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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792692

ABSTRACT

Following the detection of COVID-19 in cold chain aquatic products (CCAP) at Xinfadi Produce Wholesale Market in Beijing, China, in June 2020, novel coronavirus positive tests of CCAP have been reported in such markets of Dalian, Xi'an, Qingdao, Taiyuan, and other places, which has aroused the concern of Chinese consumers. The CCAP outbreak puts tremendous pressure on public health management and threatens customer well-being. This article uses the theoretical model of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate Chinese consumers' purchasing intentions of CCAP under this circumstance. A total of 783 questionnaires were administered in China with empirical analysis through a structural equation model. The results show that attitudes (ATT) towards the safety of CCAP and subjective norms (SN) have significant positive effects on customers' purchasing behavior intention (BI); the emotional response to the health concern (EM) of CCAP has a significant positive impact on SN, ATT, and BI; and BI of CCAP is significantly affected by individual characteristics. The BI of CCAP for those married consumers living in cities and towns with a low monthly consumption frequency is more likely to be affected by the new coronavirus epidemic events. This paper is one of the first studies that contribute to the literature by exploring the influencing factors of the consumption behavior intention over the COVID-19 pandemic in China from a public health perspective. The findings provide significant implications for cold chain operators, market managers, and policymakers to develop guidelines and offer a framework to initiate and support the produce market and boost consumer health confidence in CCAP at the practitioner level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Consumer Behavior , Humans , Pandemics , Refrigeration , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742726

ABSTRACT

The prolonged duration of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in the continuous emergence of variants of concern (VOC, e.g., Omicron) and variants of interest (VOI, e.g., Lambda). These variants have challenged the protective efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines, thus calling for the development of novel therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs. Here, we constructed a novel fusion inhibitor-based recombinant protein, denoted as 5-Helix, consisting of three heptad repeat 1 (HR1) and two heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fragments. The 5-Helix interacted with the HR2 domain of the viral S2 subunit, the most conserved region in spike (S) protein, to block homologous six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation between viral HR1 and HR2 domains and, hence, viral S-mediated cell-cell fusion. The 5-Helix potently inhibited infection by pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs, including Delta and Omicron variants. The 5-Helix also inhibited infection by authentic SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (nCoV-SH01) strain and its Delta variant. Collectively, our findings suggest that 5-Helix can be further developed as either a therapeutic or prophylactic to treat and prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Envelope Proteins , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 415, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only when people feel they have received timely disclosure will they have sufficient incentive to implement community prevention and control measures. The timely and standardized information published by authorities as a response to the crisis can better inform the public and enable better preparations for the pandemic during the low transmission period of COVID-19; however, there is limited evidence of whether people consent that information is disclosed timely and influencing factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in China from 4 to 26 February 2021. Convenient sampling strategy was adopted to recruit participators. Participants were asked to filled out the questions that assessed questionnaire on the residents' attitudes to information disclosure timely. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors affecting the residents' attitudes. RESULTS: A total of 2361 residents filled out the questionnaire. 1704 (72.17%) consented COVID-19 information has been disclosed timely. Furthermore, age (OR = 0.093, 95%CI = 0.043 ~ 0.201), gender (OR = 1.396, 95%CI = 1.085 ~ 1.797), place of residence (OR = 0.650, 95%CI = 0.525 ~ 0.804), employed status (OR = 2.757, 95%CI = 1.598 ~ 4.756), highest educational level (OR = 0.394, 95%CI = 0.176 ~ 0.880), region (OR = 0.561, 95%CI = 0.437 ~ 0.720) and impact on life by the COVID-19 (OR = 0.482, 95%CI = 0.270 ~ 0.861) were mainly factors associated with residents' attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the residents attitudes to information disclosure timely during the low transmission period in China and to provide a scientific basis for effective information communication in future public health crises. Timely and effective efforts to disclose information need to been made during the low transmission period. Continued improvements to local authority reporting will contribute to more effective public communication and efficient public health research responses. The development of protocols and the standardization of epidemic message templates-as well as the use of uniform operating procedures to provide regular information updates-should be prioritized to ensure a coordinated national response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disclosure , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324430

