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1.
Commun Med (Lond) ; 1: 35, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860414

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological studies revealed that the elderly and those with comorbidities are most affected by COVID-19, but it is important to investigate shared genetic mechanisms between COVID-19 risk and aging. Methods: We conducted a multi-instrument Mendelian Randomization analysis of multiple lifespan-related traits and COVID-19. Aging clock models were applied to the subjects with different COVID-19 conditions in the UK-Biobank cohort. We performed a bivariate genomic scan for age-related COVID-19 and Mendelian Randomization analysis of 389 immune cell traits to investigate their effect on lifespan and COVID-19 risk. Results: We show that the genetic variation that supports longer life is significantly associated with the lower risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. The odds ratio is 0.31 (P = 9.7 × 10-6) and 0.46 (P = 3.3 × 10-4), respectively, per additional 10 years of life. We detect an association between biological age acceleration and future incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection. Genetic profiling of age-related COVID-19 infection indicates key contributions of Notch signaling and immune system development. We reveal a negative correlation between the effects of immune cell traits on lifespan and COVID-19 risk. We find that lower B-cell CD19 levels are indicative of an increased risk of COVID-19 and decreased life expectancy, which is further validated by COVID-19 clinical data. Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that the factors that accelerate aging lead to an increased COVID-19 risk and point to the importance of Notch signaling and B cells in both. Interventions that target these factors to reduce biological age may reduce the risk of COVID-19.

2.
Nature ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730298

ABSTRACT

Critical COVID-19 is caused by immune-mediated inflammatory lung injury. Host genetic variation influences the development of illness requiring critical care1 or hospitalization2-4 after infection with SARS-CoV-2. The GenOMICC (Genetics of Mortality in Critical Care) study enables the comparison of genomes from individuals who are critically ill with those of population controls to find underlying disease mechanisms. Here we use whole-genome sequencing in 7,491 critically ill individuals compared with 48,400 controls to discover and replicate 23 independent variants that significantly predispose to critical COVID-19. We identify 16 new independent associations, including variants within genes that are involved in interferon signalling (IL10RB and PLSCR1), leucocyte differentiation (BCL11A) and blood-type antigen secretor status (FUT2). Using transcriptome-wide association and colocalization to infer the effect of gene expression on disease severity, we find evidence that implicates multiple genes-including reduced expression of a membrane flippase (ATP11A), and increased expression of a mucin (MUC1)-in critical disease. Mendelian randomization provides evidence in support of causal roles for myeloid cell adhesion molecules (SELE, ICAM5 and CD209) and the coagulation factor F8, all of which are potentially druggable targets. Our results are broadly consistent with a multi-component model of COVID-19 pathophysiology, in which at least two distinct mechanisms can predispose to life-threatening disease: failure to control viral replication; or an enhanced tendency towards pulmonary inflammation and intravascular coagulation. We show that comparison between cases of critical illness and population controls is highly efficient for the detection of therapeutically relevant mechanisms of disease.

3.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e934102, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Heat-clearing and detoxifying herbs (HDHs) play an important role in the prevention and treatment of coronavirus infection. However, their mechanism of action needs further study. This study aimed to explore the anti-coronavirus basis and mechanism of HDHs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Database mining was performed on 7 HDHs. Core ingredients and targets were screened according to ADME rules combined with Neighborhood, Co-occurrence, Co-expression, and other algorithms. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses were performed using the R language. Finally, high-throughput molecular docking was used for verification. RESULTS HDHs mainly acts on NOS3, EGFR, IL-6, MAPK8, PTGS2, MAPK14, NFKB1, and CASP3 through quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, indirubin alkaloids, ß-sitosterol, and isolariciresinol. These targets are mainly involved in the regulation of biological processes such as inflammation, activation of MAPK activity, and positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity. Pathway analysis further revealed that the pathways regulated by these targets mainly include: signaling pathways related to viral and bacterial infections such as tuberculosis, influenza A, Ras signaling pathways; inflammation-related pathways such as the TLR, TNF, MAPK, and HIF-1 signaling pathways; and immune-related pathways such as NOD receptor signaling pathways. These pathways play a synergistic role in inhibiting lung inflammation and regulating immunity and antiviral activity. CONCLUSIONS HDHs play a role in the treatment of coronavirus infection by regulating the body's immunity, fighting inflammation, and antiviral activities, suggesting a molecular basis and new strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 and a foundation for the screening of new antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Caspase 3/drug effects , Caspase 3/genetics , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cyclooxygenase 2/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Flavanones/chemistry , Flavanones/pharmacology , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacology , Interleukin-6/genetics , Lignin/chemistry , Lignin/pharmacology , Luteolin/chemistry , Luteolin/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/drug effects , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics , Naphthols/chemistry , Naphthols/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/drug effects , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Sitosterols/chemistry , Sitosterols/pharmacology , Transcriptome/drug effects , Transcriptome/genetics
4.
Innovation in aging ; 5(Suppl 1):332-332, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624258

