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1.
Drying Technology ; : 8, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585542

ABSTRACT

As the vaccine was successfully developed, the spread of the epidemic (COVID-19) was effectively controlled. But there are still thousands of people affected COVID-19 after being vaccinated. Neutralizing activity has become a critical method for quantifying neutralizing antibody against SARS-CoV-2. However, limited to the strict conditions of cold chain transportation, the neutralizing activity test has not been widely promoted. In this study, a room-temperature-storable chemiluminescence freeze-drying mixes for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody detection was developed to decrease the cost of lyophilization step for promoting its application in third world countries. Several freeze concentrated solutions were used to protect the antigen bioactivity. The mixes can be stored at room temperature over 12 months and still exhibited great accuracy and precision. Thus, the proposed room-temperature-storable chemiluminescence freeze-drying mixes offers a cheap and stable storage method for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody detection and shows a great potential for promoting the neutralizing activity test.

2.
Journal of Immunology ; 206:1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1548635
3.
Computer Systems Science and Engineering ; 41(1):255-269, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1527146

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the world-wide novel coronavirus pandemic, crowd counting in public areas, such as in shopping centers and in commercial streets, has gained popularity among public health administrations for preventing the crowds from gathering. In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive method for crowd counting based on Wi-Fi channel state information (CSI) by using common commercial wireless routers. Compared with previous researches on device-free crowd counting, our proposed method is more adaptive to the change of environment and can achieve high accuracy of crowd count estimation. Because the distance between access point (AP) and monitor point (MP) is typically non-fixed in real-world applications, the strength of received signals varies and makes the traditional amplitude-related models to perform poorly in different environments. In order to achieve adaptivity of the crowd count estimation model, we used convolutional neural network (ConvNet) to extract features from correlation coefficient matrix of subcarriers which are insensitive to the change of received signal strength. We conducted experiments in university classroom settings and our model achieved an overall accuracy of 97.79% in estimating a variable number of participants. © 2022 CRL Publishing. All rights reserved.

4.
Environmental Science and Technology Letters ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1469945

ABSTRACT

The unintentional emission reductions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic provides an opportunity to investigate the impact of energy, industry, and transportation activities on air pollutants and CO2 emissions and their synergy. Here, we constructed an approach to estimate city-level high resolution dynamic emissions of both anthropogenic air pollutants and CO2 by introducing dynamic temporal allocation coefficients based on real-time multisource activity data. We first apply this approach to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of sectoral emissions in eastern China, focusing on the period around the COVID-19 lockdown. Comparisons with observational data show that our approach can well capture the spatiotemporal changes of both short-lived precursors (NOx and NMVOCs) and CO2 emissions. Our results show that air pollutants (SO2, NOx, and NMVOCs) were reduced by up to 31%-53% during the lockdown period accompanied by simultaneous changes of 40% CO2 emissions. The declines in power and heavy industry sectors dominated regional SO2 and CO2 reductions. NOx reductions were mainly attributed to mobile sources, while NMVOCs emission reductions were mainly from light industry sectors. Our findings suggest that differentiated emission control strategies should be implemented for different source categories to achieve coordinated reduction goals. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

5.
2021 International Conference on Information Technology and Contemporary Sports, TCS 2021 ; : 357-362, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1462702

ABSTRACT

Effective in preventing the spread of Covid-19 though, a long period of home quarantine would also impose a negative impact on the public emotion. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the emotional regulation effect of home exercises. The social media data during Wuhan's lockdown was used to analysis the emotional orientation of the masses. This thesis has conducted data on the subjective emotional status of subjects before and after home exercise from an one-week online experiment, when the regulating effect on emotion from various types of home exercise was quantitatively evaluated in accordance with different emotional weights. The experimental results showed that generally home exercise imposed a positive impact on the regulation of emotion during the epidemic period, while different exercise forms saw their impacts varying. Based on the results and analysis, we suggest that people should embark on the exercise of the second maximum intensity/duration within 10 to 60 minutes/moderate energy consumption for emotion regulation. The experimental results of this study have shown a significance for picking up proper home exercise forms during the epidemic period, as well as the practice of intelligent exercise during home quarantine in the future. © 2021 IEEE.