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causes novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). Given that approved drug repurposing becomes a common strategy to quickly find antiviral treatments, a collection of FDA-approved drugs can be powerful resources for new anti-NCP indication discoveries. In addition to synthetic compounds, Chinese Patent Drugs (CPD), also play a key role in the treatment of virus related infections diseases in China. Here we compiled major components from 38 CPDs that are commonly used in the respiratory diseases and docked them against two drug targets, ACE2 receptor and viral main protease. According to our docking screening, 10 antiviral components, including hesperidin, saikosaponin A, rutin, corosolic acid, verbascoside, baicalin, glycyrrhizin, mulberroside A, cynaroside, and bilirubin, can directly bind to both host cell target ACE2 receptor and viral target main protease. In combination of the docking results, the natural abundance of the substances, and botanical knowledge, we proposed that artemisinin, rutin, glycyrrhizin, cholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid, puerarin, oleanic acid, andrographolide, matrine, codeine, morphine, chlorogenic acid, and baicalin (or Yinhuang Injection containing chlorogenic acid and baicalin) might be of value for clinical trials during a 2019-nCov outbreak.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321332

ABSTRACT

The authors have requested that this preprint be removed from Research Square.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315362

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 has caused great number of cases and deaths, but our understanding about the pathogen SARS-CoV-2 remains largely unclear. The attachment of the virus with the cell-surface receptor and a co-factor is the firstly important step for the infection. Here, bioinformatics approaches combining human-virus protein interaction prediction and protein docking based on crystal structures have revealed the high affinity between human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and the spike (S) receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2. Intriguingly, the crucial binding residues of DPP4 at the interface are identical to those as bound to the MERS-CoV spike. Moreover, E484 insertion and adjacent substitutions should be most essential for this DPP4-binding ability acquirement of SARS-CoV-2-S compared with that of SARS-CoV-S, which does not interact with DPP4. This potential utilization of DPP4 as a coreceptor or binding target for SARS-CoV-2 may offer novel insight into the viral pathogenesis, and help the surveillance and therapeutics strategy for meeting the challenge of COVID-19.Funding: This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program and the National Natural Science Foundations of China (2017YFC1200204, 2017YFC1200205, 31670171 and 81974427).Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 727234, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549120

ABSTRACT

Background: As more and more countries enter the low-transmission phase, maintaining prevention awareness among the population is critical to prevent a secondary outbreak. With large-scale interpersonal communication, whether Chinese residents can maintain a high awareness of prevention and control and adhere to the use of masks during the Chinese New Year of 2021 is worth studying. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in China from February 4 to 26, 2021. A convenient sampling strategy was adopted to recruit participators. Participants were asked to fill out the questions that assessed the questionnaire on face mask use. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the mask-wearing behaviors of the public. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors affecting mask-wearing behaviors. Results: A total of 2,361 residents filled out the questionnaire. In the mixed-effect logistic regression analysis, Chinese residents who were older (OR = 7.899, 95%CI = 4.183-14.916), employed (OR = 1.887, 95%CI = 1.373-2.594), had a chronic disease (OR = 1.777, 95%CI = 1.307-2.418), reused face masks (OR = 22.155, 95%CI = 15.331-32.016) and have read the face mask instructions (OR = 3.552, 95%CI = 1.989-6.341) were more likely to use face masks in interpersonal communication during the Spring Festival; while people who have breathing discomfort caused by face masks (OR = 0.556, 95%CI = 0.312-0.991) and considered that using masks repeatedly is wasteful (OR = 0.657, 95%CI = 0.482-0.895) were more unlikely to use face masks. Conclusions: Our results revealed that 83.86% of people wore face masks during the Chinese New Year; however, some aspects require further promotion. By investigating the use of masks by Chinese residents during the Spring Festival and its influencing factors, we can reflect the prevention awareness of the residents during the low transmission period of COVID-19, which can provide a reference for Chinese and global public health policymakers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 766127, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528867

ABSTRACT

Background: By investigating the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among residents during a period of low transmission, this study reflects the long-term impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify which categories of residents are more likely to develop PTSD due to an acute infectious disease crisis, facilitating the development of targeted strategies to protect mental health after outbreaks of similar acute infectious diseases in the future. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in China from 4 to 26 February 2021. A convenience sampling strategy was adopted to recruit participants. Participants were asked to complete the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). A multivariable linear stepwise regression analysis model was used to identify which factors were associated with PTSD in residents of China. Results: A total of 2,361 Chinese residents completed the questionnaire. The mean PCL-5 score for the respondents was 13.65 (SD = 8.66), with 219 (9.28%) patients having probable PTSD symptoms. Respondents who were female (ß = 0.038), had a relative or friend who had contracted COVID-19 (ß = 0.041), and had poor health (ß = 0.184) had higher PCL-5 scores, while the population aged over 60 years (ß = -0.063), who agreed that COVID-19 information was released in a timely manner (ß = -0.347), who had experienced a relatively limited impact of COVID-19 on their life (ß = -0.069), and who agreed that the local prevention initiatives were sophisticated (ß = -0.165) had lower PTSD scores. Conclusions: Outbreaks of acute infectious diseases can have long-term psychological health effects in the general population. In addition, health policy makers need to be concerned about and implement measures to support the mental health of vulnerable groups.

