI) within limits , without increasing adverse reactions. Because of its characteristics of reducing the number of radiation therapy (RT) during the COVID-19 Pandemic, it is recommended as the first choice of treatment for patients with early breast cancer after breast conserving surgery. However, the choice of RT is still under exploration. Here, we conducted a network meta-analysis to evaluate the problem comprehensively using data from new randomized trials. Methods: We analyzed data from eligible studies for published events for ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), distant metastasis, total deaths, and non-breast cancer-related deaths. Statistical analysis was performed using a fixed-effects or random-effects model in cases of low and high heterogeneity, respectively. Network meta-analysis was conducted using a node-splitting model for two-category data among three RTs based on a Bayesian approach. Results: 16 studies with 23,418 patients were included. For IBTR, pairwise comparison showed that CF-WBI was significantly better than PBI, and HF-WBI was similar to CF-WBI. HF-WBI was superior to PBI, but the difference was not significant. However, indirect comparison of three RTs by network meta-analysis showed that HF-WBI was significantly better than PBI (OR=0.67, CI95%: 0.46–0.95). Paired and network meta-analyses found no significant differences in other endpoints among three radiotherapies. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated PBI was associated with increased IBTR compared with HF-WBI or CF-WBI in early-stage breast cancer patients.

4.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(1): 386-408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607858

ABSTRACT

Responding to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been an unexpected and unprecedented global challenge for humanity in this century. During this crisis, specialists from the laboratories and frontline clinical personnel have made great efforts to prevent and treat COVID-19 by revealing the molecular biological characteristics and epidemic characteristics of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, SARS-CoV-2 has severe consequences for public health, including human respiratory system, immune system, blood circulation system, nervous system, motor system, urinary system, reproductive system and digestive system. In the review, we summarize the physiological and pathological damage of SARS-CoV-2 to these systems and its molecular mechanisms followed by clinical manifestation. Concurrently, the prevention and treatment strategies of COVID-19 will be discussed in preclinical and clinical studies. With constantly unfolding and expanding scientific understanding about COVID-19, the updated information can help applied researchers understand the disease to build potential antiviral drugs or vaccines, and formulate creative therapeutic ideas for combating COVID-19 at speed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunotherapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Memory , Male , Mice
5.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(1)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429177

ABSTRACT

Whether risk genes of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from genome-wide association study could play their regulatory roles by interacting with host genes that were interacted with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins was worthy of exploration. In this study, we implemented a network-based approach by developing a user-friendly software Network Calculator (https://github.com/Haoxiang-Qi/Network-Calculator.git). By using Network Calculator, we identified a network composed of 13 risk genes and 28 SARS-CoV-2 interacted host genes that had the highest network proximity with each other, with a hub gene HNRNPK identified. Among these genes, 14 of them were identified to be differentially expressed in RNA-seq data from severe COVID-19 cases. Besides, by expression enrichment analysis in single-cell RNA-seq data, compared with mild COVID-19, these genes were significantly enriched in macrophage, T cell and epithelial cell for severe COVID-19. Meanwhile, 74 pathways were significantly enriched. Our analysis provided insights for the underlying genetic etiology of severe COVID-19 from the perspective of network biology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
6.
Mol Cell ; 80(6): 1055-1066.e6, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009762

ABSTRACT

The causative virus of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, uses its nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1) to suppress cellular, but not viral, protein synthesis through yet unknown mechanisms. We show here that among all viral proteins, Nsp1 has the largest impact on host viability in the cells of human lung origin. Differential expression analysis of mRNA-seq data revealed that Nsp1 broadly alters the cellular transcriptome. Our cryo-EM structure of the Nsp1-40S ribosome complex shows that Nsp1 inhibits translation by plugging the mRNA entry channel of the 40S. We also determined the structure of the 48S preinitiation complex formed by Nsp1, 40S, and the cricket paralysis virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA, which shows that it is nonfunctional because of the incorrect position of the mRNA 3' region. Our results elucidate the mechanism of host translation inhibition by SARS-CoV-2 and advance understanding of the impacts from a major pathogenicity factor of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/genetics , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/metabolism , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/ultrastructure , Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure , Vero Cells , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
7.
Multilingua-Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication ; 39(5):625-629, 2020.
Article | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-781702
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