6.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise ; 53(8):17-17, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1436949
7.
Accounting and Finance ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1437971

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-related public health measures have severely impacted the Australian higher education system (AHES). This paper examines the resilience of the AHES, particularly its past reliance on onshore international students to generate revenue that cross-subsidises operational and research expenses. By our measure, ten universities are at risk of financial default. With a different approach on the part of the Government and university leadership, surplus monies could have contributed to building a more resilient AHES. Our findings correct widely held misconceptions about the state of the AHES and aim to provide valuable learnings to individual universities and the sector more broadly. © 2021 Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand

8.
Journal of Asia Business Studies ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1434579

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to explore the effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on exports of goods and services, logistics performance, environmental management system (ISO 14001) certification and quality management system (ISO 9001) certification in top affected Asian countries of India, Iran, Indonesia, Philippines, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: A novel grey relational analysis models’ approach is used to examine the inter-relationship between COVID-19 economic growth and environmental performance. Moreover, the authors applied a conservative (maximin) model to investigate which countries have the least intensifying affected among all of the top affected COVID-19 Asian countries based on the SS degree of grey relation values. The data used in this study was collected from multiple databases during 2020 for analysis. Findings: Results indicate that the severity of COVID-19 shows a strong negative association and influence of COVID-19 on the exportation of goods and services, logistics performance, ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certifications in all the six highly affected countries during a pandemic outbreak. Although the adverse effects of COVID-19 in exporting countries persisted until December 31, 2020, their magnitude decreased over time in Indonesia and Pakistan. During the COVID-19 outbreak, Pakistan showed comparatively better performance among the six top highly affected Asian countries due to its smart locked down strategy and prevents its economy from severe damages. While India and Iran export drastically go down due to a rapid increase in the number of COVID-19 cases and deaths. Research limitations/implications: The research findings produce much-required policy suggestions for leaders, world agencies and governments to take corrective measures on an emergent basis to prevent the economies from more damages and improve their logistics, environmental and quality performance during the pandemic of COVID-19. Originality/value: This study develops a framework and investigates the intensifying effects of COVID-19 effects on economic growth, logistics performance, environmental performance and quality production processes. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

10.
Value in Health ; 24:S109-S109, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1306223
11.
Value in Health ; 24:S111-S111, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1305936
12.
Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research ; 45:233A-233A, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1289551
13.
Value in Health ; 24:S111, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1284281

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This systematic literature review highlights the economic burden of hospitalized adults with COVID-19 in Europe and Asia. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EconLit from December 1, 2019 to October 26, 2020. Two independent reviewers assessed all abstracts according to the eligibility criteria. Studies with queries were referred to a third reviewer to reach agreement. Studies that met the inclusion criteria after full-text review were extracted and critically appraised. Results: After removing duplicates, 845 citations were identified through database searches. Sixty-three citations were included for full-text screening;seven observational studies were included (three from Asia, four from Europe). Six studies reported baseline characteristics for hospitalized patients, and all studies reported comorbidities. Commonly reported comorbidities included diabetes (range 11.2%-50%) and hypertension (range 16.3%-64%). The proportion of patients requiring ventilation ranged from 2% to 89%. One study reported that all patients needed invasive ventilation, but due to lack of ventilators, only 64.7% received it. Pharmacology therapy use was reported in five studies: one study treated all patients with hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin, another reported propofol and cisatracurium as the most frequently used therapies. Use of antibiotics ranged from 31% to 100%, and antivirals ranged from 40% to 98.6%. Length of hospital stay was reported in five studies and varied greatly, from mean 4.6 days (SD 2.1) to median 16 days (IQR 10-23). One study estimated per-patient costs for COVID-19 patients at $4,552 for mild cases, $11,058 for severe cases, and $16,652 for critically ill cases. Conclusions: Research showed that the economic burden of COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Europe and Asia is high. This literature is growing, as our search strategy found 800 new citations published from October 2020 to January 2021. These results may be useful for future studies seeking to increase the information base on the economic burden of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

14.
Environmental Science and Technology Letters ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1279806

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 plays a critical role in spreading COVID-19. To protect public health, we designed and fabricated electrospun nanofibrous air filters that hold promise for applications in personal protective equipment (PPE) and the indoor environment. Due to ultrafine nanofibers (∼300 nm), the electrospun air filters had a much smaller pore size in comparison to the surgical mask and cloth masks (a couple of micrometers versus tens to hundreds of micrometers). A coronavirus strain served as a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate and was used to generate aerosols for filtration efficiency tests, which can better represent SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to other agents used for aerosol generation in previous studies. The electrospun air filters showed excellent performance by capturing up to 99.9% of coronavirus aerosols, which outperformed many commercial face masks. In addition, we observed that the same electrospun air filter or face mask removed NaCl aerosols equivalently or less effectively in comparison to the coronavirus aerosols when both aerosols were generated from the same system. Our work paves a new avenue for advancing air filtration by developing electrospun nanofibrous air filters for controlling SARS-CoV-2 airborne transmission. ©

16.
Jama Internal Medicine ; 181(5):727-727, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1241424
17.
Annals of Surgery ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1236254