9.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(3): 2421-2430, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488216

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a public health crisis worldwide. In this study, we aimed at demonstrating the neutralizing potential of the IgY produced after immunizing chicken with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit. METHODS AND RESULTS: E. coli BL21 carrying plasmid pET28a-S1 was induced with IPTG for the expression of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein. The recombinant His-tagged S1 was purified and verified by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and biolayer interferometry (BLI) assay. Then S1 protein emulsified with Freund's adjuvant was used to immunize layer chickens. Specific IgY against S1 (S1-IgY) produced from egg yolks of these chickens exhibited a high titer (1:25,600) and a strong binding affinity to S1 (KD  = 318 nmol L-1 ). The neutralizing ability of S1-IgY was quantified by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus-based neutralization assay with an IC50  value of 0.99 mg ml-1 . In addition, S1-IgY exhibited a strong ability in blocking the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 to hACE2, and it could partially compete with hACE2 for the binding sites on S1 by BLI assays. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated here that after immunization of chickens with our recombinant S1 protein, IgY neutralizing antibodies were generated against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit; therefore, showing the potential use of IgY to block the entry of this virus. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: IgY targeting S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 could be a promising candidate for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19. Administration of IgY-based oral preparation, oral or nasal spray may have profound implications for blocking SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Immunoglobulins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19 , Chickens , Egg Yolk/immunology , Humans , Pandemics
10.
Front Psychol ; 12: 700376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468365

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has contributed to depression and anxiety among the general population in China. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of these psychological problems among Chinese adults during the period of low transmission, which could reflect the long-term depression and anxiety of the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in China from 4 to 26 February 2021. Convenient sampling strategy was adopted to recruit participators. Participants were asked to filled out the questions that assessed questionnaire on the residents' depression and anxiety. Results: A total of 2,361 residents filled out the questionnaire. The mean age was 29.72 years (SD = 6.94) and majority of respondents were female (60.10%). Among the respondents, 421 (17.83%), 1470 (62.26%), and 470 (19.91%) were from eastern, central, and western China, respectively. 1704 (72.17%) consented COVID-19 information has been disclosed timely. 142 (6.01%) and 130 (5.51%) patients suffered from depression and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, some influencing factors were found, including marital status, place of residence, employment status. Conclusion: This study revealed that anxiety and depression still are potential depression and anxiety for some residents, which suggested early recognition and initiation of interventions during the period of low transmission is still indispensable.

11.
Front Psychol ; 12: 679538, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448802

ABSTRACT

Background: Home quarantine is an important strategy to contain the mass spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are a dearth of studies on the prevalence and risk factors of home quarantine strategy implementation among residents. This study aims to assess the state of home quarantine strategy implementation among Chinese residents, which could provide a reference for quarantine policymakers around the world during the pandemic. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3,398 residents in China by adopting a convenience sampling strategy. We measured the prevalence and risk factors of home quarantine strategy implementation with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). A multivariable model was used to determine the factors associated with home quarantine strategy implementation. Results: A total of 2,936 (86.4%) respondents carried out home quarantine. There were some factors significantly associated with home quarantine strategy implementation among Chinese residents during the COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents who were male, lived in western and central China, were aware of the primary symptoms of COVID-19, were willing to accept recommendations on relevant protective measures, understood local quarantine measures, had better resilience, and had better social support were more likely to engage in home quarantine. Respondents who were married, were employed, were healthy, and had high depression scores were more likely to refuse to follow home quarantine guidance. Conclusions: Gender, region, marital status, employment status, health status, awareness of the primary symptoms of COVID-19, willingness to accept recommendations on relevant protective measures, understanding of local quarantine measures, depression, psychological resilience, and perceived social support were the main factors affecting the implementation of residents' home quarantine strategy. Health service policymakers should adopt relevant measures to improve the prevalence of home quarantine strategy implementation among residents during the pandemic.