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies revealed that the elderly and those with comorbidities are most susceptible to COVID-19. To understand how genetics affects the risk of COVID-19, we conducted a multi-instrument Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis and found that the genetic variation that supports a longer life is significantly associated with the lower risk of COVID-19 infection, as well as being hospitalized after infected. The odds ratio is 0.31 (P = 9.7e-6) and 0.46 (P = 3.3e-4), respectively, per additional 10 years of life. We further applied aging clock models and detected an association between biological age acceleration and future incidence and severity of COVID-19 infection for all subjects and individuals free of chronic disease. Biological age acceleration was also significantly associated with the risk of death in COVID-19 patients. A bivariate genomic scan for age-related COVID-19 infection identified a key contribution of the Notch signaling pathway and immune system. Finally, we performed MR using 389 immune cell traits as exposure and observed a significant negative correlation between their effect on lifespan and COVID-19 risk, especially for B cell-related traits. More specifically, we discovered the lower CD19 level on B cells indicates an increased risk of COVID-19 and potentially decreases the lifespan expectancy, which is further validated in clinical data from COVID-19 patients. Our analysis suggests that the factors that accelerate aging and limit lifespan cause an increased COVID-19 risk. Thus, the interventions target these factors (e.g., reduce biological age), after further validation, may have the opportunity to reduce the risk of COVID-19.

5.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 27: 751-762, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586912

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a serious impact on the world. In this study, small RNAs from the blood of COVID-19 patients with moderate or severe symptoms were extracted for high-throughput sequencing and analysis. Interestingly, the levels of a special group of tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) were found to be dramatically upregulated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with severe symptoms. In particular, the 3'CCA tsRNAs from tRNA-Gly were highly consistent with the inflammation indicator C-reactive protein (CRP). In addition, we found that the majority of significantly changed microRNAs (miRNAs) were associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/unfolded protein response (UPR) sensors, which may lead to the induction of proinflammatory cytokine and immune responses. This study found that SARS-CoV-2 infection caused significant changes in the levels of stress-associated small RNAs in patient blood and their potential functions. Our research revealed that the cells of COVID-19 patients undergo tremendous stress and respond, which can be reflected or regulated by small non-coding RNA (sncRNAs), thus providing potential thought for therapeutic intervention in COVID-19 by modulating small RNA levels or activities.

6.
iScience ; 24(10): 103186, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446742

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused over 220 million infections and 4.5 million deaths worldwide. Current risk factor cannot fully explain the diversity in disease severity. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of a broad range of patients' laboratory and clinical assessments to investigate the genetic contributions to COVID-19 severity. By performing GWAS analysis, we discovered several concrete associations for laboratory traits and used Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to further investigate the causality of traits on disease severity. Two causal traits, WBC counts and cholesterol levels, were identified based on MR study, and their functional genes are located at genes MHC complex and ApoE, respectively. Our gene-based analysis and GSEA revealed four interferon pathways, including type I interferon receptor binding and SARS coronavirus and innate immunity. We hope that our work will contribute to studying the genetic mechanisms of disease and serve as a useful reference for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment.

7.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 12021-12028, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that has been spreading very fast worldwide. Up to now, there is scarce information regarding the clinical features and short-term outcomes of infected patients with cancer. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in Wuhan Union Hospital from Feb 14, 2020, to Mar 15, 2020, China. Data were retrieved including demographic and clinical features, laboratory findings, and outcome data. Patients were classified into the discharged group and undischarged group by the 4-week outcomes from admission. Difference analysis and correlation analysis were performed between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients were enrolled in the study, including 27 cancer survivors in routine follow-up. Breast cancer (18.9%) was the most frequent cancer type, and common symptoms included cough (54.1%), fever (48.6%), and fatigue (27%). Lymphocytopenia and hypoproteinemia were much frequent in patients who had received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or surgery within the past month. However, the concentration of D-dimer (median: 3.75 vs 0.43, P =0.010) and fibrin degradation products (median: 23.60 vs 1.80, P =0.002) were evidently increased in this population compared with cancer survivors. At the end of follow-up, 83.8% of the enrolled patients were discharged. Among the discharged, women (48.6%) and cancer survivors (67.6%) showed better short-term outcomes. The elevated level of FDP was significantly higher in the undischarged group (median: 21.85 vs 2.00, P =0.049). The proportion of CD3-positive lymphocyte cells and CD4-positive lymphocytes was correlated with short-term outcomes. CONCLUSION: Peripheral lymphocyte subset (CD3-positive and CD4-positive) on admission as a novel biomarker had a potential association with early efficacy. Cancer survivors in routine follow-up would achieve better short-term outcomes. COVID-19 patients with cancer should gain more attention and close monitoring.

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