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study objective was to evaluate effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on rates of emergency department (ED) acute appendicitis presentation, management strategies, and patient outcomes. Summary Background Data: Acute appendicitis is the most commonly performed emergency surgery in the United States and is unlikely to improve without medical or surgical intervention. Dramatic reductions in ED visits prompted concern that individuals with serious conditions, such as acute appendicitis, were deferring treatment for fear of contracting COVID-19. Methods: Patients from 146 hospitals with diagnosed appendicitis and arrival between March 2016 and May 2020 were selected. Electronic medical records data were retrospectively reviewed to retrieve patient data. Daily admissions were averaged from March 2016 through May 2019 and compared with March 2020. April-specific admissions were compared across the 5-year pre-COVID-19 period to April 2020 to identify differences in volume, demographics, disease severity, and outcomes. Results: Appendicitis patient admissions in 2020 decreased throughout March into April, with April experiencing the fewest admissions. April 2020 experienced a substantial decrease in patients who presented with appendicitis, dropping 25.4%, from an average of 2030 patients (2016-2019) to 1516 in 2020. An even greater decrease of 33.8% was observed in pediatric patients (age <18). Overall, 77% of the 146 hospitals experienced a reduction in appendicitis admissions. There were no differences between years in percent of patients treated nonoperatively (P = 0.493) incidence of shock (P = 0.95), mortality (P = 0.24), or need for postoperative procedures (P = 0.81). Conclusions: Acute appendicitis presentations decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic, while overall management and patient outcomes did not differ from previous years. Further research is needed focusing on putative explanations for decreased hospital presentations unrelated to COVID-19 infection and possible implications for surgical management of uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Keywords: acute appendicitis, COVID-19, decreasing volumes, multicenter study. © 2021 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4):01, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (1) assess parental hesitancy about category A (Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)) and B (non-EPI) vaccines, (2) assess parental willingness for COVID-19 and influenza vaccinations, and (3) explore the association of vaccination hesitancy of parents and healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: The study was performed in Wuxi, eastern China between 21 September 2020 and 17 October 2020. Parents of children aged <18 years and HCWs were recruited from the selected immunization clinics. Vaccine hesitancy was assessed using the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) vaccine hesitancy survey (VHS) by summing the total score for 10 items (maximum 50 points). RESULTS: A total of 3009 parents and 86 HCWs were included in the analysis. The category A VHS scores were significantly higher than the category B VHS scores (p = 0.000). Overall, 59.3% and 52.4% of parents reported willingness to avail COVID-19 and influenza vaccination for their children, respectively;51.2% of the HCWs wanted to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Parental category B VHS scores were associated with HCW category B VHS scores (r = 0.928, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: In China, parents are more hesitant about category B vaccines than category A vaccines. More than 40% of parents showed hesitancy and a refusal to use COVID-19 and influenza vaccines.

19.
International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health [Electronic Resource] ; 18(8):12, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209028

ABSTRACT

According to the traffic flow variation from January 2019 to August 2020, emissions of primary air pollutants from highway vehicles were calculated based on the emission factor method, which integrated the actual structure of on-road vehicles. The characteristics of on-highway traffic flow and pollution emissions were compared during various progression stages of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The results showed that the average daily traffic volume decreased by 38.2% in 2020, with a decrease of 62% during the strict lockdown due to the impact of COVID-19. The daily emissions of primary atmospheric pollutants decreased by 29.2% in 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. As for the structure of on-highway vehicle types, the small and medium-sized passenger vehicles predominated, which accounted for 76.3% of traffic, while trucks and large passenger vehicles accounted for 19.7% and 4.0%, but contributed 58.4% and 33.9% of nitrogen oxide (NO<sub>x</sub>) emissions, respectively. According to the simulation results of the ADMS model, the average concentrations of NO<sub>x</sub> were reduced by 12.0 microg/m<sup>3</sup> compared with the same period in 2019. As for the implication for future pollution control, it is necessary to further optimize the structure of on-highway and the road traffic vehicle types and increase the proportions of new-energy vehicles and vehicles with high emission standards.

20.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-8174

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid and accurate triage of patients at the emergency department is critical to inform decision-making. We propose a data-driven approach for automatic prediction of deterioration risk using a deep neural network that learns from chest X-ray images, and a gradient boosting model that learns from routine clinical variables. Our AI prognosis system, trained using data from 3,661 patients, achieves an AUC of 0.786 (95% CI: 0.742-0.827) when predicting deterioration within 96 hours. The deep neural network extracts informative areas of chest X-ray images to assist clinicians in interpreting the predictions, and performs comparably to two radiologists in a reader study. In order to verify performance in a real clinical setting, we silently deployed a preliminary version of the deep neural network at NYU Langone Health during the first wave of the pandemic, which produced accurate predictions in real-time. In summary, our findings demonstrate the potential of the proposed system for assisting front-line physicians in the triage of COVID-19 patients.

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