12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 702146, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376722

ABSTRACT

Background: Policymakers must promote the development of public health education and human resources. As a feature of the political environment, public opinion is essential for policy-making, but virtually the attitudes of Chinese citizens toward human resources development in public health is unknown. Methods: This study conducted a crosssectional survey from February 4, 2021 to February 26, 2021 in China. We adopted a convenient sampling strategy to recruit participators. Participants filled out the questions, which assess the attitudes of the expanding public health professionals. A logistic regression analysis was given to identify the predictors associated with the attitudes of the subjects. Results: There were 2,361 residents who have finished our questionnaire. Chinese residents who lived in urban (OR = 1.293, 95% CI = 1.051-1.591), "themselves or relatives and friends have participated in relevant epidemic prevention work" (OR = 1.553, 95% CI = 1.160-2.079), "themselves or family members engaged in medical-related work" (OR = 1.468, 95% CI = 1.048-2.056), and those who "were aware of public health before the outbreak of COVID-19" (OR = 1.428, 95% CI = 1.125-1.812) were more likely to support the promotion of public health education and training. Conclusions: The present study found that 74.50% of Chinese citizens supported the promotion of public health education and training in China, in which economic status, personal perception, and comprehension are the crucial factors that influence public opinion. COVID-19 has aroused the attention of Chinese residents to public health education, with only 22.11% of residents being aware of public health before the outbreak of COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic has profound implications for human society. Literally, this impact will feed back into future public health policies based on public opinion. This innovative perspective will also help us better understand the potential social impact of COVID-19 on human resources and development for health in the modern world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China/epidemiology , Health Education , Humans , Motivation , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(11): 4005-4012, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348032

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to determine coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination hesitancy and influencing factors in China, while broadening the applicability of the Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (VHS). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in China from 4th to 26th February 2021. Convenience sampling method was adopted to recruit participants. A total of 2,361 residents filled out the questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis was used on the validation set to confirm the latent structure that resulted from the exploratory factor analysis, which was conducted on the construction set. Multiple linear regression model analyses were used to identify significant associations between the identified the revised version of VHS subscales and hypothesized explanatory variables. Two subscales were identified within the VHS through data analysis, including "lack of confidence in the need for vaccines" and "aversion to the risk of side effects." The results indicated that the hesitancy of the participants in our sample was both driven the two mainly aspects. In addition, more than 40% of the participants expressed hesitation in half of the items in VHS. This study characterized COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in China, and identified disparities in vaccine hesitancy by socio-demographic groups and knowledge about the vaccine. Knowledge of the vaccine was statistically linked to respondents' answers to the clustered 'lack of confidence' and 'risks perception' items. Our results characterize Chinese citizens' COVID-19 vaccine concerns and will inform targeted health communications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
14.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153671, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hua Shi Bai Du Granule (Q-14) plus standard care compared with standard care alone in adults with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: A single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China, February 27 to March 27, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 204 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were randomized into the treatment group and control group, consisting of 102 patients in each group. INTERVENTIONS: In the treatment group, Q-14 was administered at 10 g (granules) twice daily for 14 days, plus standard care. In the control group, patients were provided standard care alone for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was the conversion time for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral assay. Adverse events were analyzed in the safety population. RESULTS: Among the 204 patients, 195 were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 149 patients (71 vs. 78 in the treatment and control groups, respectively) tested negative via the SARS-CoV-2 viral assay. There was no statistical significance in the conversion time between the treatment group and control group (Full analysis set: Median [interquartile range]: 10.00 [9.00-11.00] vs. 10.00 [9.00-11.00]; Mean rank: 67.92 vs. 81.44; P = 0.051). The recovery time for fever was shorter in the treatment group than in the control group. The disappearance rate of symptoms like cough, fatigue, and chest discomfort was significantly higher in the treatment group. In chest computed tomography (CT) examinations, the overall evaluation of chest CT examination after treatment compared with baseline showed that more patients improved in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in the other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The combination of Q-14 and standard care for COVID-19 was useful for the improvement of symptoms (such as fever, cough, fatigue, and chest discomfort), but did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion in the SARS-CoV-2 viral assay. No serious adverse events were observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000030288.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107797, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300822

ABSTRACT

Specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 structural protein have a wide range of effects in the diagnose, prevention and treatment of the COVID-19 epidemic. Among them, egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY), which has high safety, high yield, and without inducing antibody-dependent enhancement, is an important biological candidate. In this study, specific IgY against the conservative nucleocapsid protein (NP) of SARS-CoV-2 was obtained by immunizing hens. Through a series of optimized precipitation and ultrafiltration extraction schemes, its purity was increased to 98%. The hyperimmune IgY against NP (N-IgY) at a titer of 1:50,000 showed strong NP binding ability, which laid the foundation of N-IgY's application targeting NP. In an in vitro immunoregulatory study, N-IgY (1 mg/mL) modulated NP-induced immune response by alleviating type II interferon secretion stimulated by NP (20 µg/mL). In summary, N-IgY can be mass produced by achievable method, which endows it with potential value against the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , Chickens , Drug Development , Egg Yolk/chemistry , Egg Yolk/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulins/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunomodulation , In Vitro Techniques , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
16.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 68(1): 34-43, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, over 4,600 deaths and 84,000 confirmed cases were reported in China because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there is a dearth of studies on the psychological resilience in residents. AIMS: This study aims to measure the psychological resilience of Chinese residents to reflect their psychological status as well as influencing factors during the pandemic. METHOD: We conducted a combination of stratified sampling and snowball sampling to select survey subjects. We employed the psychological resilience and influencing factor questionnaire based on the 10-item Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10) for survey. We collected data from 3,398 residents in China between 31 January and 29 February 2020. Multivariable linear stepwise regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with psychological resilience in residents. RESULTS: The mean score of psychological resilience among Chinese residents was 27.11 ± 8.45 (SD = 7.98). There were some factors significantly associated with psychological status among the Chinese residents during the COVID-19 outbreak. Residents with lower financial status, living in rural areas, unmarried, lacking fixed employment or retirement guarantees, and lacking knowledge of policies were more likely to report a lower level of psychological resilience. CONCLUSION: Health service policy makers in many countries should adopt relevant measures to improve the psychological resilience of residents during the pandemic. This includes short-term aggressive treatment, strengthening health education, and improving the awareness of residents with respect to emergency health policies. In addition, the financial status, health levels, and risk management capabilities of residents should be increased over the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Resilience, Psychological , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5917, 2020 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939438

ABSTRACT

Stringent COVID-19 control measures were imposed in Wuhan between January 23 and April 8, 2020. Estimates of the prevalence of infection following the release of restrictions could inform post-lockdown pandemic management. Here, we describe a city-wide SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid screening programme between May 14 and June 1, 2020 in Wuhan. All city residents aged six years or older were eligible and 9,899,828 (92.9%) participated. No new symptomatic cases and 300 asymptomatic cases (detection rate 0.303/10,000, 95% CI 0.270-0.339/10,000) were identified. There were no positive tests amongst 1,174 close contacts of asymptomatic cases. 107 of 34,424 previously recovered COVID-19 patients tested positive again (re-positive rate 0.31%, 95% CI 0.423-0.574%). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Wuhan was therefore very low five to eight weeks after the end of lockdown.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mass Screening , Nucleic Acids/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Employment , Female , Geography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Open Access J. Clin. ; (12): 15-21, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-725554

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The first clinical trial on remdesivir for treatment of severe COVID-19 conducted in China was terminated prematurely due to limited patient enrollment, which rendered the findings inconclusive. We re-analyzed the efficacy with a statistically more powerful and clinically meaningful method based on published data using the 6-point ordinal scale of patient’s disease severity. Methods: We defined response as patient’s point reached, either 2 (hospitalized, no require-ment for supplementary oxygen therapy) or 1 (discharged or met discharge criterion), and then analyzed with logistic regression with baseline score, day of assessment, treatment group, baseline by treatment interaction, and day by treatment interaction as covariates. The binary endpoint was supported by the recent FDA’s guidance on COVID-19. Results: Eighty-two percent (82%) of the patients were in the disease severity point=3 (hospitalized, required supplemental oxygen (but not NIV/HFNC)) – the moderately severe category. The response rate was 85% for remdesivir-treated patients with baseline disease point=3 versus 70% response rate for likewise placebo-treated patients on Day 28 (OR=2.38, P=0.0012). On Day 14, the response rate for these patients was 43% for remdesivir versus 33% for placebo (OR=1.53, P=0.0022). For patients with baseline disease point=4 (critically severe category), no similar comparisons were statistically significant. Conclusion and Discussion: The Chinese trial was not really under-powered as previously perceived or portrayed by many opinions. This result supports the preliminary findings of ACTT that remdesivir is effective for patients who were not critically severe. This result also suggests that remdesivir should be given to hospitalized COVID-19 patients as soon as possible. There is no race difference in the treatment effect.

19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925047, 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and compare these parameters in an elderly group with those in a younger group. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective, single-center observational study included 69 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from a tertiary hospital in Wuhan, China, between January 14, 2020, and February 26, 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, as well as treatments, complications, and outcomes were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between elderly patients (aged ≥60 years) and younger patients (aged <60 years). Patients were followed until March 19, 2020. RESULTS Elderly patients had more complications than younger patients, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 9/25, 36% vs. 5/44, 11.4%) and cardiac injury (7/25, 28% vs. 1/44, 2.3%), and they were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (6/25, 24% vs. 2/44, 4.5%). As of March 19, 2020, 60/69 (87%) of the patients had been discharged, 6/69 (8.7%) had died, and 3/69 (4.3%) remained in the hospital. Of those who were discharged or died, the median duration of hospitalization was 13.5 days (interquartile range, 10-18 days). CONCLUSIONS Elderly patients with confirmed COVID-19 were more likely to develop ARDS and cardiac injury than younger patients and were more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit. In addition to routine monitoring and respiratory support, cardiac monitoring and supportive care should be a focus in elderly patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart Diseases/etiology , Humans , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Palliative Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e2010895, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505563

ABSTRACT

Importance: The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported, but information on immune features associated with disease severity is scarce. Objective: To delineate and compare the immunologic features of mild and moderate COVID-19 in pediatric patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center case series included 157 pediatric patients admitted to Wuhan Children's Hospital with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Data were collected from January 25 to April 18, 2020. Exposures: Documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical and immunologic characteristics were collected and analyzed. Outcomes were observed until April 18, 2020. Results: Of the 157 pediatric patients with COVID-19, 60 (38.2%) had mild clinical type with pneumonia, 88 (56.1%) had moderate cases, 6 (3.8%) had severe cases, and 3 (1.9%) were critically ill. The 148 children with mild or moderate disease had a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 84 (18-123) months, and 88 (59.5%) were girls. The most common laboratory abnormalities were increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (median [IQR], 16.0 [12.0-26.0] U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (median [IQR], 30.0 [23.0-41.8] U/L), creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity (median [IQR], 24.0 [18.0-34.0] U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (median [IQR], 243.0 [203.0-297.0] U/L), which are associated with liver and myocardial injury. Compared with mild cases, levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interferon γ were unchanged, whereas the level of immune suppressive interleukin 10 was markedly increased in moderate cases compared with mild cases (median [IQR], 3.96 [3.34-5.29] pg/mL vs 3.58 [3.10-4.36] pg/mL; P = .048). There was no statistically significant difference in absolute number of lymphocytes (including T cells and B cells) between mild and moderate cases, but moderate cases were associated with a decrease in neutrophil levels compared with mild cases (median [IQR], 2310/µL [1680/µL-3510/µL] vs 3120/µL [2040/µL-4170/µL]; P = .01). Immunoglobin G and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were negatively associated with biochemical indices related to liver and myocardial injury (immunoglobulin G, ALT: r, -0.3579; AST: r, -0.5280; CK-MB activity: r, -0.4786; LDH: r, -0.4984; and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, ALT: r, -0.1893; AST: r, -0.3912; CK-MB activity: r, -0.3428; LDH: r, -0.3234), while counts of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and interleukin 10 showed positive associations (lymphocytes, ALT: r, 0.2055; AST: r, 0.3615; CK-MB activity: r, 0.338; LDH: r, 0.3309; CD4+ T cells, AST: r, 0.4701; CK-MB activity: r, 0.4151; LDH: r, 0.4418; interleukin 10, ALT: r, 0.2595; AST: r, 0.3386; CK-MB activity: r, 0.3948; LDH: r, 0.3794). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series, systemic inflammation rarely occurred in pediatric patients with COVID-19, in contrast with the lymphopenia and aggravated inflammatory responses frequently observed in adults with COVID-19. Gaining a deeper understanding of the role of neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and B cells in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection could be important for the clinical management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Age Distribution , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/metabolism , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-2/immunology , Interleukin-4/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Distribution , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
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